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   2019| December  | Volume 150 | Issue 6  
    Online since January 30, 2020

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Environmental & occupational exposure & female reproductive dysfunction
Sunil Kumar, Anupama Sharma, Chaoba Kshetrimayum
December 2019, 150(6):532-545
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1652_17  PMID:32048617
All individuals are exposed to certain chemical, physical, biological, environmental as well as occupational factors. The data pertaining to role of these factors on female reproduction are scanty as compared to male. The available data suggest the adverse effects of certain toxicants, viz., metals such as lead, cadmium and mercury, pesticides such as bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane and organic solvent such as benzene, toluene and ionizing radiation on the female reproductive system affecting directly the organ system or impacting in directly through hormonal impairments, molecular alterations, oxidative stress and DNA methylation impairing fertility as well as pregnancy and its outcomes. Thus, there is a need for awareness and prevention programme about the adverse effects of these factors and deterioration of female reproductive health, pregnancy outcome and offspring development as some of these chemicals might affect the developing foetus at very low doses by endocrine disruptive mechanism.
  4,129 506 2
Public health impact of marital violence against women in India
Anita Raj
December 2019, 150(6):525-531
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1427_19  PMID:32048616
The public health ramifications of marital violence are well documented and include injury, mental health concerns and physical health consequences for women and their offspring. Unfortunately, there remains social tolerance and even acceptance of these abuses against women, and health systems in India have done little to support victims despite their greater health risks. However, there are promising efforts and important advancements in India that could be built on for more effective prevention and support for women. Men and boys should be engaged in gender transformative interventions with male role models to alter men's attitudes of acceptability of and justification for marital violence and consequently their actual abusive behaviours. Given the strong demonstrated connection between men's risky and problem alcohol use and marital violence, alcohol interventions may also be beneficial. We must support women and girls vulnerable to marital violence, a group disproportionately affected by violence in their natal families as well, so they know that violence need not be part of their marriage relationship, and have skills on how to engage and communicate with or even leave their male partners to reduce their risk for violence. Formal services should be expanded for those in immediate danger and particularly for rural areas, where prevalence of marital violence is highest and supports are weakest. Finally, given the pervasiveness of attitudes accepting husbands' marital violence against women, and the fact that these have remained largely unchanged in India for a decade, large scale community and social change efforts are needed.
  2,367 517 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Clinicopathologic features of undifferentiated round cell sarcomas of bone & soft tissues: An attempt to unravel the BCOR-CCNB3- & CIC-DUX4-positive sarcomas
Bharat Rekhi, Priyanka Kembhavi, Surya Narayan Mishra, Omshree Shetty, Jyoti Bajpai, Ajay Puri
December 2019, 150(6):557-574
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2144_18  PMID:32048619
Background & objectives: Certain genetically defined undifferentiated round cell sarcomas, namely BCOR-CCNB3 and CIC-DUX4 positive, have been described. Here we present detailed clinicopathologic features and molecular results in such cases. Methods: Fifty one cases of undifferentiated round cell sarcomas, including 32 cases, tested for BCOR-CCNB3 and CIC-DUX4 fusions, by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique and 44 tumours, for CCNB3 immunostaining, were analyzed. Results: Twenty seven (52.9%) tumours occurred in males and 24 (47%) in females; in soft tissues (38; 74.5%), commonly, trunk and extremities and bones (13; 25.4%), frequently, femur and tibia. Five of 32 (15.6%) tested cases were positive for BCOR-CCNB3 fusion and seven (21.8%) for CIC-DUX4 fusions. Histopathologically, CIC-DUX4-positive sarcomas comprised nodular aggregates of round to polygonal cells, containing hyperchromatic nuclei, prominent nucleoli and moderate cytoplasm, with focal myxoid stroma and variable necrosis, in certain cases. BCOR-CCNB3- positive sarcomas mostly comprised diffusely arranged, round to oval to short spindly cells with angulated nuclei, vesicular chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli and interspersed vessels. Immunohistochemically, tumour cells were positive for MIC2 in 24 of 49 (48.9%) and CCNB3 in 12 of 44 (27.2%) cases. Four of five BCOR-CCNB3-positive sarcomas showed CCNB3 immunostaining and 6 of 7 CIC-DUX4-positive sarcomas displayed WT1 immunostaining. Most patients (27/37) (72.9%) underwent surgical resection and chemotherapy. Median overall survival was 12 months, and disease-free survival was seven months. Interpretation & conclusions: Undifferentiated round cell sarcomas are rare; mostly occur in soft tissues of extremities, with CIC-DUX4 positive, as these are relatively more frequent than BCOR-CCNB3 positive sarcomas. CCNB3 and WT1 are useful immunostains for triaging such cases for BCOR-CCNB3 and CIC-DUX4 fusion testing, respectively. Overall, these are relatively aggressive tumours, especially CIC-DUX4-positive sarcomas.
  1,908 330 4
Oral metronomic chemotherapy for recurrent & refractory epithelial ovarian cancer: A retrospective analysis
Aparna Sharma, Prabhat Singh Malik, Sachin Khurana, Sunesh Kumar, Neerja Bhatla, MD Ray, Lalit Kumar
December 2019, 150(6):575-583
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2030_18  PMID:32048620
Background & objectives: Advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is associated with dismal outcome and progression-free survival (PFS) shortens with each subsequent relapse. For patients with recurrent and platinum refractory disease, therapeutic options are limited. Oral metronomic therapy (OMT) is associated with symptomatic relief and stable response in a significant proportion of patients. We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of patients with EOC treated with OMT at a tertiary care hospital in north India. Methods: Between January 2011 to December 2017, 36 EOC patients received OMT. Patients' median age was 50 yr (range, 38-81 yr) and they had received a median of two lines of prior chemotherapy. OMT regimen included a combination of cyclophosphamide, etoposide (VP-16) and celecoxib with or without pazopanib along with supportive care. Response rates and outcomes were ascertained using the Gynecological Cancer Intergroup Guidelines. The toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v.4.03. Results: The median CA-125 before initiating OMT was 160 U/ml (range, 42.23-5330 U/ml). The median interval between last chemotherapy and starting OMT regimen was 159 days (range, 1-1211 days). The overall response rate was 50 per cent. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 8.2 months [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.03-10.33], and the median overall survival was 38 months (95% CI: 25.6-NR). Patients who received two lines of chemotherapy before OMT (P=0.052) and those who received pazopanib-based OMT (P=0.0513) had better PFS. Interpretation & conclusions: For patients with relapse and refractory EOC, OMT could be a reasonable option. A combination of oral etoposide (VP-16) and pazopanib needs further evaluation in a large number of patients in a randomized trial.
  1,799 270 1
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Effect of Ramadan fasting on glycaemic parameters & body mass index in type II diabetic patients: A meta-analysis
Neriman Aydin, Seval Kul, Gülendam Karadağ, Suzan Tabur, Mustafa Araz
December 2019, 150(6):546-556
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1380_17  PMID:32048618
Background & objectives: There has been an ongoing debate about the impact of Ramadan fasting (RF) on the health of these individuals who fast during Ramadan. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the relationship between RF and glycaemic parameters in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Methods: Search terms were decided and databases such as MEDLINE EBSCO, Google Scholar and EMBASE were searched for eligible studies. Standardized mean differences and 95 per cent confidence intervals (CIs) of post-prandial plasma glucose (PPG), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (%) and fructosamine levels were calculated for different treatment regimens. Results: Of the 40 studies, 19 were found eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Based on pooled results, significant reductions in FPG were found in single oral antidiabetics (OAD) [standardized weighted mean difference (SMD)=0.47, 95% CI=(0.20-0.74)], multi-OAD [SMD=0.36, 95% CI=(0.11-0.61)] and multitreatment subgroups [SMD=0.65, 95% CI=(0.03-1.27)] and overall [SMD=0.48, 95% CI=(0.27-0.70)]. Furthermore, HbA1c(%) [SMD=0.26, 95% CI=(0.03-0.49)] and body mass index (BMI) [SMD=0.18, 95% CI=(0.04-0.31)] were significantly decreased in the multi-OAD group. Interpretation & conclusions: The meta-analysis showed that RF was not associated with any significant negative effects on PPG and fructosamine levels. However, BMI and FPG and HbA1c(%) were positively affected by RF.
  1,580 334 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A virus precipitation method for concentration & detection of avian influenza viruses from environmental water resources & its possible application in outbreak investigations
Shailesh D Pawar, Sachin S Keng, Deeksha S Tare, Anil L Thormothe, Gajanan N Sapkal, B Anukumar, Kavita S Lole, Jayati Mullick, Devendra T Mourya
December 2019, 150(6):612-619
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1697_18  PMID:32048625
Background & objectives: Avian influenza (AI) viruses have been a major cause of public health concern. Wild migratory birds and contaminated environmental sources such as waterbodies soiled with bird droppings play a significant role in the transmission of AI viruses. The objective of the present study was to develop a sensitive and user-friendly method for the concentration and detection of AI viruses from environmental water sources. Methods: Municipal potable water, surface water from reservoirs and sea were spiked with low pathogenic AI viruses. To concentrate the viruses by precipitation, a combination of potassium aluminium sulphate with milk powder was used. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed for virus detection, and the results were compared with a virus concentration method using erythrocytes. Drinking water specimens from poultry markets were also tested for the presence of AI viruses. Results: A minimum of 101.0 EID50(50% egg infectious dose)/ml spiked H5N1 and 101.7 EID50/ml spiked H9N2 viruses were detected from spiked potable water; 101.0 and 102.0 EID50/ml spiked H5N1 virus was detected from surface water and seawater samples, respectively. The present method was more sensitive than the erythrocyte-binding method as approximately 10-fold higher infectious virus titres were obtained. AI H9N2 viruses were detected and isolated from water from local poultry markets, using this method. Interpretation & conclusions: Viability and recovery of the spiked viruses were not affected by precipitation. The present method may be suitable for the detection of AI viruses from different environmental water sources and can also be applied during outbreak investigations.
  1,249 188 -
Sexual functioning in females with depression in remission receiving escitalopram
Pritha Roy, Bandna Gupta, Adarsh Tripathi, Anil Nischal, Pronob Kumar Dalal, Sujita Kumar Kar
December 2019, 150(6):606-611
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1991_17  PMID:32048624
Background & objectives: Sexual functioning is a strong determinant of quality of life. Sexual dysfunction has been widely reported due to depressive disorder as well as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Thus, treatment with antidepressants can culminate in a double-edged sword, leading to drug discontinuation and symptom relapse. The objective of this study was to assess the sexual functioning of sexually active females with depression, currently in remission, receiving escitalopram and to compare with healthy controls. Methods: Fifty female patients with depression, currently in remission, with self-reported normal pre-morbid sexual function and receiving escitalopram for at least three months, were assessed on female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire and compared with healthy controls. Results: Half of the patients (n=25, 50%) in group A were found to have sexual dysfunction (FSFI score <26.55), while, 90 per cent (n=45) had decreased desire, 86 per cent (n=43) had decreased arousal, 54 per cent (n=27) had decreased lubrication, 68 per cent (n=34) had decreased orgasm, 62 per cent (n=31) had decreased satisfaction and 32 per cent (n=16) had pain during sexual activity. Patients receiving escitalopram had significantly higher sexual dysfunction as compared to healthy controls in mean total FSFI score (P < 0.001) and all mean domain scores of FSFI except pain. Interpretation & conclusions: A significant proportion of sexually active females with depression currently in remission, receiving escitalopram, reported dysfunction in all domains of sexual function; thus, routine screening for sexual dysfunction during follow up is advisable for early identification and prompt treatment.
  1,193 236 2
CORRESPONDENCE
Cholera outbreak in Aurangabad, Maharashtra, western India
Varanasi Gopalkrishna, Madhuri Joshi, Rajlakshmi Viswanathan, Geeta Malu, Nital Ganorkar, Nutan Chavan, Manohar Shinde, Anuj Kumar, Savita Dhurandhare
December 2019, 150(6):640-643
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_87_19  PMID:32048629
  1,034 169 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Promoter-associated DNA methylation & expression profiling of genes (FLT 3, EPB41L3 & SFN) in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma in the Khasi & Jaintia population of Meghalaya, India
Shngainlang Khongsti, Brian Neizekhotuo Shunyu, Srimoyee Ghosh
December 2019, 150(6):584-591
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_620_18  PMID:32048621
Background & objectives: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most lethal forms of cancer, and its aetiology has been attributed to both genetic and epigenetic factors working in liaison to contribute to the disease. Epigenetic changes especially DNA methylation is involved in the activation or repression of gene functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the DNA methylation pattern and expression profiling of the promoter regions of FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1-like 3 (EPB41L3) and stratifin (SFN) genes in oral cancer within the Khasi and Jaintia tribal population of Meghalaya in North East India. Methods: Quantitative methylation analyses of the selected genes were carried out by MassARRAY platform System, and the relative expression profiling was carried out by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Quantitative methylation results indicated that the level of methylation was significantly higher (hypermethylated) for FLT3 and EPB41L3 and significantly lower (hypomethylated) for SFN in tumour tissues as compared to the adjacent paired normal tissue. Expression profiling was in concurrence with the methylation data whereby hypermethylated genes showed low mRNA level and vice versa for the hypomethylated gene. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings show that hyper- and hypomethylation of the selected genes play a potential role in oral carcinogenesis in the selected Khasi and Jaintia tribal population of Meghalaya. The methylation status of these genes has not been reported in oral cancer, so these genes may serve as promising biomarkers for oral cancer diagnosis as well as in disease monitoring.
  1,034 149 1
End-of-life decisions: A retrospective study in a tertiary care teaching hospital in India
Cijoy K Kuriakose, Vignesh Kumar Chandiraseharan, Ajoy Oommen John, Deepti Bal, Visalakshi Jeyaseelan, Thambu David Sudarsanam
December 2019, 150(6):598-605
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1409_17  PMID:32048623
Background & objectives: In developing countries like India, there is a lack of clarity regarding the factors that influence decisions pertaining to life supports at the end-of-life (EOL). The objectives of this study were to assess the factors associated with EOL-care decisions in the Indian context and to raise awareness in this area of healthcare. Methods: This retrospectively study included all patients admitted to the medical unit of a tertiary care hospital in southern India, over one year and died. The baseline demographics, economic, physiological, sociological, prognostic and medical treatment-related factors were retrieved from the patient's medical records and analysed. Results: Of the 122 decedents included in the study whose characteristics were analyzed, 41 (33.6%) received full life support and 81 (66.4%) had withdrawal or withholding of some life support measure. Amongst those who had withdrawal or withholding of life support, 62 (76.5%) had some support withheld and in 19 (23.5%), it was withdrawn. The documentation of the disease process, prognosis and the mention of imminent death in the medical records was the single most important factor that was associated with the EOL decision (odds ratio - 0.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.74; P=0.03). Interpretation & conclusions: The documentation of poor prognosis was the only factor found to be associated with EOL care decisions in our study. Prospective, multicentric studies need to be done to evaluate the influence of various other factors on the EOL care.
  964 215 -
EDITORIALS
Role of communities in AIDS response
Charles Gilks
December 2019, 150(6):515-517
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2526_19  PMID:32048613
  864 303 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Autopsy-based morphometric study of coronary atherosclerosis in young adults
R Thiripurasundari, K Sreekumari, KP Aravindan
December 2019, 150(6):592-597
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_811_17  PMID:32048622
Background & objectives: The burden of cardiovascular diseases is high in Kerala, India, and a considerable proportion of these occur in young people. The objective of this study was to estimate the severity of atherosclerosis in autopsies done for accidental and suicidal deaths in victims below 40 yr of age. Methods: Coronary arteries from 77 autopsies done for unnatural deaths in a population below 40 yr were graded, and the degree of stenosis, intimal thickness index (ITI) and the intima-media ratio (IMR) were measured. Results: There were 65 males and 12 females in the sample. The American Heart Association (AHA) type 3-6 (pathological intimal thickening) was seen in 55.4 per cent [95% confidence interval (CI): 42.5-67.7%] of males and 25 per cent (95% CI: 5.5-57.2%) of females and advanced lesions (type 4-6) in 44.6 per cent (95% CI: 32.3-57.5%) of males and 8.3 per cent (95% CI: 0.2-38.5%) of females. Types 5 or 6 lesions were seen in 32.2 per cent (95% CI: 21.2-45.1%) of males. The mean stenosis was 57.3 per cent in males and 40.6 per cent in females. More than 40 per cent stenosis was seen in 76.6 per cent cases, more than 50 per cent in 54.5 per cent cases and more than 75 per cent stenosis in 14.3 per of the sample. The mean ITI (MIT) was 1.85 and the mean IMR was 4.11. The degree of stenosis, MIT and IMR were significantly associated with male sex, overweight and smoking. Interpretation & conclusions: Morphometric data showed that the degree of atherosclerotic narrowing of coronary arteries in young non-diseased population was high. It portends a danger to the community unless preventive measures are taken up.
  905 187 1
In vitro comparison of the cytotoxic effects of statins on U266 myeloma cell line
Hatice Terzi, Ahmet Altun, Mehmet Şencan
December 2019, 150(6):630-634
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_672_18  PMID:32048627
Background & objectives: Statins are one of the most widely used drugs and have antilipidemic effects as well as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic effects. It has been shown that the synergistic combinations of statins which can provide better clinical benefit in the treatment of cancer and if administered with other anticancer agents, may be an alternative treatment modality. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of administrating statin in multiple myeloma (MM) cell line on cell proliferation. Methods: U266 myeloma cells were cultured in 25 or 75 cm[2] flasks by using cell culture medium mixtures obtained with the supplementation of 10 per cent foetal bovine serum and one per cent of penicillin-streptomycin into RPMI 1640 medium. When the cells reached confluence (reached to the density of 70%), they were reproduced by passaging. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by using the XTT test. Results: Statins (atorvastatin and simvastatin), were administered to the U266 myeloma cell line at 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.12 μM concentrations. Inhibitor concentration 50 (IC50) values calculated for atorvastatin and simvastatin were determined as 94 and 38 μM, respectively. While 100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.12 μM concentrations were used for bortezomib, the IC50value calculated for this agent was 18.2 nM. When six concentrations of bortezomib used in the study were combined with 12.5 μM inactive concentrations of statins that did not cause inhibition in cell proliferation, both atorvastatin and simvastatin increased the effect of bortezomib at all the concentrations used, and simvastatin showed a stronger efficacy than atorvastatin. Interpretation & conclusions: Our in vitro results indicated that atorvastatin and simvastatin when used along with the conventional treatment in myeloma patients, may improve the effectiveness of the standard therapy and prevent the bortezomib-induced cytotoxic and neurotoxic side effects when used at a low dose. Further studies need to be done in MM patints to confirm these findings.
  855 193 2
CLINICAL IMAGE
Swan-neck hands in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis
Chen Yidan, Yin Geng
December 2019, 150(6):644-645
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1567_18  PMID:32048630
  747 297 -
COMMENTARY
Ewing-like sarcomas: New molecular diagnoses in need of optimized treatment approaches
Alex T. J. Lee, Paul H Huang, Robin L Jones
December 2019, 150(6):521-523
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2016_19  PMID:32048615
  793 228 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Vitamin A deficiency increases the oleic acid (C18:1) levels in the kidney of high fructose diet-fed rats
Mooli Raja Gopal Reddy, Manchiryala Sravan Kumar, Vani Acharya, Surekha Mullapudi Venkata, Uday Kumar Putcha, Shanmugam Murugaiha Jeyakumar
December 2019, 150(6):620-629
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1574_17  PMID:32048626
Background & objectives: Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) is a key lipogenic enzyme responsible for endogenous synthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and plays a key role in various pathophysiology, including fatty liver diseases. In this experimental study the impact of vitamin A deficiency was assessed on SCD1 regulation in relation to kidney biology, under high fructose (HFr) diet-fed condition in rats. Methods: Forty male weanling (21 day old) Wistar rats were divided into four groups control, vitamin A-deficient (VAD), HFr, VAD with HFr consisting of eight rats each, except 16 for the VAD group. The groups received one of the following diets: control, VAD, HFr and VAD with HFr for 16 wk, except half of the VAD diet-fed rats were shifted to HFr diet, after eight week period. Results: Feeding of VAD diet (alone or with HFr) significantly reduced the kidney retinol (0.51, 0.44 μg/g vs. 2.1 μg/g; P < 0.05), while increased oleic (C18:1) and total MUFA levels (23.3, 22.2% and 27.3, 25.4% respectively vs. 14.7 and 16.6%; P < 0.05) without affecting the SCD1, both at protein and mRNA levels, when compared with HFr. Comparable, immunohistological staining for SCD1 was observed in the distal convoluted tubules. Despite an increase in MUFA, morphology, triglyceride content and markers of kidney function were not affected by VAD diet feeding. Interpretation & conclusions: Feeding of VAD diet either alone or under HFr condition increased the kidney oleic acid (C18:1) levels and thus total MUFA, which corroborated with elevated SCD1 activity index, without affecting its expression status. However, these changes did not alter the kidney morphology and function. Thus, nutrient-gene regulation in kidney biology seems to be divergent.
  830 174 -
STUDENT IJMR
Predictive power of tumour budding for lymph node metastasis in colorectal carcinomas: A retrospective study
Brototo Deb, Sajini Elizabeth Jacob
December 2019, 150(6):635-639
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1268_17  PMID:32048628
Background & objectives: Tumour budding is a feature of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation that is characterized histologically within the tumour stroma by the presence of isolated cells or clusters of less than five cells which are different from the other malignant cells. This could be present around the invasive margin of the tumour, called peritumoural budding, or in the bulk of the tumour, called intratumoural budding. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive power of tumour budding for lymph node metastasis and its relationship with other features of tumour progression in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Methods: Preoperative colonoscopic biopsies and consecutive resection specimens from 80 patients of colorectal cancer were taken. In the biopsy, intratumoural budding was looked for and graded. In the resection, peritumoural budding was seen and graded along with other features such as grade of the tumour, lymphovascular emboli and tumour border configuration. Results: Intratumoural budding was seen in 23 per cent (18/80) and peritumoural in 52 per cent (42/80) of cases. Intratumoural budding was associated with the presence of lymphovascular emboli (P=0.002) and irregular tumour border configuration (P=0.004). Peritumoural budding was also significantly associated with the presence of lymphovascular emboli and irregular margins (P < 0.001). Both intra- and peritumoural budding were not associated with the grade of the tumour. Both intra- and peritumoural budding had a significant association with lymph node metastasis (LNM) (P < 0.001). Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings indicate that tumour budding in preoperative biopsy and resection specimens may predict a possibility of finding LNM in patients with CRC.
  786 199 1
EDITORIALS
World AIDS Day reminds us to refocus on communities
Ntando Yola, Cynthia Nombeko Mpongo, Iman Latief, Linda-Gail Bekker
December 2019, 150(6):518-520
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2662_19  PMID:32048614
  638 173 -
PANEL OF REVIEWERS (2019)
Panel of Reviewers (2019)

December 2019, 150(6):648-666
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.277418  
Full text not available  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]
  370 296 -
BOOK REVIEW
Critical issues in alcohol and drugs of abuse testing
Raka Jain
December 2019, 150(6):646-647
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1274_19  
  495 90 -
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