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   2019| August  | Volume 150 | Issue 2  
    Online since October 18, 2019

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Tuberculous meningitis in children: Clinical management & outcome
Bella Devaleenal Daniel, G Angeline Grace, Mohan Natrajan
August 2019, 150(2):117-130
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_786_17  PMID:31670267
Although the occurrence of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in children is relatively rare, but it is associated with higher rates of mortality and severe morbidity. The peak incidence of TBM occurs in younger children who are less than five years of age, and most children present with late-stage disease. Confirmation of diagnosis is often difficult, and other infectious causes such as bacterial, viral and fungal causes must be ruled out. Bacteriological confirmation of diagnosis is ideal but is often difficult because of its paucibacillary nature as well as decreased sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests. Early diagnosis and management of the disease, though difficult, is essential to avoid death or neurologic disability. Hence, a high degree of suspicion and a combined battery of tests including clinical, bacteriological and neuroimaging help in diagnosis of TBM. Children diagnosed with TBM should be managed with antituberculosis therapy (ATT) and steroids. There are studies reporting low concentrations of ATT, especially of rifampicin and ethambutol in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and very young children are at higher risk of low ATT drug concentrations. Further studies are needed to identify appropriate regimens with adequate dosing of ATT for the management of paediatric TBM to improve treatment outcomes. This review describes the clinical presentation, investigations, management and outcome of TBM in children and also discusses various studies conducted among children with TBM.
  3,977 829 1
Nutrition rehabilitation of children with severe acute malnutrition: Revisiting studies undertaken by the National Institute of Nutrition
Bharati Kulkarni, Raja Sriswan Mamidi
August 2019, 150(2):139-152
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1905_18  PMID:31670269
Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in children under five years is an important public health problem due to associated high mortality and long-term health consequences. Research on the dietary causes of SAM, especially the role and relative importance of dietary protein, in the aetiology of oedematous malnutrition, has led to considerable debates and controversies. The present article revisits some of the debates in this field, where the researchers at the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), Hyderabad, India, with their pioneering work, have contributed to the global literature on the various facets of the disease. Highlighting the importance of energy as a bigger problem than protein malnutrition is a noteworthy contribution of NIN's research. It is, however, important to examine the protein quality of the diets in light of the new information on the lysine requirements. The article argues that the currently dominating hypothesis of free radical theory requires a critical review of the supporting evidence. Over the past few decades, the research has focused on low-cost diets using locally available foods. The article also argues that solutions based on local foods, being acceptable and sustainable, need to be strengthened for their effective delivery through the existing nutrition programmes. Recent evidence shows that the use of ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF) with high micronutrient density may be linked with higher mortality possibly due to the high iron content, which could be counterproductive. There are several unaddressed concerns regarding the potential long-term impact of consumption of RUTF in children with SAM. More evidence and a cautious approach are, therefore, needed before implementing these solutions.
  3,254 473 2
Antibiotic stewardship initiative in a Medicine unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital in India: A pilot study
Anitha Swamy, Rita Sood, Arti Kapil, Naval K Vikram, Piyush Ranjan, Ranveer Singh Jadon, Manish Soneja, V Sreenivas
August 2019, 150(2):175-185
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_951_17  PMID:31670273
Background & objectives: The models for implementation of antibiotic stewardship programme (ASP) in the acute care settings of developing countries are lacking. In most of the hospitals, patient turnover is high and a proper system for recording antibiotic-related information and tracking hospital-acquired infections is not in place. This pilot study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital in north India to assess the feasibility of implementation of an ASP in a Medicine unit and to evaluate the effect of implementation as per the criteria applicable in this set up. Methods: A pre-post-quasi-experimental non-randomized study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, current practices in the Medicine wards were observed. In the second phase, the ASP was implemented in a single Medicine unit, along with prospective audit and feedback, tracking of the process, as well as outcome measures. Patient risk stratification, blood culture on day one, day 3 bundle, dose optimization, de-escalation and intravenous to oral conversion of antibiotics were the key elements focused upon. Results: There was a significant improvement in the appropriateness of antibiotic prescription (66 vs. 86%, P<0.001) and reduction in the mean number of antibiotics used per person (4.41 vs. 3.86, P<0.05) along with decrease in the duration of hospital stay (17 vs. 14 days, P<0.05). There was a significant improvement in sending of blood cultures on day one during the stewardship phase (P<0.001). Interpretation & conclusions: The ASP approach used in our pilot study may be feasible and beneficial. However, it needs further confirmation in other settings and on a large scale.
  1,320 311 -
Influenza vaccination: Some clinical concerns for South Asian practitioner
Viroj Wiwanitkit
August 2019, 150(2):107-109
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1291_19  PMID:31670264
  1,119 427 -
Essential to update medical training after amendments to Anti-Rape Law
Suresh Bada Math, Vijaykumar Harbishettar
August 2019, 150(2):112-115
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_309_18  PMID:31670266
  1,059 271 -
Improving survival with tuberculosis & HIV treatment integration: A mini-review
Kogieleum Naidoo, Sanisha Rampersad, Salim Abdool Karim
August 2019, 150(2):131-138
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_660_19  PMID:31670268
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients while HIV remains a key risk factor for the development of active TB infection. Treatment integration is a key in reducing mortality in patients with HIV-TB co-infection. However, this opportunity to improve outcomes of both infections is often missed or poorly implemented. Challenges in TB-HIV treatment integration range from complexities involving clinical management of co-infected patients to obstacles in health service-organization and prioritization. This is evident in high prevalence settings such as in sub-Saharan Africa where TB-HIV co-infection rates reach up to 80 per cent. This review discusses published literature on clinical trials and cohort studies of strategies for TB-HIV treatment integration aimed at reducing co-infection mortality. Studies published since 2009, when several treatment guidelines recommended treatment integration, were included. A total of 43 articles were identified, of which a total of 23 observational studies and nine clinical trials were informative on TB-HIV treatment integration. The data show that the survival benefit of AIDS therapy in patients infected with TB can be maximized among patients with advanced immunosuppression by starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) soon after TB treatment initiation, i.e. in patients with CD4+ cell counts <50 cells/μl. However, patients with greater CD4+ cell counts should defer initiation of ART to no less than eight weeks after initiation of TB treatment to reduce the occurrence and extent of immune reconstitution disease and subsequent hospitalization. Addressing operational challenges in integrating TB-HIV care can significantly improve patient outcomes, generate substantial public health impact by decreasing morbidity and death in settings with a high burden of HIV and TB.
  955 258 -
Detection of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus: A preliminary report from south India
Rajesh Amberpet, Sujatha Sistla, Madhan Sugumar, Niveditha Nagasundaram, Meerabai Manoharan, Subhash Chandra Parija
August 2019, 150(2):194-198
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1976_17  PMID:31670275
Background & objectives: Although there are reports of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (hVISA) across the globe, there is a lack of reliable data on hVISA in India. The present study was undertaken to determine the rate of hVISA among the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates, and to compare the brain heart infusion agar with vancomycin 4 μg/ml (BHIV4) method with population analysis profile-area under the curve (PAP-AUC) method for the detection of hVISA and to study the distribution of mobile genetic element that carries methicillin-resistance gene SCCmec (Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec) types among these isolates. Methods: BHIV4 and PAP-AUC methods were employed to detect hVISA among 500 clinical isolates of MRSA. SCCmec typing of these isolates was performed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The clinical presentation, treatment with vancomycin and outcome was documented for patients with hVISA. Results: The rate of hVISA was 12.4 per cent by PAP-AUC method. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and kappa agreement of BHIV4 with PAP-AUC was 58.06, 93.15, 54.55, 94.01 per cent and 0.498, respectively. The isolation of hVISA was significantly (P<0.01) higher in patients admitted to intensive care units and wards than in patients attending the outpatient departments. Only 38 per cent of the patients received vancomycin as therapy. Majority of the hVISA isolates carried SCCmec type V or IV. Interpretation & conclusions: The rate of hVISA isolation in our study was 12.4 per cent. The sensitivity of the BHIV4 screening test was low, and was in moderate agreement with PAP-AUC test. SCCmec type V was the predominant type seen in half of the isolates. More studies need to be done in different parts of the country on a large number of isolates to confirm our findings.
  763 196 1
Seroprevalence of typhus group rickettsial infections in the north-east region of India
Siraj Ahmed Khan, Trishna Bora, Jahnabi Saikia, Anisha Shah, Allen L Richards, Suchismita Chattopadhyay, Sanjeeb Kakati, Manju Rahi, Harpreet Kaur
August 2019, 150(2):203-205
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_332_19  PMID:31670277
  772 183 1
Histotyping of Indian thymomas: A clinicopathologic study from north India
Prerna Guleria, Rajinder Parshad, Prabhat Singh Malik, Ruma Ray, RM Pandey, Deepali Jain
August 2019, 150(2):153-160
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_530_18  PMID:31670270
Background & objectives: Thymomas are rare, but most common anterior mediastinal lesions. The histomorphologic spectrum of thymic epithelial tumours (TETs) in Indian population has not been explored in depth. This study was aimed to assess the histomorphology of TETs in the Indian patients and correlate clinical parameters with pathological features. Methods: It was a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary referral hospital in north India. All morphologically confirmed cases of TETs since 2009 were included. Clinical details and histology slides were reviewed using the Modified Masaoka-Koga staging system and WHO 2015 classification. Clinicopathological correlation and survival analysis were done. A comparative review from other published Indian studies was performed. Results: A total of 219 cases of TETs (138 resections and 81 biopsies) were identified. The most common histomorphologic type was B2, and the most frequent stage was I. Types A/AB were common in older age (P<0.01). Clinically, higher stage tumours were found mostly in men (P<0.01), and these were Type B thymomas (P<0.01). Myasthenia gravis was more common in women (P<0.02) and in lower stages (P<0.05). Survival analysis revealed significant association between recurrence and tumour stage. Although thymic carcinoma was diagnosed on biopsy, no resectable case was identified. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed that the thymomas in Indian patients were most commonly Stage I tumours of B2 and AB histotypes. Resected thymic carcinomas were conspicuously absent in our study. More studies need to be done to establish the frequency and biology of TETs from India.
  705 226 -
Kinetics of viral RNA, immunoglobulin-M & G antibodies in Kyasanur forest disease
Pragya D Yadav, Yogesh K Gurav, Anita M Shete, Rajlaxmi Jain, Dimpal A Nyayanit, Prachi G Pardeshi, Rajlakshmi Viswanathan, Tushar R Chiplunkar, Pradip Awate, Triparna P Majumdar, Rima R Sahay, Devendra T Mourya
August 2019, 150(2):186-193
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1929_17  PMID:31670274
Background & objectives: Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is an infectious disease discovered in Karnataka State of India in 1957; since then, the State has been known to be enzootic for KFD. In the last few years, its presence was observed in the adjoining five States of the Western Ghats of India. The present study was conducted to understand the kinetics of viral RNA, immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibody in KFD-infected humans for developing a diagnostic algorithm for KFD. Methods: A prospective follow up study was performed among KFD patients in Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra State, India. A total of 1046 suspected patients were tested, and 72 KFD patients were enrolled and followed for 17 months (January 2016 to May 2017). Serum samples of KFD patients were screened for viral RNA, and IgM and IgG antibodies. Results: KFD viral positivity was observed from 1st to 18th post-onset day (POD). Positivity of anti-KFD virus (KFDV) IgM antibodies was detected from 4th till 122nd POD and anti-KFDV IgG antibodies detected from 5th till 474th POD. A prediction probability was determined from statistical analysis using the generalized additive model in R-software to support the laboratory findings regarding viral kinetics. Interpretation & conclusions: This study demonstrated the presence of KFD viral RNA till 18th POD, IgM antibodies till 122nd POD and IgG till the last sample collected. Based on our study an algorithm was recommended for accurate laboratory diagnosis of KFDV infection. A sample collected between 1 and 3 POD can be tested using KFDV real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); between 4 and 24 POD, the combination of real-time RT-PCR and anti-KFDV IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests can be used; between POD 25 and 132, anti-KFDV IgM and IgG ELISA are recommended.
  656 191 1
A community-based cross-sectional study on hypertension screening in Puducherry, India
Souraja Datta, Swaroop Kumar Sahu, R Niranjjan, Gautam Roy
August 2019, 150(2):199-202
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1877_17  PMID:31670276
Background & objectives: Hypertension is a health problem of global priority. Screening and early diagnosis is important to plan appropriate interventions. The present study objectives were to screen the urban population aged 30 yr and above and diagnose for hypertension and to identify the factors associated with poor screening for hypertension, if any. Methods: A community-based descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in urban field practice area of a tertiary care hospital in Puducherry, India, among individuals aged 30 yr and above. Individuals were asked if they have tested themselves for hypertension in the past two years. Pretested questionnaire was used for data collection. Data collection was done during regular working time of the health centre. All eligible participants from consecutive households were included till the required sample size of 394 was achieved. Results: Of the 394 individuals interviewed, 252 (64%) had undergone screening for hypertension. The prevalence of self-reported hypertension among those screened was 26.2 per cent with no significant gender-wise differences. Screening for hypertension was better among females (71.6%) as compared to males (55.2%). Population who were at a higher risk of not getting screened for hypertension were relatively younger (30-44 yr) individuals and males. Interpretation & conclusions: The prevalence of self-reported hypertension among those screened was 26.2 per cent [95% confidence interval (21.1-31.9)]. Screening needs to be targeted more towards males and younger population.
  571 263 -
High-intensity exercise-induced oxidative stress in sedentary pre-pubertal & post-pubertal boys: A comparative study
Biswajit Chaki, Sangita Pal, Sreya Chattopadhyay, Amit Bandyopadhyay
August 2019, 150(2):167-174
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2094_17  PMID:31670272
Background & objectives: High-intensity exercise results in oxidative stress in adult population. Impact of pubertal attainment on high-intensity exercise-induced oxidative stress in sedentary paediatric population has not been investigated in detail. The present study was conducted to investigate the extent of high-intensity exercise-induced oxidative stress in sedentary pre- and post-pubertal boys through estimation of serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total thiol content and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Methods: Sixty four sedentary pre-pubertal (n=32, age = 10.21±0.67 yr) and post-pubertal (n=32, age = 15.58±0.47 yr) boys performed incremental treadmill running exercise at 80 per cent of the age predicted maximum heart rate till volitional exhaustion. Blood sample (5 ml) was drawn from each individual before and after the exercise for estimation of oxidative stress markers. Results: Pre-exercise SOD activity and total thiol level showed significant positive relationship with age and were significantly higher in post-pubertal boys. Serum TBARS level, SOD and CAT activities increased while total thiol content decreased in both the groups following exercise. Post-exercise percentage change in TBARS, SOD activity and total thiol level was significantly higher in post-pubertal boys, and these variables had significant positive relationship with age. No significant intergroup variations were noted in CAT activity before or after exercise. Interpretation & conclusions: Extent of post-exercise oxidative stress increased significantly with attainment of puberty. However, baseline and post-exercise antioxidation status also increased significantly as a function of age with pubertal maturation allowing the post-pubertal boys to counter relatively higher oxidative stress more efficiently than their pre-pubertal counterparts. Post-exercise upregulation in CAT activity might not be influenced by age or pubertal maturation in this age group.
  599 178 -
The thymoma tale
Pradeep Vaideeswar
August 2019, 150(2):110-111
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_155_19  PMID:31670265
  546 223 -
Erythroderma secondary to pityriasis rubra pilaris
Elisabeth Gomez-Moyano, Antonio Crespo-Erchiga
August 2019, 150(2):206-207
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_294_18  PMID:31670278
  523 192 -
Wide range of F cell levels in healthy Thai adults: Influence of Swiss-type hereditary persistence of foetal haemoglobin & β-haemoglobinopathy
Thanusak Tatu
August 2019, 150(2):161-166
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1954_17  PMID:31670271
Background & objectives: Swiss-type hereditary persistence of foetal haemoglobin (HPFH) has been shown to be responsible for the wide range of F cell levels in healthy Thai adults. However, a survey for F cells in healthy Thai adults has not been performed. This study was conducted to determine the F cell distribution in adult Thai blood donors and to assess the possible involvement of β-thalassaemia and haemoglobin E (HbE) carriers in increased HbF levels. Methods: Thai blood donors (n=375, 205 males and 170 females) were included in the study. Blood samples were collected for measuring haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) and F cell levels. Hb and Hct levels were determined by automated blood counter, while F cells were quantified by flow cytometric analysis of F cells stained by fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated anti γ-globin monoclonal antibody. Finally, F cell levels were compared between blood samples having mean corpuscular volume (MCV ) <80 fl and ≥80 fl as well as between β-haemoglobinopathies (HbE and β-thalassaemia carriers) and normal adults. Results: F cell levels varied markedly spanning 0.80-39.2 per cent with a positively skewed distribution. Thirty two per cent of these individuals had F cell levels more than the 4.5 per cent cut-off point. F cell levels in females were significantly higher than those in males (P<0.05). F cell levels in individuals having MCV <80 fl were significantly higher than those having MCV ≥80 fl (P<0.05). β-haemoglobinopathy (HbE and β-thalassaemia carriers) had significantly higher F cell levels than normal individuals (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: The present results showed that besides Swiss-type HPFH, the β-haemoglobinopathy was expected to be involved in increased F cell levels in adult Thais. Thus, influence of β-haemoglobinopathy must be considered in interpreting F cell levels in area endemic of this globin disorder.
  478 150 1
Esophageal adenocarcinoma: Methods and protocols
Inian Samarasam
August 2019, 150(2):208-209
  239 87 -