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   2019| January  | Volume 149 | Issue 1  
    Online since April 22, 2019

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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease associated with hepatocellular carcinoma: An increasing concern
Ekta Dhamija, Shashi Bala Paul, Saurabh Kedia
January 2019, 149(1):9-17
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1456_17  PMID:31115369
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer in world and third largest cause of cancer-related deaths. The last few decades have witnessed the emergence of non-viral causes of HCC, the most important being non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD ranges from simple steatosis in the absence of excessive alcohol intake to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without cirrhosis. About 3-15 per cent of the obese patients with NASH progress to cirrhosis and about 4-27 per cent of NASH with cirrhosis patients transform to HCC. It is also known that HCC can develop de novo in patients with NASH without the presence of cirrhosis. Yearly cumulative incidence of NASH-related HCC is low (2.6%) compared to four per cent of viral-HCC. NAFLD has been associated with risk factors such as metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, altered gut flora and persistent inflammation. Due to alarming rise in metabolic diseases, both in the developing as well as the developed world, it is expected that the incidence of NAFLD/NASH-HCC would rise manifold in future. No definite guidelines have been drawn for surveillance and management of NAFLD/NASH-associated HCC. It is thus important to discuss the entity of HCC in NAFLD at length with special focus on its epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, diagnosis, clinical presentation and prevention.
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High degree of fluoroquinolone resistance among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in New Delhi, India
Rohini Sharma, Surendra Kumar Sharma, Binit Kumar Singh, Abhenil Mittal, Prahlad Kumar
January 2019, 149(1):62-66
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1220_17  PMID:31115377
Background & objectives: The fluoroquinolones (FQs) group of antibiotics is the backbone drugs for the management of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). In routine clinical practice, drug susceptibility testing (DST) for FQs is not performed, and the patients are empirically treated. A limited information exists regarding FQs resistance among pulmonary TB cases. The present study was conducted to determine the FQs resistance among drug sensitive and drug-resistant pulmonary TB patients in a tertiary care centre in north India. Methods: A total of 1619 sputum/smear-positive specimens of pulmonary TB patients were subjected to DST for first-line drugs (FLDs) and second-line drugs. In addition, FQs DST was also performed using automated Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube-960 liquid culture technique. The immuno-chromatographic assay was performed to distinguish Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from non-MTBC. Results: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) was isolated in 1499 sputum specimens; 1099 culture specimens were sensitive to FLDs, 249 grew as multidrug-resistant (MDR) Mtb and the remaining 151 isolates revealed any drug resistance to FLDs. While FQs monoresistance among the FLD sensitive isolates was 3.1 per cent (35/1099), 27.3 per cent (68/249) among MDR Mtb isolates had additional FQs resistance. Interpretation & conclusions: FQs resistance among drug sensitive and MDR Mtb isolates was high in Delhi, India. Based on these findings, it is recommended that the DST for FQs should be routinely performed to avoid further amplification of drug resistance.
  4 1,950 342
Effect of socio-economic status & proximity of patient residence to hospital on survival in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia
Sidharth Totadri, Amita Trehan, Appinderjit Kaur, Deepak Bansal
January 2019, 149(1):26-33
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_579_17  PMID:31115371
Background & objectives: Survival in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in lower/middle income countries continues to lag behind outcomes seen in high-income countries. Socio-economic factors and distance of their residence from the hospital may contribute to this disparity. This study was aimed at identifying the impact of these factors on outcome in childhood ALL. Methods: In this retrospective study, file review of children with ALL was performed. Patients were treated with the modified United Kingdom (UK) ALL-2003 protocol. Details of socio-economic/demographic factors were noted from a web-based patients' database. Modified Kuppuswamy scale was used to classify socio-economic status. Results: A total of 308 patients with a median age of five years (range: 1-13 yr) were studied. Patients belonging to upper, middle and lower SE strata numbered 85 (28%), 68 (22%) and 155 (50%). Nearly one-third of the patients were underweight. There was no treatment abandonment among children whose mothers were graduates. Neutropenic deaths during maintenance therapy were lower in mothers who had passed high school. In patients who survived induction therapy, the five year event-free survival (EFS) of upper SE stratum was significantly better 78.7±4.9 vs. 59±7.2 and 58.1±4.6 per cent in middle and lower strata (P =0.026). Five year overall survival was higher in the higher SE group; being 91.2±3.5, 78.3±5.6 and 78.8±3.9 per cent (P =0.055) in the three strata. Survival was unaffected by a distance of residence from treating centre or rural/urban residence. High-risk and undernourished children had a greater hazard of mortality [1.80 (P =0.015); 1.98 (P =0.027)]. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed that higher socio-economic status contributed to superior EFS in children with ALL who achieved remission. Undernutrition increased the risk of mortality.
  3 1,662 353
Comparative study of alloimmunization against red cell antigens in sickle cell disease & thalassaemia major patients on regular red cell transfusion
Keyuri Jariwala, Kanchan Mishra, Kanjaksha Ghosh
January 2019, 149(1):34-40
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_940_17  PMID:31115372
Background & objectives: Sickle cell disease (SCD) patients require red cell transfusion during different clinical complications of the disease. Such patients are at a high risk for developing alloantibody against red cell antigens. From India, there are limited data available on alloantibody formation in multiply transfused SCD patients. The present study was thus undertaken to fill up this lacunae by looking at the development of red cell alloantibodies in SCD and β-thalassaemia patients on regular transfusion. Methods: All sickle cell disease patients undergoing red cell transfusion between 2008 and 2016, were included. During this period, a large number of β-thalassaemia major patients also underwent regular red cell transfusion. These thalassaemia patients were also included to compare the tendency of antibody formation between SCD and β-thalassaemia major patients. All patients before regular transfusion were regularly assessed for the development of red cell antibody. Red cell antigen, antibody screen crossmatch and antibody identification were done using the standard technique. Results: A total of 138 patients with SCD aged between 4 and 53 yr (mean 17.6 yr) consisting of 83 males and 55 females (male:female, 1.5:1) along with 333 transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia patients were studied. Over the last eight years, 15 patients with SCD and four patients with thalassaemia developed alloantibody (P <0.001). Antibody specificity of their alloantibodies was against Rhc, RhE, Kell, Fya and Fyb only. Sickle cell disease patients with and without alloantibody required on the average 11.8 and 8.6 units of red cell concentrate, respectively (P <0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: About 11 per cent of the transfused sickle cells patients developed alloantibodies. The antibody specificity was restricted to Rh, Kell and Duffy blood group systems. Extended antigen matching involving Rh, Kell and Duffy antigens may prevent alloantibody in such patients.
  3 1,476 350
Celiac disease & type 1 diabetes: A double burden
Eesh Bhatia
January 2019, 149(1):5-7
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1998_18  PMID:31115368
  2 1,236 288
Role of anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA+IgG antibodies in detection of potential celiac disease in patients with type 1 diabetes
Navchetan Kaur, Ranjana W Minz, Sanjay K Bhadada, Biman Saikia, Devi Dayal, Shashi Anand, Neha Joshi, Jagdeep Singh, Babu R Thapa, Rakesh K Kochhar, Kim Vaiphei
January 2019, 149(1):18-25
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1136_16  PMID:31115370
Background & objectives: Celiac disease (CD) can exist in various forms in type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients and can remain undetected, leading to severe complications. This study was aimed to evaluate five commercially available anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) ELISA kits with distinct formats for the detection of CD and potential CD in T1D patients. Clinical and demographic profiles of the patients with different disease subsets were also studied. Methods: Fifty T1D patients with classical and non-classical symptoms of CD and 100 T1D patients without any symptoms of CD were included in this study. Anti-tTG autoantibody levels were estimated by five ELISA kits followed by histological examination of duodenal biopsy. HLA DQ2-DQ8 and DRB1-DQB1 typing was done, and serum levels for transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 were also estimated. Results: Assay format detecting anti-tTG IgA antibodies against recombinant antigens along with neopeptides of gliadin was most efficient in the detection of CD in symptomatic patients, and assay format detecting IgA+IgG helped in the detection of potential CD in asymptomatic T1D patients. These findings were supported by histological examination and human leucocyte antigen analysis. Patients with potential CD were found to have markedly deranged glycaemic control parameters and also had significantly raised serum levels of TGF-β1, (P <0.05) compared to T1D patients. Interpretation & conclusions: Potential CD can be frequently seen in T1D patients. This can be attributed to the dietary patterns prevalent in the subcontinent and the genetic basis of the disease. Anti-tTG IgA+IgG antibodies can be useful in the detection of these potential CD cases in T1D patients. Early intervention with gluten-free diet can be considered in these patients for better disease management.
  2 2,203 349
Antidiabetic effect of free amino acids supplementation in human visceral adipocytes through adiponectin-dependent mechanism
Vidhya Srinivasan, Selvi Radhakrishnan, Narayanasamy Angayarkanni, KN Sulochana
January 2019, 149(1):41-46
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1782_16  PMID:31115373
Background & objectives: Amino acids are general nutrients having anti-diabetic property. The present study was undertaken to investigate the mechanism of anti-diabetic effects of amino acids in human visceral adipocyte cells in high glucose environment. Methods: Experiments were carried out in human visceral adipocytes. Adiponectin (APN) siRNAs were designed using Ambion tools. APN mRNA expression was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and protein level was studied using ELISA. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) activity was measured and glucose uptake by 2-deoxyglucose uptake method. Results: Amino acids (proline and phenylalanine) exposure to adipocytes significantly (P <0.01) increased APN mRNA by 1.5-folds when compared to control whereas proline increased APN secretion by 10.6-folds (P <0.01), phenylalanine by 12.7-folds (P <0.001) and alanine by 6.3-folds (P <0.01). Free amino acid-induced AMPK activity and glucose uptake were decreased with the transient knockdown of APN. Interpretation & conclusions: Antidiabetic effect of the tested amino acids was exhibited by increased glucose uptake through the AMPK pathway by an APN-dependent mechanism in human visceral adipocytes. This should be tested and confirmed in in vivo system. Newer treatment modalities with amino acids which can enhance glucose uptake and APN secretion can be developed as drug for treating both diabetes and obesity.
  2 1,070 282
Lack of association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene variants & essential tremor in Han Chinese
Dan He, Lamei Yuan, Zhi Song, Xiong Deng, Yizhi Chen, Hongwei Lu, Hao Deng
January 2019, 149(1):67-70
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_432_17  PMID:31115378
  1 970 185
Development & validation of the Chandigarh autism screening instrument
Chittaranjan Andrade, Swapnajeet Sahoo, Chintan Solanki, Venkata Lakshmi Narasimha, Sachin Nagendrappa, Devavrat Harshe, Satish Suhas, Ambrish Dharmadhikari, Utkarsh Karki, Ekta Franscina Pinto, Sagar Garag, Harish M Tharayil, Jayant Mahadevan
January 2019, 149(1):74-75
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1648_18  PMID:31115380
  1 1,272 265
Comparative analysis of virulence factors & biotypes of Gardnerella vaginalis isolated from the genital tract of women with & without bacterial vaginosis
Kumari Nisha, Beena Antony, Jeppu Udayalaxmi
January 2019, 149(1):57-61
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1674_16  PMID:31115376
Background & objectives: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) involves the presence of a thick vaginal multispecies biofilm, where Gardnerella vaginalis is the predominant species. The reason for an increase in the number of G. vaginalis which are usually present as normal flora of the female genital tract in cases of BV, is not known. Hence, the objective of the present study was to compare the biotypes and virulence factors of G. vaginalis isolated from the genital tract of women with and without BV. Methods: High vaginal swabs collected from 811 women of reproductive age were cultured. G. vaginalis isolates were biotyped and tested for adherence to vaginal epithelial cells, biofilm formation, agglutination of human red blood cells (RBCs), protease production, phospholipase production and surface hydrophobicity. Results: Of the isolates from women with BV, 83.3 per cent (60/72) showed good adherence, 78.4 per cent (58/74) produced biofilm, 82.9 per cent (63/76) produced phospholipase, 67.1 per cent (51/76) produced protease, 77.3 per cent (58/75) were positive for surface hydrophobicity and 61.6 per cent (45/73) were positive for haemagglutination of human RBC. In case of G. vaginalis from non-BV women, 25 per cent (15/60) isolates showed good adherence, 18.4 per cent (9/49) biofilm production, 35 per cent (21/60) phospholipase, 36.6 per cent (22/60) protease, 41.7 per cent (25/60) surface hydrophobicity and 10.1 per cent (6/59) agglutination of human RBCs. Maximum number of isolates belonged to biotypes 6, 2 and 3. Biotype 3 was more associated with non-BV rather than BV; biotype 6, 2 and 1 were more associated with cases of BV. Maximum virulence factors were expressed by biotypes 6, 2 and 1. Interpretation & conclusions: Virulence factors were more expressed by G. vaginalis isolates obtained from women with BV rather than from non-BV. Biotypes 6, 2 and 1 were more associated with cases of BV and expressed maximum virulence factors.
  1 1,955 389
A descriptive pilot study of mitochondrial mutations & clinical phenotype in fibromyalgia syndrome
Sumita Danda, Blessy Mariam Thomas, G Paramasivam, Raji Thomas, John Mathew, Debashish Danda
January 2019, 149(1):47-50
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1977_16  PMID:31115374
Background & objectives: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is one of the most common chronic pain conditions of unknown aetiology. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported in FMS with some studies reporting the presence of mitochondrial mutation namely A3243G, which also causes mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes. This pilot study was conducted to assess this mutation and also detect large deletions in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in patients with FMS. Methods: Thirty female patients with FMS participated and 30 matched controls were included. Genomic DNA was subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using specific primers followed by restriction digestion with Apa I enzyme to detect the specific A3243G mtDNA mutation. Long-range PCR was done in two sets to detect the large deletions in the mtDNA. Biochemical parameters including thyroid-stimulating hormone and vitamin D levels were also looked at. Results: None of the patients were found to carry the common mutation or large deletions. Low vitamin D level was a common finding. Hypothyroidism was found in a few patients. Interpretation & conclusions: Although the common mutation or large mtDNA deletions were not detected in blood mtDNA in the FMS patients, mutations in the muscle and sequence variation in mtDNA remained a possibility. Future studies in both blood and muscle tissue including mtDNA sequencing are warranted in such patients to determine if a subset of FMS patients have mitochondrial myopathy.
  1 1,418 272
The liver: Oxidative stress and dietary antioxidants
CE Eapen
January 2019, 149(1):81-81
  - 891 167
Multisystem involvement of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in an adult
Nilay Sengul Samanci, Mesut Ayer
January 2019, 149(1):78-79
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1726_17  PMID:31115382
  - 842 228
Initial presentation of tonsillar carcinoma with candidiasis
Cheng-Ping Shih, Wen-Chiuan Tsai
January 2019, 149(1):80-80
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1536_17  PMID:31115383
  - 805 184
Authors' Response
Priti Arun, Bir Singh Chavan
January 2019, 149(1):75-77
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.256712  PMID:31115381
  - 752 154
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci & healthcare-associated risk factors in paediatric intensive care unit
Prakhar Agarwal, Lipika Singhal, Varsha Gupta, Vishal Guglani, Jagdish Chander
January 2019, 149(1):71-73
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2063_16  PMID:31115379
  - 1,558 314
Unfinished business - Leprosy still not defeated
David M Scollard
January 2019, 149(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_12_19  PMID:31115367
  - 1,821 376
Prospective analysis of factors predicting feasibility & success of longitudinal intussusception vasoepididymostomy in men with idiopathic obstructive azoospermia
Devi Prasad Tiwari, Abdul Razik, Chandan J Das, Rajeev Kumar
January 2019, 149(1):51-56
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1192_17  PMID:31115375
Background & objectives: Microsurgical reconstruction for idiopathic obstructive azoospermia is a challenging procedure, and selection of appropriate patients is important for successful outcomes. This prospective study was done to evaluate the ability of scrotal ultrasound measurements to predict the surgical feasibility and determine factors that could predict a patent anastomosis following vaso-epididymal anastomosis (VE) in men with idiopathic obstructive azoospermia. Methods: In this prospective study, men diagnosed with idiopathic obstructive azoospermia, scheduled for a longitudinal intussusception VE, underwent a scrotal ultrasound measurement of testicular and epididymal dimensions. During surgery, site and type of anastomosis, presence of sperms in the epididymal fluid and technical satisfaction with the anastomosis were recorded. All men where VE could be performed were followed up for appearance of sperms in the ejaculate. Ultrasound parameters were compared between men who had a VE versus those with negative exploration. Predictive factors were compared between men with or without a patent anastomosis. Results: Thirty four patients were included in the study conducted between September 2014 and August 2016 and a VE was possible in only 19 (55%) patients. Of these 19 patients, six had a patent anastomosis with one pregnancy. Preoperative ultrasound measurements could not identify patients where a VE could not be performed. Motile sperm in the epididymal fluid was the only significant predictor of a successful anastomosis. Interpretation & conclusion: Forty five per cent of men planned for a VE for idiopathic obstructive azoospermia could not undergo a reconstruction. Ultrasound assessment of testicular and epididymal dimensions could not predict the feasibility of performing a VE. The presence of motile sperms in the epididymal fluid was the only significant predictor of a patent VE in our study.
  - 1,049 168