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   2012| July  | Volume 136 | Issue 1  
    Online since August 10, 2012

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Climatic factors influencing dengue cases in Dhaka city: A model for dengue prediction
Md. Nazmul Karim, Saif Ullah Munshi, Nazneen Anwar, Md. Shah Alam
July 2012, 136(1):32-39
Background & objectives: Transmission of dengue virus depends on the presence of Aedes mosquito. Mosquito generation and development is known to be influenced by the climate. This study was carried out to examine whether the climatic factors data can be used to predict yearly dengue cases of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Methods: Monthly reported dengue cases and climate data for the years 2000-2008 were obtained from the Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS) and Meteorological Department of Dhaka, Bangladesh, respectively. Data for the period 2000 to 2007 were used for development of a model through multiple linear regressions. Retrospective validation of the model was done with 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2008 data. Log transformation of the dependent variable was done to normalize data for linear regression. Average monthly humidity, rainfall, minimum and maximum temperature were used as independent variables and number of dengue cases reported monthly was used as dependent variable. Accuracy of the model for predicting outbreak was assessed through receiver operative characteristics (ROC) curve. Results: Climatic factors, i.e. rainfall, maximum temperature and relative humidity were significantly correlated with monthly reported dengue cases. The model incorporating climatic data of two-lag month explained 61 per cent of variation in number of reported dengue cases and this model was found to predict dengue outbreak (≥ 200 cases) with considerable accuracy [area under ROC curve = 0.89, 95%CI = (0.89-0.98)]. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the climate had a major effect on the occurrence of dengue infection in Dhaka city. Though the prediction model had some limitations in predicting the monthly number of dengue cases, it could forecast possible outbreak two months in advance with considerable accuracy.
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Vector control interventions for visceral leishmaniasis elimination initiative in South Asia, 2005-2010
Albert Picado, Aditya P Dash, Sujit Bhattacharya, Marleen Boelaert
July 2012, 136(1):22-31
The Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) Elimination Initiative in the Indian subcontinent was launched in 2005 as a joint effort between the governments in the Region (India, Nepal and Bangladesh) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The objective is to reduce the annual VL incidence below 1/10,000 inhabitants by 2015 based on detection and treatment of VL cases and vector control. We present here a review of studies published in the period 2005-2010 on the efficacy of different tools to control Phlebotomus argentipes. The review indicates that the current indoor residual spraying (IRS) and novel vector control methods mainly insecticide treated nets (ITN) have low effectiveness for several reasons. Efforts to improve quality of IRS operations and further research on alternative and integrated vector control methods need to be promoted to reach the VL elimination target by 2015.
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Risk factors associated with the development of overt nephropathy in type 2 diabetes patients: A 12 years observational study
Vijay Viswanathan, Priyanka Tilak, Satyavani Kumpatla
July 2012, 136(1):46-53
Background & objectives: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease in developing countries. Early detection and risk reduction measures can prevent DN. The aim of the study was to determine the risk factors for the development of proteinuria over a period of 12 years of follow up in normoalbuminuric type 2 diabetes patients attending a specialized centre. Methods: Of the 2630 type 2 diabetes subjects newly registered in 1996, 152 (M:F;92:60) normoalbuminuric subjects had baseline and subsequent measurements of anthropometric, haemodynamic and biochemical details spanning 12 years. The subjects were divided into 2 groups based on the renal status during follow up visits. Group 1 (non-progressors) had persistent normoalbuminuria and group 2 (progressors) had persistent proteinuria. Presence of other diabetic complications during follow up and details on antidiabetic and antihypertensive agents were noted. Results: During median follow up of 11 years in subjects with normal renal function at baseline, 44.1 per cent developed proteinuria at follow up. Glucose levels, HbA 1 c, systolic blood pressure (SBP), triglycerides, and urea levels were significantly higher at baseline among progressors than non-progressors. Progressors had a longer duration of diabetes and significant fall in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels at follow up. In Cox's regression analysis, baseline age, duration of diabetes, baseline HbA 1 c and mean values of HbA 1 c, triglycerides, SBP and presence of retinopathy showed significant association with the development of macroalbuminuria. Interpretation & conclusions: Type 2 diabetes patients with uncontrolled diabetes and increase in blood pressure are at high risk of developing nephropathy. Age, long duration of diabetes, elevated BP, poor glycaemic control and presence of retinopathy were significantly associated with the progression of diabetic nephropathy.
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Venous thromboembolism risk & prophylaxis in the acute hospital care setting (ENDORSE), a multinational cross-sectional study: Results from the Indian subset data
Ramakrishna Pinjala, Vinod Agnihotri, A Balraj, Amiya Chakraborty, Sanjay Desai, Antony Elangovan, Partha Goswami, Emmanuel Rupert, Kedar Toraskar, Kakollu Venkatesh
July 2012, 136(1):60-67
Background & objectives: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major health problem with substantial morbidity and mortality. It is often underdiagnosed due to lack of information on VTE risk and prophylaxis. The ENDORSE (Epidemiologic International Day for the Evaluation of Patients at Risk for Venous Thromboembolism in the Acute Hospital Care Setting) study aimed to assess the prevalence of VTE risk in acute hospital care setting and proportion of at-risk patients receiving effective prophylaxis. We present here the risk factor profile and prophylaxis pattern of hospitalized patients who participated in ENDORSE study in India. Methods: In this cross-sectional study in India, all patients (surgical >18 yr, medical >40 yr) from 10 hospitals were retrospectively studied. Demographics, VTE risk factors and prophylaxis patterns were assessed according to the 2004 American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) evidence-based consensus guidelines. Results: We recruited 2058 patients (1110 surgical, 948 medical) from 10 randomly selected hospitals in India between August 2006 and January 2007. According to the ACCP criteria, 1104 (53.6%) patients [surgical 680 (61.3%), medical 424 (44.7%)] were at-risk for VTE. Chronic pulmonary disease/heart failure and complete immobilization were the most common risk factors before and during hospitalization, respectively. In India, 16.3 per cent surgical and 19.1 per cent medical at-risk patients received ACCP-recommended thromboprophylaxis. Interpretation & conclusions: Despite a similar proportion of at-risk hospitalized patients in India and other participating countries, there was major underutilization of prophylaxis in India. It necessitates increasing awareness about VTE risk and ensuring appropriate thromboprophylaxis.
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Prevalence of hepatitis B & hepatitis C virus infections in potential blood donors in rural Vietnam
Le Viet, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Lan, Phung Xuan Ty, Björn Björkvoll, Hedda Hoel, Tore Gutteberg, Anne Husebekk, Stig Larsen, Eystein Skjerve, Hans Husum
July 2012, 136(1):74-81
Background & objectives: Safe blood and blood products should be offered to all patients in need for blood transfusion. The objectives of the present study were to establish prevalence estimates for hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections as a foundation for safe blood transfusion in rural Vietnam, and to check the accuracy of the laboratory analysis used for hepatitis testing of blood donors in Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two rural communities in Quang Tri, Vietnam. A total of 1,200 blood samples collected from potential blood donors were tested by an enzyme immunoassay technique (EIA) for detection of hepatitis surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and antibodies to hepatitis C antigen (anti-HCV). The EIA test outcome was validated by a chemiluminescent micro particle immunoassay technique (CMIA). Results: The prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBc in the study population was 11.4 per cent (95% CI 9.6 - 13.2) and 51.7 per cent (95% CI 48.8 - 54.5), respectively, the prevalences being higher in males than females. The prevalence of anti-HCV was 0.17 per cent. The test agreement between the EIA and CMIA techniques was high both for HBsAg detection (κ = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.83 - 0.99) and for anti-HBc detection (κ = 0.89; 95% CI 0.81 - 0.97). Compared to CMIA results, the positive and negative predictive values of the EIA tests were found to be 94.9 per cent (95% CI 87.5 - 98.6) and 97.5 per cent (95% CI 86.8 - 99.9) for HBsAg, and 92.4 per cent (95% CI 84.2 - 97.2) and 100 per cent (95% CI 91.2 - 100) for anti-HBc. Interpretation & conclusions: The study shows that hepatitis B virus infection is endemic in rural areas of Vietnam and that almost half of the population is or has been infected. Hepatitis C infection is rare, but false negative test results cannot be ruled out. Also, the results indicate that the EIA performance in blood donor screening in Vietnam may be sub-optimal, missing 2.5 per cent of hepatitis B virus carriers and falsely excluding more than 7 per cent of blood donors. As the prevalence of hepatitis B infection is high, occult hepatitis B infection may represent a threat to safe blood transfusion. Therefore, nucleic acid amplification testing for HBV should be considered for blood donor screening in Vietnam.
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Aflatoxin contamination in stored rice variety PAU 201 collected from Punjab, India
Vasanthi Siruguri, P Uday Kumar, P Raghu, M Vishnu Vardhana Rao, B Sesikeran, GS Toteja, Priyanka Gupta, Spriha Rao, K Satyanarayana, VM Katoch, TS Bharaj, GS Mangat, Neerja Sharma, JS Sandhu, VK Bhargav, Shobha Rani
July 2012, 136(1):89-97
Background & objectives: The present study was carried out on stored rice variety PAU 201 in Punjab that was not permitted for milling and public distribution due to the presence of damaged grains at levels exceeding the regulatory limits of 4.75 per cent. The aim of the study was to determine fungal and aflatoxin contamination in the rice samples to assess hazard from the presence of damaged grains. Presence of iron in discoloured rice grains was also assessed. Methods: Stored samples of paddy of PAU 201 rice variety were collected from six districts of Punjab, milled and analysed for presence of fungal and aflatoxin contamination. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and Prussian blue staining was used to determine fungal spores and presence of iron, respectively. Results: Aflatoxin analysis of rice samples indicated that none exceeded the Food Safety and Standards (Contaminants, Toxins and Residues) Regulations, 2011 tolerance limit of 30 μg/kg and majority of the samples had levels <15 μg/kg. The proportion of damaged grains exceeding the limit of 5 per cent was observed in 85.7 per cent of the samples. SEM and Prussian blue staining and EDX analysis of black tipped and pin point damaged rice grains did not show presence of fungal structures and presence of iron. Interpretation & conclusions: The results of the study indicated that the stored rice samples did not pose any health concern with respect to aflatoxin contamination as per the criteria laid down by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India.
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Inhibition of toxic actions of phospholipase A 2 isolated & characterized from the Indian Banded Krait (Bungarus fasciatus) venom by synthetic herbal compounds
Antony Gomes, Shamik Bhattacharya, Sanghamitra Mukherjee, Inn-ho-Tsai , Aparna Gomes
July 2012, 136(1):40-45
Background & objectives: Phospholipase A 2 (PLA 2 ) is one of the major constituents of krait venom associated with several pathophysiological actions like myotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity, etc. As there was no specific antiserum available against Bungarus fasciatus venom, this study was done with synthetic herbal compounds, anti PLA 2 rabbit antiserum and commercial polyvalent snake venom antiserum to neutralize the PLA 2 induced toxicities in experimental models. Methods: B. fasciatus venom phospholipase A 2 fraction 38 (BF-38) was isolated by ion exchange chromatography, molecular weight was determined by mass spectrometry and its N terminal amino acid sequence was identified. Monospecific rabbit antiserum was raised against the PLA 2 in presence of Freund complete adjuvant. The neutralization of PLA 2 induced toxicities was done in in vitro and in in vivo models using synthetic herbal compounds, anti PLA 2 rabbit antiserum and commercial polyvalent snake venom antiserum. Results: A toxic PLA 2 (BF-38) was purified from the B. fasciatus venom by CM-cellulose and HPLC, of 13.17 kDa and a minor band of 7.3 kDa using ESI-MS. The 13.17 kDa PLA 2 sequence was NLYQFKNMIQC. The 7.3 kDa toxin sequence was RKCLTKYSQDNES and was found to be <10 per cent w/w. Anti PLA 2 rabbit antiserum produced faint precipitant band in immunogel diffusion and showed low titre value. The commercial polyvalent snake venom antiserum, anti PLA 2 rabbit antiserum and the synthetic herbal compounds neutralized the PLA 2 induced toxicities at different intensities. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results suggested that synthetic herbal compound (BA) along with antiserum might provide effective protection against PLA 2 induced toxicities of B. fasciatus venom.
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Animal models in type 2 diabetes research: An overview
K Srinivasan, P Ramarao
July 2012, 136(1):0-0
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Direct costs of hospitalization for rotavirus gastroenteritis in different health facilities in India
TV Sowmyanarayanan, Tushar Patel, Rajiv Sarkar, Shobha Broor, Shobha D Chitambar, Triveni Krishnan, Rashmi Arora, Gagandeep Kang
July 2012, 136(1):68-73
Background & objectives: Diarrhoeal disease is the fifth leading cause of all mortality globally. To this burden, rotavirus contributes over half a million deaths annually. This pilot study was conducted to determine the economic burden of diarrhoeal episodes on families from different geographical regions accessing medical facilities in India. Methods: Participants were enrolled from four study sites with eight reporting hospitals, categorized as non-profit and low cost, private and government facilities between November 2008 and February 2009. Questionnaires detailing healthcare utilization, medical and non-medical expenditure and lost income were completed by families of children < 5 yr of age hospitalized for gastroenteritis. All available faecal samples were tested for rotavirus. Results: A total of 211 patients were enrolled. The mean total cost of a hospitalized diarrhoeal episode was ` 3633 (US$ 66.05) for all facilities, with a marked difference in direct costs between governmental and non-governmental facilities. Costs for rotavirus positive hospitalizations were slightly lower, at ` 2956 (US$ 53.75). The median cost of a diarrhoeal episode based on annual household expenditure was 6.4 per cent for all-cause diarrhoea and 7.6 per cent for rotavirus diarrhoea. Of the 124 samples collected, 66 (53%) were positive for rotavirus. Interpretation & conclusions: Data on direct costs alone from multiple facilities show that diarrhoeal disease constitutes a large economic burden on Indian families. Affordable, effective vaccines would greatly reduce the economic burden of severe gastroenteritis on patients, families and the government.
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ICMR's tryst with HIV epidemic in India: 1986-1991
Prema Ramachandran
July 2012, 136(1):13-21
The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) undertook screening of asymptomatic persons from high risk group with the ELISA test for HIV infection in 1986 and found that HIV infection has reached India. ICMR in collaboration with the central and State health services initiated the national sero- surveillance programme for HIV infection in 43 surveillance and five reference centres to determine the major modes of transmission and magnitude of infection. Data from the sero-surveillance showed that HIV infection was present in all the known high risk groups and in the general population in all the States both in urban and rural areas. HIV was getting transmitted through all the known modes of transmission. In most States heterosexual transmission was predominant but in Manipur intravenous (iv) drug use was the most common mode of transmission. Prevalence of HIV infection in high risk groups was not high and that in low risk groups was quite low. ICMR initiated hospital based sentinel surveillance in high risk groups and general population to obtain time trends in seroprevalence. Between 1986 and 1991, National AIDS Programme was carried out as a collaborative effort of ICMR, and central and State health services. As the dimensions of the epidemic unfolded, rational evidence based interventions which could be implemented within the existing health system, were initiated. National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) continued and upscaled all these interventions. Effective implementation of a multi-pronged, rational strategy for HIV infection containment and control right from the initial stages, and dedicated work done by committed professionals belonging to government and voluntary sectors, cultural ethos of the country, responsible behaviour of the population and relatively low iv drug use have resulted in rapid decline in new infection and in prevalence of infection within a quarter of a century after the initial detection of HIV.
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Green medicine as a harmonizing tool to antivenom therapy for the clinical management of snakebite: The road ahead
Ashis K Mukherjee
July 2012, 136(1):10-12
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Kwashiorkor in India
C Gopalan, V Ramalingaswami
July 2012, 136(1):0-0
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This is hepatitis - it is closer than you think
James Fung, Man-Fung Yuen
July 2012, 136(1):3-6
  1,288 224 -
Beneficial effect of Lisosan G on cultured human microvascular endothelial cells exposed to oxidised low density lipoprotein
Valter Lubrano, Simona Baldi, Debora Napoli, Vincenzo Longo
July 2012, 136(1):82-88
Background & objectives: Nutritional compounds which display anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects have specific applications in preventing oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. In this study we evaluated the effect of Lisosan G (powder of Triticum sativum grains) on human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) exposed to oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). Methods: The protective effects of Lisosan G were evaluated on human microvascular endothelial cells exposed to ox-LDL. Intercellular adhesion molecular-1 (ICAM-1), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations and the expression of the respective genes were evaluated in response to incubation with ox-LDL, after co-incubation with ox-LDL and Lisosan G or exposed to Lisosan G alone. The analysis of LOX-1 gene was performed with RT-PCR semi quantitative method. The degree of oxidation induced in relation to control, was established by measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA) production. Results: The incubation with ox-LDL induced a significant increase in ICAM-1, IL-6 and ET-1 levels compared to the basal condition (P<0.01, P<0.05, and P<0.01, respectively), while in presence of Lisosan G, ICAM-1 levels showed a significant reduction both compared to the cultures treated with ox-LDL and control (P<0.01). IL-6 levels did not show any difference; ET-1 levels showed a partial reduction after co-treatment with Lisosan G, and also with Lisosan G alone, reduced the concentration below control (P<0.01). The modulation of these markers was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. An association between MDA formation and the three markers production was observed. Semi-quantitative analysis of LOX-1 gene expression showed a significant up-regulation only after ox-LDL exposure. Interpretation & conclusions: The results demonstrate that Lisosan G may have an important role in the prevention of microcirculatory dysfunction.
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Advances in developing a climate based dengue outbreak models in Dhaka, Bangladesh: Challenges & opportunities
Andrew K Githeko
July 2012, 136(1):7-9
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Immunology of tuberculosis
Alamelu Raja
July 2012, 136(1):0-0
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IFNα2b augments immune responses of cisplatin+5-fluorouracil treated tongue squamous cell carcinoma patients - A preliminary study
Kalyan Kusum Mukherjee, Anamika Bose, Diptendu Ghosh, Koustav Sarkar, Shyamal Goswami, Smarajit Pal, Jaydip Biswas, Rathindranath Baral
July 2012, 136(1):54-59
Background & objectives: Interferon alpha 2b (IFNα2b) has been reported to regulate several immune functions efficiently to enhance the cytotoxic activity of NK and T cells towards various forms of tumours. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of IFNα2b in overcoming disease induced and/or treatment associated imunosuppression of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) patients undergoing chemotherapy for better clinical outcome. Methods: Seven TSCC patients under cisplatin + 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy in combination with IFNα2b were assessed for various immunohaematological parameters before treatment, after chemotherapy and after IFNα2b therapy. Results: Deterioration of the haematological and immune responses was detected in immunosuppressed TSCC patients after chemotherapy. IFNα2b treatment led to a recovery in these parameters in most of the patients. Greater number of T/NK cells and enhanced secretion of type 1 cytokines were also noted. Haematological complications were reduced after completion of the therapy. Immune- and haematostimulation were also observed in patients with partial response. No positive clinical response was detected in one patient. Interpretation & conclusions: IFNα2b appears to be an effective immunostimulator having clinical impact to combat the immunosuppression in TSCC patients. Successful immunostimulation by IFNα2b may help TSCC patients in clinical improvement. The findings of this preliminary study need to be confirmed on a large number of patients with TSCC.
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Emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India
R Thamizhmani, Debdutta Bhattacharya, DS Sayi, Haimanti Bhattacharjee, N Muruganandam, SR Ghosal, AP Bharadwaj, M Singhania, Subarna Roy, AP Sugunan
July 2012, 136(1):98-101
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Celebrating 100 years of IJMR's existence
Anju Sharma
July 2012, 136(1):1-2
  1,008 246 -
Subcutaneous cysticercosis
B Siddhartha Kumar, Alladi Mohan
July 2012, 136(1):102-102
  968 230 -
World Report on Disability
Amarjeet Singh
July 2012, 136(1):104-105
  953 192 -
Some Forthcoming Scientific Events

July 2012, 136(1):106-106
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The busy physician's guide to genetics, genomics and personalized medicine
Ashwin Dalal
July 2012, 136(1):103-104
  766 152 -
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July 2012, 136(1):0-0
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July 2012, 136(1):108-108
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