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   2011| June  | Volume 133 | Issue 6  
    Online since July 5, 2011

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Club drugs: Review of the 'rave' with a note of concern for the Indian scenario
Kaustav Chakraborty, Rajarshi Neogi, Debasish Basu
June 2011, 133(6):594-604
'Club drugs' which include Ecstasy, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ketamine, and Rohypnol (flunitrazepam) have become popular with participants in 'raves', because they are perceived to enhance energy, endurance, sociability and sexual arousal. These drugs vary in their pharmacologic properties, physiological and psychological effects, and potential consequences. The use of club drugs by young people has increased in the last decade, and continue to get modified and evolve, making them very difficult to monitor. Further, these drugs are not picked up by routine drugs screening procedures, thereby making these popular with the criminals. India, which is in a phase of social transition, also faces this rising menace. Despite the nature and extent of this problem, this area has been under-researched. Data from India are sparse barring a few newspaper and police reports. Keeping abreast of current trends in club drug use prepares the clinician to recognize the clinical effects of club drug use, to manage club drug related emergencies, and to generate social awareness.
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Endometriosis, a modern syndrome
Ivo Brosens, Giuseppe Benagiano
June 2011, 133(6):581-593
The identification of endometriosis has been a subject of intense debate over the last decade. There is, however, no doubt that Thomas Cullen was the first to describe endometriosis and adenomyosis as one disease characterized by the presence of endometrium-like tissue outside the uterine cavity. With the introduction of laparoscopy in the early 1960s three different clinical presentations of endometriosis were distinguished: peritoneal, deep adenomyotic and cystic ovarian. As soon as synthetic steroids became available, pioneer clinicians started utilizing these in an attempt to replace radical surgery by a medical treatment. While medical therapy may resort in relief, in most cases the current approach consists of a combination of medical and surgical therapy. While the pathogenesis of endometriosis is still enigmatic and complex, there is increasing evidence that endometriosis is part of a uterine reproductive dysfunction syndrome. For prevention of complications, it is very important that diagnosis is made as early as possible in a woman's life.
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Validation of bedside methods in evaluation of diabetic peripheral neuropathy
P Jayaprakash, Anil Bhansali, Shobhit Bhansali, Pinaki Dutta, R Anantharaman, G Shanmugasundar, M Ravikiran
June 2011, 133(6):645-649
Background & objectives: Vibration perception threshold (VPT) is considered as a gold standard for diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. However, the data are sparse comparing the VPT with commonly used bedside modalities. This study was carried out to evaluate the usefulness of simple bed side screening modalities for peripheral neuropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods: A total of 1044 patients with diabetes mellitus attending the Diabetes clinic from January 2007 to May 2008, were included in this study. All subjects had a detailed clinical assessment including Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom (DNS) score, Diabetic Neuropathy Examination (DNE) score, ankle reflex, vibration sensation with a 128 Hz tuning fork, 10g Semmes-Weinstein monofilament and vibration perception threshold (VPT). Results: The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy was 34.9 per cent with VPT. Foot care practices were followed by only 214 (20.5%) of the study population. When compared with VPT, ankle reflex was the most sensitive (90.7%) but least specific (37.3%). The tuning fork and monofilament tests respectively had lower sensitivity (62.5 and 62.8%) but better specificity (95.3 and 92.9%) and accuracy (78.9 and 77.9%). Significant correlations were observed between the VPT score and the DNE (r = 0.532, P<0.001) and DNS (r = 0.546, P<0.001) scores and absent tuning fork sensation (r= 0.590; P<0.001), monofilament sensation (r= 0.573; P<0.001) and ankle reflex (r = 0.377, P= 0.01). Interpretation & conclusions: The present findings show that simple bed side tests are useful for assessing peripheral diabetic neuropathy, even in those subjects in whom foot care practices are not followed.
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Emergence of tigecycline & colistin resistant Acinetobacter baumanii in patients with complicated urinary tract infections in north India
Neelam Taneja, Gagandeep Singh, Meenakshi Singh, Meera Sharma
June 2011, 133(6):681-684
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More blood, more life? Reflections on World Blood Donor Day - 2011
Albert Farrugia
June 2011, 133(6):573-576
  1,257 1,210 -
Quality of life after electroconvulsive therapy in persons with treatment resistant schizophrenia
Rohit Garg, BS Chavan, Priti Arun
June 2011, 133(6):641-644
Background & objectives: In recent years, health-related quality of life (QOL) has been regarded as the most important dimension of outcome in schizophrenia. Recent research has shown that atypical antipsychotics improve QOL in patients with schizophrenia. Importance of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been demonstrated in restoring function and health related quality of life in depressed patients. However, there are no data on patients of schizophrenia. The objective of the present study was therefore, to assess the improvement in quality of life after ECT in treatment resistant schizophrenia. Methods: Thirty consecutive patients of treatment resistant schizophrenia were given ECT sessions twice a week and assessments were made with Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale of Schizophrenia (PANSS), WHO QOL Bref, Global Assessment of Functioning Scale and Clinical Global Impressions. Results: The group improved significantly on all the domains of quality of life scale except the domain named satisfaction with social relations. There was also significant change in the total score of PANSS after 6 ECT sessions (mean at baseline = 86.7, mean after 6 ECT = 65.5, P< 0.001) as well as on different subscales of PANSS. The score on the global assessment of functioning also changed significantly (mean 26.3 at baseline to 44.5 after 6 ECT sessions). Interpretation & conclusions: The present findings showed that ECT in addition to improvement in symptomatology led to improvement in QOL in patients of treatment resistant schizophrenia.
  1,763 504 -
Association of gene polymorphisms with development of cancer risk or their protective role associated with some mutant alleles
Khazi M Nayeemuddin, Safia Rafeeq, Ashutosh K Lodhi
June 2011, 133(6):577-580
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Protective association exhibited by the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1052133 in the gene human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) with the risk of squamous cell carcinomas of the head & neck (SCCHN) among north Indians
Amit Kumar Mitra, Sarvendra Vikram Singh, Vivek Kumar Garg, Mandira Sharma, Rashmi Chaturvedi, Srikanta Kumar Rath
June 2011, 133(6):605-612
Background & objectives: Imbalances in compactly regulated DNA repair pathways in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within vital DNA repair genes may result in insufficient DNA repair and increase in DNA breaks thus rendering the human system vulnerable to the debilitatory effects of grave diseases like cancers. The present study involves investigation of association of the non-synonymous SNP rs1052133 (C8069G/Ser326Cys) located in the exonic region of the gene human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) with the risk of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHN). Methods: Case-control based genetic association study was performed among 575 (250 SCCHN cases and 325 normal healthy controls) sub-population cluster-matched (Indo-Europeans linguistic subgroup + Caucasoid morphological subtype) samples from the north Indian States of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and DNA sequencing analysis. Results: Our results demonstrated statistically significant protective association for the heterozygous CG [Odds Ratio (OR) 0.6587, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.4615 to 0.9402, P=0.0238], homozygous mutant GG (OR 0.2570, 95% CI 0.1070 to 0.6175, P=0.0013) and combined mutant CG + GG (OR 0.6057, 95% CI 0.4272 to 0.8586, P=0.0059) genotypes. Interpretation & conclusions: The results indicate that the polymorphism rs1052133 is strongly associated with SCCHN susceptibility and the mutant (G) allele might be a protective factor for SCCHN among north Indian subpopulations.
  1,825 321 -
Molecular typing of Mycobacterium leprae strains from northern India using short tandem repeats
Mallika Lavania, Kiran Katoch, Rahul Sharma, Pragya Sharma, Ram Das, Anuj Kumar Gupta, DS Chauhan, VM Katoch
June 2011, 133(6):618-626
Background & objectives: Due to the inability to cultivate Mycobacterium leprae in vitro and most cases being paucibacillary, it has been difficult to apply classical genotyping methods to this organism. The objective of this study was therefore, to analyze the diversity among M. leprae strains from Uttar Pradesh, north India, by targeting ten short tandem repeats (STRs) as molecular markers. Methods: Ninety specimens including 20 biopsies and 70 slit scrappings were collected in TE buffer from leprosy patients, who attended the OPD of National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases, Tajganj, Agra, and from villages of Model Rural Health Research Unit (MRHRU) at Ghatampur, Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh. DNA was extracted from these specimens and ten STRs loci were amplified by using published and in-house designed primers. The copy numbers were determined by electrophoretic mobility as well as sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis was done on variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) data sets using start software. Results: Diversity was observed in the cross-sectional survey of isolates obtained from 90 patients. Allelic index for different loci was found to vary from 0.7 to 0.8 except for rpoT for which allelic index was 0.186. Similarity in fingerprinting profiles observed in specimens from the cases from same house or nearby locations indicated a possible common source of infection. Such analysis was also found to be useful in discriminating the relapse from possible reinfection. Interpretation & conclusions: This study led to identification of STRs eliciting polymorphism in north Indian strains of M. leprae. The data suggest that these STRs can be used to study the sources and transmission chain in leprosy, which could be very important in monitoring of the disease dynamics in high endemic foci.
  1,712 293 -
Anaemia & expression levels of CD35, CD55 & CD59 on red blood cells in Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients from India
RC Mahajan, K Narain, J Mahanta
June 2011, 133(6):662-664
Background & objectives: Severe anaemia in Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) associated malaria is a leading cause of death despite low levels of parasitaemia. In an effort to understand the pathogenesis of anaemia we studied expression level of RBC complement regulatory proteins, CR1 (CD35), CD55 and CD59 with haemoglobin status in a group of malaria cases from Assam, Goa and Chennai, and in healthy controls. Methods: Flowcytometry was used to study expression of CR1, CD55 and CD59 in 50 Pf cases and 30 normal healthy volunteers. Giemsa stained thick and thin blood films were used for microscopic detection and identification of malarial parasites and parasite count. Results: No correlation was found between degree of expression of RBC surface receptors CR1, CD55 and CD59 with haemoglobin level. However, expression of CD55 was less in malaria cases than in healthy controls. Interpretation & conclusions: The present findings indicate that malaria infection changes the expression profile of complement regulatory protein CD55 irrespective of severity status of anaemia. Further studies are needed to explore the pathophysiology of anaemia in malaria cases in Assam where expression of RBC complement receptors appears to be low even in normal healthy population.
  1,631 286 -
Evaluation of effect of isoflavone on thyroid economy & autoimmunity in oophorectomised women: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
Niti Mittal, Debasish Hota, Pinaki Dutta, Anil Bhansali, Vanita Suri, Neelam Aggarwal, RK Marwah, Amitava Chakrabarti
June 2011, 133(6):633-640
Background and objectives:The potential of soy isoflavones to interfere with thyroid function has been reported. However, there are limited data regarding their effect on thyroid function and autoimmunity in surgical menopausal women. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of isoflavones on thyroid function and autoimmunity, menopausal symptoms, serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol levels in oophorectomised women. Methods:A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 43 oophorectomised women to evaluate the effect of soy isoflavones (75 mg/day for 12 wk) on serum thyroid profile (free T 3 , free T 4 , TSH, TBG and anti-TPO antibody titres) assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 wk after randomization. Assessment was also done for menopause symptom score (MSS) three weekly, and FSH and estradiol levels at baseline and at study completion. Results: There was a significant alteration in free T 3 levels in the group receiving isoflavones (4.05 ± 0.36, 4.12 ± 0.69 and 3.76 ± 0.55 pmol/l at baseline, 6 and 12 wk, respectively; P=0.02). However, the mean change in various thyroid parameters at 12 wk from baseline was not significantly different between the two groups. MSS was also significantly decreased at 9 and 12 wk from baseline with isoflavones (12.47 ± 8.15, 9.35 ± 5.23 and 9 ± 5.14 at baseline, 9 and 12 wk respectively; P=0.004) with significant improvement in urogenital symptoms compared to placebo. Isoflavones did not significantly affect other parameters during study period. There were no serious adverse events reported and the proportion of patients experiencing adverse events was similar between the two groups. Interpretation and conclusions:Modest reduction in serum free T 3 levels in the isoflavone group in the absence of any effect on other thyroid parameters might be considered clinically unimportant.
  1,527 363 -
Smoking cessation support in Iran: Availability, sources & predictors
Nafiseh Toghianifar, Nizal Sarrafzadegan, Hamidreza Roohafza, Masoumeh Sadeghi, Babak Eshrati, Gholamhossein Sadri
June 2011, 133(6):627-632
Background & objectives: Smoking cessation advice is known as an important factor in motivating smokers to quit smoking. We investigated the extent, sources and predictors of receiving unsolicited advice and seeking active advice for smoking cessation in Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed as a part of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) on 9093 adult individuals (both men and women) in 2004-2005. Demographic characteristics, smoking status, sources and preferences for smoking cessation support were recorded. Results: In the studied population, 66.8 and 14.4 per cent had received and asked for cessation support, respectively. Smokers had received advice from family (92.2%), friends (48.9%), physician (27.9%) and other health care providers (16.2%). Smokers had asked for cessation help more frequently from family (64.5%) and friends (42.0%). Women (OR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.37-0.94) and singles (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.36-0.71) received less advice. Hookah smokers received (OR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.14-0.38) and asked (OR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.06-0.68) for cessation help less than cigarette smokers. Receiving advice increased the odds of seeking support (OR: 7.98; 95% CI: 4.37-14.57). Interpretation & conclusions: Smokers` family and friends were more frequent sources for smoking cessation support. Tobacco control programmes can count on smokers` family and friends as available sources for smoking cessation support in countries where smoking cessation counselling services are less available. However, the role of physicians and health care workers in the smoking cessation counselling needs to be strengthened.
  1,372 271 -
Seasonal prevalence & resting behaviour of Anopheles minimus Theobald & An. fluviatilis James (Diptera: Culicidae) in east-central India
SS Sahu, K Gunasekaran, P Vanamail, P Jambulingam
June 2011, 133(6):655-661
Background & objectives: Anopheles minimus has recently been reported to have re-appeared in Keonjhar district of Orissa after a period of about 45 years of launching the malaria eradication programme. An. minimus and An. fluviatilis were the incriminated major malaria vectors in the district, endemic for falciparum malaria. The information on seasonal prevalence and resting behaviour of the vectors is crucial for implementing appropriate malaria control measures. Therefore, a study was undertaken on seasonal prevalence and resting behaviour of An. minimus and An. fluviatilis in this district. Methods:Seven randomly selected villages of Keonjhar district, Orissa, were studied during August 2005 to November 2007. Daytime resting collections indoors and outdoors were made covering three seasons of the year. The Anopheles mosquitoes obtained from different habitats were identified. Collections were maintained separately according to different sites as well as heights of the walls in human dwellings. Results: Among the indoor collections, the densities of An. minimus and An. fluviatilis were higher in human dwellings than cattle sheds. An. fluviatilis was the predominant (41.5%) species followed by An. minimus (26.3%) in human dwellings. The density of both the vector species in human dwellings peaked during rainy and winter seasons followed by summer. Walls were the most preferred site by these vectors for resting and the maximum number was collected at a height of 3 to 4 ft. Interpretation & conclusions: The resting behaviour of the vector species increases their contact with the sprayed walls and therefore, a quality residual spraying of human dwellings focusing indoor walls could interrupt the malaria transmission in this area.
  1,288 224 -
Virulence potential of Group A streptococci isolated from throat cultures of children from north India
V Dhanda, H Vohra, R Kumar
June 2011, 133(6):674-680
Background & objectives: Rheumatic fever (RF)/rheumatic heart disease (RHD) caused by Group A streptococcus (GAS) are more prevalent in north India as compared to the western world, where invasive diseases are common. This could be due to variation in the virulence of GAS in different geographic locations. Hence, we studied the virulence potential of GAS isolated from the throat of children from north India. Methods: Fifty GAS isolated consecutively, from children with mild pharyngitis (20), severe pharyngitis (24) and asymptomatic pharyngeal carriers (6), were characterized by emm typing and opacity factor (OF). Adherence and internalization of GAS in HEp-2 cells and opsonophagocytosis in convalescent serum samples were studied. Results:Twenty emm types, six sequence types, and one non-typeable GAS were circulating in the community. emm type 74, 11, 68, StI129 and NS292 were most prevalent. Twenty seven (54%) GAS isolates were OF negative. Sixty five per cent of the most prevalent emm types were OF negative indicating their rheumatogenic potential. Adhesion of GAS ranged from 0.1 to 100 per cent. Forty eight per cent of GAS were highly adherent. Invasion of GAS in HEp-2 cells ranged between 0 to 30 per cent. Only 20 per cent isolates exhibited highest invasion. GAS were opsonophagocytosed with highly divergent efficiency ranging from 0 to 91.7 per cent. Nineteen GAS were not opsonophagocytosed and 15 multiplied during the assay. Isolates of the same emm type also varied in their virulence potential. Interpretation & conclusions: GAS isolates from the throat of children from north India belonged to several emm types, majority were OF negative, excellent adherents but poor invaders. This explains why throat infections in these children tend to lead to ARF/RHD rather than invasive diseases. A few isolates exhibiting high invasion efficiency indicate that GAS throat cultures can also lead to invasive diseases.
  1,181 287 -
Development of a controlled release formulation of an indigenous insect growth regulator, DPE-28, a substituted diphenylether, for controlling the breeding of Culex quinquefasciatus
M Kalyanasundaram, Nisha Mathew, A Elango, V Padmanabhan
June 2011, 133(6):650-654
Background & objectives: DPE-28, a substituted diphenyl ether (2,6-ditertiarybutyl phenyl-2 ' ,4 ' -dinitro phenyl ether) was reported to exhibit promising insect growth regulating activity against Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of lymphatic filariasis. A controlled release formulation (CRF) of DPE-28 has been developed to control Cx. quinquefasciatus in its breeding habitats. Toxicity of DPE-28, safety to non-target mosquito predators and the release profile of the CRF of DPE-28 are studied and discussed. Methods: The acute oral and dermal toxicity was tested in male and female Wistar rats as per the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines 425 and 402 respectively. The toxicity of DPE-28 to non-target predators was tested as per the reported procedure from this laboratory. The CRF of DPE-28 was prepared by following the reported procedure developed at this laboratory earlier. The concentration of DPE-28 released from the CRF was monitored by HPLC by constructing a calibration graph by plotting the peak area in the Y-axis and the concentration of DPE-28 in the X-axis. Results: DPE-28 has been tested for acute oral toxicity and found to be moderately toxic with LD 50 value of 1098 mg/kg body weight (b.w). The results of the acute dermal toxicity and skin irritation studies reveal that DPE-28 is safe and non-irritant. DPE-28 when tested at 0.4 mg/litre against non-target mosquito predators did not produce any mortality. The release profile of the active ingredient DPE-28 from the CRF by HPLC technique showed that the average daily release (ADR) of DPE-28 ranged from 0.07 to 5.0 mg/litre during first four weeks. Thereafter the matrix started eroding and the ADR ranged from 5 to 11 mg/litre during the remaining 5 wk. The cumulative release of active ingredient showed that > 90 per cent of the active ingredient was released from the matrix. Interpretation & conclusions: The controlled release matrix of DPE-28 was thus found to inhibit the adult emergence (>80%) of Cx. quinquefasciatus for a period of nine weeks. The CRF of DPE-28 may play a useful role in field and may be recommended for mosquito control programme after evaluating the same under field conditions.
  1,218 188 -
Pulmonary tuberculosis among health care workers at two designated DOTS Centers in urban city of Ibadan, Nigeria
AO Kehinde, A Baba, RA Bakare, OM Ige, CF Gbadeyanka, OE Adebiyi
June 2011, 133(6):613-617
Background & objectives: Tuberculosis (TB) infection control interventions are not routinely implemented in many Sub-Saharan African countries including Nigeria. This study was carried out to ascertain the magnitude of occupationally-acquired pulmonary TB (PTB) among health care workers (HCWs) at two designated DOTS centers in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods: One year descriptive study (January-December 2008) was carried out at the University College Hospital and Jericho Chest Hospital, both located in Ibadan, Nigeria. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain socio-demographic data and other relevant information from the subjects. Three sputum samples were collected from each subject. This was processed using Zeihl-Neelsen (Z-N) stains. One of the sputum was cultured on modified Ogawa egg medium incubated at 37 o C for six weeks. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed by repeat Z-N staining and biochemical tests. Results: A total of 271 subjects, 117 (43.2%) males and 154 (56.8%) females were studied. Nine (3.3%) had their sputum positive for acid fast bacilli (AFB) while six (2.2%) were positive for culture. The culture contamination rate was 1.8 per cent. Significantly, all the six culture positive samples were from males while none was obtained from their female counterparts. About half of the AFB positive samples were from subjects who have spent five years in their working units. Eight AFB positive cases were from 21-50 yr age group while students accounted for seven AFB positive cases. Interpretation & conclusions: The study shows that occupationally-acquired PTB is real in Ibadan. Further studies are needed to ascertain and address the magnitude of the problem.
  1,136 263 -
Economic growth & health of poor children in India
SV Subramanian, Malavika A Subramanyam
June 2011, 133(6):685-686
  1,169 227 -
Malaria incidence among paramilitary personnel in an endemic area of Tripura
Sunil Dhiman, Reji Gopalakrishnan, Diganta Goswami, Bipul Rabha, Indra Baruah, Lokendra Singh
June 2011, 133(6):665-669
Background & objectives: Paramilitary operations along the Indo-Bangladesh border are adversely affected by malaria induced morbidity and mortality. Villages surrounding the paramilitary installations often serve as disease reservoirs. Malaria incidence in Tripura State Rifles (TSR) units in Dhalai District of Tripura was studied and the role of the village population in disease transmission was also assessed. Methods: Mass blood surveys were carried out among TSR personnel and villagers during 2007 to 2009. Malaria diagnosis through blood smear examination and rapid detection kits was done, and percentage parasitaemia was determined. Activity of malaria vectors was monitored using CDC light traps. Results: Slide positivity rates (SPR) in the neighbouring villages (51.4%) was significantly higher than that in TSR (27.7%) (P<0.0001). Malaria incidence in villages did not show seasonal variability while it was lowest during post-monsoon season in TSR (P<0.325; OR = 0.74). Per cent Pf parasitaemia was high in TSR (0.29) as compared to villagers (0.20) (P<0.0001). Anopheles minimus and An. dirus were the major malaria vectors observed. Interpretation & conclusions: Paramilitary and public health authorities should adopt targeted measures to reduce the malaria incidence in the villages surrounding the paramilitary installations as the village populations play a major role in disease transmission.
  1,183 208 -
Obesity and metabolism
Subhankar Chowdhury
June 2011, 133(6):687-687
  1,176 200 -
Entomological study of chikungunya infections in the State of Kelantan, Malaysia
H Rozilawati, AY Faudzi, AA Siti Rahidah, AH Nor Azlina, AG Abdullah, NM Amal, H Wan Mansor, H Hani, Y Apandi, Faezah Noor, Norziyana , WA Nazni, J Zairi, HL Lee
June 2011, 133(6):670-673
Background & objectives: Chikungunya infection has become a public health threat in Malaysia since the 2008 nationwide outbreaks. Aedes albopictus Skuse has been identified as the chikungunya vector in Johor State during the outbreaks. In 2009, several outbreaks had been reported in the State of Kelantan. Entomological studies were conducted in Kelantan in four districts, namely Jeli, Tumpat, Pasir Mas and Tanah Merah to identify the vector responsible for the virus transmission. Methods: CHIKV cases records were obtained from State Health Department, Kelantan and localities involved were identified. Larva survey was conducted to collect the immature mosquito stages. Modified aspirators were used to collect the adult mosquitoes. All samples on dry ice were transferred to laboratory and the presence of the virus was detected using reverse transcriptase PCR. Results: A total of 1,245 mosquito larvae were collected during larval survey and 2,019 adult mosquitoes were collected using aspirator. From these collections, 640 mosquito pools were tested for the presence of CHIKV by RT-PCR but none found positive. Ae. albopictus was the most abundant mosquito collected, followed by Culex sp., Armigeres sp. and Anopheles sp. A total of 2, 814 artificial containers were inspected during the study. Interpretation & conclusions: Since none of the mosquito samples was found to be positive for chikungunya virus, the vector(s) of chikungunya virus in these localities could not be identified.
  1,004 309 -
IBD and IBS: Novel mechanisms and future practice
UC Ghoshal
June 2011, 133(6):688-688
  1,073 154 -
New drugs and targets for asthma and COPD
SK Jindal
June 2011, 133(6):688-689
  700 178 -
Pediatric neuroendocrinology
Anil Bhansali
June 2011, 133(6):687-688
  716 143 -