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   2009| November  | Volume 130 | Issue 5  
    Online since April 20, 2011

 
 
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SPECIAL SECTION-MATERNAL & CHILD NUTRITION-REVIEW ARTICLES
Prevalence & consequences of anaemia in pregnancy
K Kalaivani
November 2009, 130(5):627-633
PMID:20090119
Prevalence of anaemia in India is among the highest in the world. Prevalence of anaemia is higher among pregnant women and preschool children. Even among higher income educated segments of population about 50 per cent of children, adolescent girls and pregnant women are anaemic. Inadequate dietary iron, folate intake due to low vegetable consumption, perhaps low B12 intake and poor bioavailability of dietary iron from the fibre, phytate rich Indian diets are the major factors responsible for high prevalence of anaemia. Increased requirement of iron during growth and pregnancy and chronic blood loss contribute to higher prevalence in specific groups. In India, anaemia is directly or indirectly responsible for 40 per cent of maternal deaths. There is 8 to 10-fold increase in MMR when the Hb falls below 5 g/dl. Early detection and effective management of anaemia in pregnancy can contribute substantially to reduction in maternal mortality. Maternal anaemia is associated with poor intrauterine growth and increased risk of preterm births and low birth weight rates. This in turn results in higher perinatal morbidity and mortality, and higher infant mortality rate. A doubling of low birth weight rate and 2 to 3 fold increase in the perinatal mortality rates is seen when the Hb is <8 g/dl. Intrauterine growth retardation and low birth weight inevitably lead to poor growth trajectory in infancy, childhood and adolescence and contribute to low adult height. Parental height and maternal weight are determinants of intrauterine growth and birth weight. Thus maternal anaemia contributes to intergenerational cycle of poor growth in the offspring. Early detection and effective management of anaemia in pregnancy can lead to substantial reduction in undernutrition in childhood, adolescence and improvement in adult height.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  279 351 -
SPECIAL SECTION- MATERNAL & CHILD NUTRITION-EDITORIALS
Adolescent girls' Anaemia Control Programme, Gujarat, India
PV Kotecha, S Nirupam, PD Karkar
November 2009, 130(5):584-589
PMID:20090111
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  260 315 -
SPECIAL SECTION-MATERNAL & CHILD NUTRITION-REVIEW ARTICLES
Iron content, bioavailability & factors affecting iron status of Indians
K Madhavan Nair, V Iyengar
November 2009, 130(5):634-645
PMID:20090120
Repeated surveys have shown that the magnitude of nutritional anaemia is of public health concern in India. Though reduced intake of iron is a major aetiological factor, low intake or an imbalance in the consumption of other haematopoietic nutrients, their utilization; increased nutrient loss and/or demand also contribute to nutritional anaemia. In India, cereals and millets form the bulk of the dietaries and are major sources of non-haeme iron. According to the current estimates, the intake of iron is less than 50 per cent of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) and iron density is about 8.5 mg/1000 Kcal. It is now well established that iron bioavailability from habitual Indian diets is low due to high phytate and low ascorbic acid/iron ratios. These factors determine iron bioavailability and the RDA. There are striking differences in the iron RDAs among the physiological groups, which need to be validated. The other dietary factors affecting iron status are inadequate intake of folic acid and vitamins B(12), A, C and other vitamins of the B-complex group. Chronic low grade inflammation and infections, and malaria also contribute significantly to iron malnutrition. Recent evidence of the interaction of hepcidin (iron hormone) and inflammatory stimuli on iron metabolism has opened new avenues to target iron deficiency anaemia. Food-based approaches to increase the intake of iron and other haematopoietic nutrients through dietary diversification and provision of hygienic environment are important sustainable strategies for correction of iron deficiency anaemia.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  234 188 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Ganjam virus
AB Sudeep, RS Jadi, AC Mishra
November 2009, 130(5):514-519
PMID:20090098
Ganjam virus (GANV), a member of genus Nairovirus of family Bunyavirdae is of considerable veterinary importance in India. Though, predominantly tick borne, GANV was also isolated from mosquitoes, man and sheep. Neutralizing and complement fixing antibodies to GANV have been detected in animal and human sera collected from different parts of the country. Thirty three strains of GANV have been isolated from India, mainly from Haemaphysalis ticks. The virus replicated in certain vertebrate and mosquito cell lines and found pathogenic to laboratory animals. One natural infection and five laboratory-acquired infections in men were also reported. GANV is antigenically related to Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) of Africa, which is highly pathogenic for sheep and goats causing 70-90 per cent mortality among the susceptible population. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated that GANV is an Asian variant of NSDV and both these viruses are related to the dreaded Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) group viruses. The versatility of the virus to replicate in different arthropod species, its ability to infect sheep, goat and man makes it an important zoonotic agent.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  203 197 -
SPECIAL SECTION- MATERNAL & CHILD NUTRITION-EDITORIALS
Undernutrition & risk of infections in preschool children
P Ramachandran, Hema S Gopalan
November 2009, 130(5):579-583
PMID:20090110
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  175 213 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Cytogenetic evaluation of traffic policemen occupationally exposed to vehicular exhaust
V Sree Devi, V Durga Rao, VV Hara Gopal, B Siva Prasad, G Sandhya Devi, A Jyothy, PP Reddy, M Hema Prasad
November 2009, 130(5):520-525
PMID:20090099
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  226 109 -
SPECIAL SECTION-MATERNAL & CHILD NUTRITION-REVIEW ARTICLES
Perinatal energy metabolism with reference to IUGR & SGA : studies in pregnant women & newborn infants
B Diderholm
November 2009, 130(5):612-617
PMID:20090116
Glucose is the most important fetal energy substrate. During the third trimester increased maternal glucose production and insulin resistance improves fetal glucose availability. Maternal malnutrition, chronic disease and/or placental dysfunction can disturb glucose delivery, resulting in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and an infant born small for gestational age (SGA). Hypoglycaemia is a problem frequently occurring in infants born SGA; they are also at long-term risk of developing insulin resistance. In the studies presented, energy substrate production was investigated using stable isotope dilution technique, in normal pregnancies and pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). In addition energy substrate production in infants born SGA was studied on their first day of life. We found that late pregnancy was associated with an almost twofold increase in rate of lipolysis. This provides substrates for maternal energy metabolism, sparing glucose for the fetus. Even though glucose production was comparable in the two groups of pregnant women, those with IUGR had a lower rate of lipolysis. A reduced supply of energy substrates could be one factor underlying IUGR. In spite of the insulin resistance of late gestation, insulin still had a regulatory role in energy substrate production in the women with normal pregnancies, but not in those with IUGR. Although infants born SGA have limited energy stores, we demonstrated that they are capable of both lipolysis and glucose production. Data on insulin and IGFBP-1 in the SGA infants indicate that insulin sensitivity is increased peripherally but reduced in the liver.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  171 159 -
Growth & development of Indian children adopted in Sweden
Lemm A Proos
November 2009, 130(5):646-650
PMID:20099404
More than 6800 children from India have been adopted in Sweden over the last four decades. At arrival many were undernourished and suffered from infectious diseases. Catch-up growth was common. Unexpectedly, cases of early pubertal development were subsequently reported. In order to investigate the growth and development of adopted children more in detail we studied 114 children adopted from India prospectively during two years. The majority were stunted at arrival and caught up in height and weight after two years. Psychomotor retardation and common infections diminished fairly soon. Those that were stunted did not attain the higher catch-up levels of those not stunted at arrival. Low birthweight also limited the degree of catch-up growth. 107 girls were analysed retrospectively in another study. The median menarcheal age was 11.6 yr (range 7.3-14.6 yr) which is significantly earlier than the mean in Swedish and privileged Indian girls (13.0 and 12.4-12.9 yr, respectively). The pubertal linear growth component was normal in duration and magnitude but likewise started 1.5 yr earlier. The final height/age was 154 cm (-1.4 SDS) and the weight/age 46.9 kg (-1.1 SDS) 8 per cent were 145 cm or shorter. Stunting limited catch-up growth and final height. Those that were most stunted at arrival, and had the fastest catch-up growth, had the earliest menarche. Good maternal and child nutrition is necessary for full expression of a child's growth potential. What is lost in growth early in life can only partially be recovered by catch-up growth. Such growth is associated with risk for early pubertal development which abbreviates the childhood growth period and limits final height. The mechanism underlying the early pubertal development, and the optimal management of nutrition rehabilitation after chronic malnutrition, need to be clarified by further studies.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  196 123 -
Maternal nutrition : effects on health in the next generation
C Fall
November 2009, 130(5):593-599
PMID:20090113
Nearly 20 years ago, it was discovered that low birthweight was associated with an increased risk of adult diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This led to the hypothesis that exposure to undernutrition in early life increases an individual's vulnerability to these disorders, by 'programming' permanent metabolic changes. Implicit in the programming hypothesis is that improving the nutrition of girls and women could prevent common chronic diseases in future generations. Research in India has shown that low birthweight children have increased CVD risk factors, and a unique birth cohort in Delhi has shown that low infant weight, and rapid childhood weight gain, increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. Progress has been made in understanding the role of specific nutrients in the maternal diet. In the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study, low maternal vitamin B12 status predicted increased adiposity and insulin resistance in the children, especially if the mother was folate replete. It is not only maternal undernutrition that causes problems; gestational diabetes, a form of foetal overnutrition (glucose excess), is associated with increased adiposity and insulin resistance in the children, highlighting the adverse effects of the 'double burden' of malnutrition in developing countries, where undernutrition and overnutrition co-exist. Recent intervention studies in several developing countries have shown that CVD risk factors in the offspring can be improved by supplementing undernourished mothers during pregnancy. Results differ according to the population, the intervention and the post-natal environment. Ongoing studies in India and elsewhere seek to understand the long-term effects of nutrition in early life, and how best to translate this knowledge into policies to improve health in future generations.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  193 120 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Newcastle disease virus as an oncolytic agent
PV Ravindra, Ashok K Tiwari, B Sharma, RS Chauhan
November 2009, 130(5):507-513
PMID:20090097
Cancer is a major cause of deaths in humans. Though there has been significant progress in cancer therapy, the limited efficacy and toxicities of current chemo- and radiotherapies have provided an impetus for the search of new therapeutics. A therapeutic approach, which uses viruses for the treatment of cancer termed, oncolytic virotherapy has recently emerged. Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is one such virus with an inherent oncolytic property. NDV causes a highly infectious disease in poultry worldwide. In humans it is reported to have oncolytic and immuno-stimulatory effects. It specifically replicates in tumour cells while sparing normal cells and cause oncolysis. For many years different strains of the NDV have been investigated for treatment of various human cancers. Recent advances in reverse genetics provided investigators the tools to produce recombinant NDV with improved oncolytic property.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  218 91 -
SPECIAL SECTION-MATERNAL & CHILD NUTRITION-REVIEW ARTICLES
Oedematous malnutrition
T Ahmed, S Rahman, A Cravioto
November 2009, 130(5):651-654
PMID:20090122
Oedematous malnutrition, represented by its most severe form kwashiorkor, is rampant in many parts of the world and is associated with a high case fatality rate. Despite being first described more than a century ago, the pathogenesis of kwashiorkor is still not clear. The traditional thinking is that it results from a deficiency of dietary protein and is usually associated with an infection. This has now been challenged by the finding that there is no difference in diets of children developing marasmus or kwashiorkor. Nutritional oedema is associated with an increased secretion of anti-diuretic substance (probably antidiuretic hormone) which prevents the normal excretory response to water administration. Experimental studies have shown that feeding low-protein, low-calorie diets results in delayed and incomplete response to a water load, and that the livers of the animals show a reduced capacity for inactivating anti-diuretic hormone. There is now evidence that links generation of free radicals and depletion of anti-oxidants with the development of oedema in kwashiorkor.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  199 110 -
Impact of infant & young child feeding & caring practices on nutritional status & health
S Ramji
November 2009, 130(5):624-6
PMID:20090118
The exclusive breast feeding rates in India at 6 months is about 46 per cent. At 6-8 months only 54 per cent of breast fed and 75 per cent of non breast fed infants are initiated into complimentary feeds. At the start of the second year of life only about 42 per cent of infants receive the recommended appropriate foods at appropriate frequency. There is evidence to suggest that the persistent undernutrition in the country is associated with these inadequate feeding practices prevalent in the country. Experiences from several studies suggest that household level behavioural changes could be achieved by using appropriate behaviour change communication principles, change agents specially trained to address some of these issues, consistent messages, multiple channels to saturate population coverage and engaging communities in a participatory manner and encouraging their ownership of such interventions.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  167 115 -
Modulation of macronutrient metabolism in the offspring by maternal micronutrient deficiency in experimental animals
M Raghunath, L Venu, I Padmavathi, YD Kishore, M Ganeshan, K Anand Kumar, PB Sainath, KR Rao
November 2009, 130(5):655-665
PMID:20090123
Epidemiological evidence indicates that poor early growth is associated with increased susceptibility to visceral obesity, insulin resistance and associated diseases in adulthood. Studies in experimental animals have demonstrated a robust association between nutrient imbalance during foetal life and disease prevalence in their later life specially of those involving macronutrient metabolism. There is very little data on the role of maternal micronutrient deficiencies widely prevalent in India. This review focuses on different animal models of micronutrient restriction, mimicking human situations during pregnancy and lactation that cause aberrations in macronutrient metabolism in the offspring. These aberrations consist of altered body composition, dyslipidaemia and altered insulin sensitivity associated with modulated insulin production. These phenotypic changes were associated with altered lipid profile, fatty acid synthesis / transport, oxidative stress, glucose tolerance / tissue uptake. Further, these were also associated with altered myogenesis and insulin expression and secretion from pancreatic beta-islets. While these changes during in utero or early postnatal life serve as essential adaptations to overcome adverse conditions, these become maladaptive subsequently and set the stage for obesity and type 2 diabetes.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  186 80 -
Neonatal energy substrate production
J Gustafsson
November 2009, 130(5):618-623
PMID:20090117
Glucose is the most important foetal energy substrate. At birth the transplacental transfer of substrates is terminated. Before the start of breastfeeding the newborn infant must produce its own glucose particularly for the need of the central nervous system. Neonatal hypoglycaemia commonly occurs in risk groups such as immature and low birth weight infants, infants of mothers with diabetes and infants born large for gestational age. Our data show that extremely immature infants can also produce their own glucose during the first day of postnatal life. Although their stores of depot fat are limited, they also have a capacity for lipolysis. Infants of diabetic mothers have unimpaired lipolysis in spite of hyperinsulinaemia. This may represent a mechanism to compensate for the reduced rate of glucose production in these infants. The number of infants born large for gestational age is increasing in several countries partly consequent to increases in maternal weight. We have shown that foetal weight depends on maternal glucose production, which in turn is related to parameters associated with maternal fat mass. Like infants born small for gestational age, those born large for gestational age are at risk for metabolic disease later in life. Owing to a high fat mass these infants have a high rate of lipolysis, which can be one reason underlying the reduced insulin sensitivity seen already during the first day of life.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  171 90 -
EDITORIALS
Eradication of vaccine polioviruses : why, when & how?
T Jacob John, Vipin M Vashishtha
November 2009, 130(5):491-494
PMID:20090092
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  78 175 -
SPECIAL SECTION- MATERNAL & CHILD NUTRITION-EDITORIALS
Maternal & child nutrition : new dimensions of the dual nutrition burden
P Ramachandran
November 2009, 130(5):575-578
PMID:20090109
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  126 121 -
A comparative study of south Indian children with Tamil children born in France
C Malenfant
November 2009, 130(5):590-592
PMID:20090112
A comparative database with Tamil children [( 0 to 6 yr old, south Indian (n=13) and Sri Lanka (n=69)] born in France (Paris and its suburbs, first generation) and those living in south India [(Tamil Nadu (n=43) and Kerala (n=66)] was created with the ultimate purpose of preventing deficiencies in children's health. Two main methods were used for collection of socio-demographic data as parents and body mass index of children. In France, Tamil boys (n=42) and girls (n=40) had almost the same percentage for obesity (about 5%), adiposity rebound was more for girls (7%) than for boys (2%). But thinness (between the 3(rd) and 10(th) percentile) was more in boys (22%) and girls (24%). In India (boys n=48, girls n=61), obesity was more in girls than those born in France; as also adiposity rebound, and underweight was noticed in a third of both girls and boys. In France, cultural impact of immigration is very important and can explain the stress of immigrant families. This may account for the thinness of the children.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  159 77 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Maternal nutrition & low birth weight - what is really important?
S Muthayya
November 2009, 130(5):600-608
PMID:20090114
The prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) is higher in Asia than elsewhere, predominantly because of undernutrition of the mother prior to and during pregnancy. There are qualitative differences in dietary requirements during early and late pregnancy - micronutrients and proteins required in early pregnancy, and calories and other nutrients later. A paradigm shift from efforts to improve size at birth, to efforts to improve foetal growth and development might provide fresh insight into the problem. Micronutrient deficiencies during pregnancy have been shown to have serious implications on the developing foetus. Nearly half the pregnant women still suffer from varying degree of anaemia, with the highest prevalence in India, which also has the highest number of maternal deaths in the Asian region. Of specific concern is compliance with iron supplementation, cultural beliefs regarding diet in pregnancy, and the issue of nutrition supplementation and fortification. The coexistence of risk of LBW or intra uterine growth retardation (IUGR) associated with essential fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and vitamin B12 intake or status observed in the Indian sub-continent also requires further examination. There is a significant protective effect of higher maternal education (beyond high school). Optimal weight gain during pregnancy and a desirable foetal outcome may be a result of synergistic effects of improved food intake, food supplementation, improved micronutrient intake, education and the environment of the pregnant woman and her family.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available     [PubMed]
  234 0 -
Comparison of a novel bilayered medium with the conventional media for cultivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
S Bhattacharya, R Roy, Neelika Roy Chowdhury, A Dasgupta, Sujata G Dastidar
November 2009, 130(5):561-566
PMID:20090105
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  118 111 -
SPECIAL SECTION-MATERNAL & CHILD NUTRITION-REVIEW ARTICLES
Maternal & child nutrition : the Sri Lankan perspective
Angela de Silva, AM Mahamithawa, C Piyasena
November 2009, 130(5):609-611
PMID:20090115
Most improvements gained during the past two decades in maternal and child nutrition can be attributed to the successful, countrywide maternal and child health programme of the Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka. Other supporting programmes to combat deficiencies of individual micronutrients have also contributed significantly. As the latest Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data have shown regional disparities in nutrition status, it indicates that more effort is needed to improve nutrition status of marginalized populations. A National Nutrition Policy and strategic plan of Sri Lanka is being formulated and new evidence based nutrition strategies are being promoted or planned in keeping with national policies on nutrition. More emphasis is being placed on inter-sectoral co-operation, essential for poverty alleviation and food security which would improve nutrition status of marginalized groups. A newly established nutrition surveillance system is an example where inter-sectoral co-operation has been successful. Feedback data from surveillance will be used to monitor and evaluate the progress of nutrition interventions. With the greater emphasis on poverty alleviation and food production, sensitization of non health sectors and better strategic interventions for nutritionally vulnerable populations, Sri Lanka is hopeful of achieving further improvements in nutritional status of its population.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available     [PubMed]
  217 0 -
BOOK REVIEW
Guidelines for the programmatic management of drug-resistant tuberculosis - Emergency update 2008
SK Sharma
November 2009, 130(5):666-667
Full text not available  [PDF]
  121 92 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Low apoptotic index & bak expression in EBV-associated childhood classical Hodgkin lymphoma
V Dinand, A Malik, B Mohanty, B Chander, Laxman S Arya, R Dawar
November 2009, 130(5):526-532
PMID:20090100
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  113 98 -
CORRESPONDENCES
Procedures & operations of Institutional Ethics Committees in public sector hospitals in Delhi, India
S Singh
November 2009, 130(5):568-569
PMID:20090107
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  93 116 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Association of HLA alleles with hepatitis C infection in Maharashtra, western India
Anuradha S Tripathy, U Shankarkumar, Mandeep S Chadha, K Ghosh, Vidya A Arankalle
November 2009, 130(5):550-555
PMID:20090103
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  98 110 -
CORRESPONDENCES
Dangerous liaisons - diabetes, tuberculosis & tobacco
Cecily S Ray, Prakash C Gupta
November 2009, 130(5):567-567
PMID:20090106
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  95 102 -
COMMENTARIES
Genetic effects of air pollutants : insights from human biomonitoring studies
R Crebelli, S Caiola
November 2009, 130(5):501-503
PMID:20090095
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  99 91 -
EDITORIALS
Preventing type 2 diabetes : making the evidence work for migrant Indian populations.
T Yates, K Khunti, M Davies
November 2009, 130(5):495-497
PMID:20090093
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  86 99 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Antibody detection against HPV16 E7 & GP96 fragments as biomarkers in cervical cancer patients
A Bolhassani, F Zahedifard, Y Taslimi, M Taghikhani, B Nahavandian, S Rafati
November 2009, 130(5):533-541
PMID:20090101
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  99 84 -
CORRESPONDENCES
Health outcomes in Indians in comparison with other countries : India specific summary findings based on World Health Statistics (2008)
P Jeemon, M Stephen
November 2009, 130(5):570-572
PMID:20090108
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  88 93 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Efficacy of pirimiphos-methyl (50% EC), as a larvicide for the control of Culex quinquefasciatus
G Rajendran, CM Reddy, M Kalyanasundaram, P Jambulingam
November 2009, 130(5):556-560
PMID:20090104
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  83 95 -
COMMENTARIES
Apoptosis in EBV-associated childhood classical Hodgkin lymphoma
MarĂ­a Victoria Preciado, P Chabay
November 2009, 130(5):504-505
PMID:20090096
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  93 80 -
EDITORIALS
Spatial technology & malaria control
K Mendis
November 2009, 130(5):498-500
PMID:20090094
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  83 83 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Modulation of radiation-induced cytotoxicity in U 87 cells by RH-3 (a preparation of Hippophae rhamnoides)
PK Agrawala, JS Adhikari
November 2009, 130(5):542-549
PMID:20090102
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  81 81 -
SOME FORTHCOMING SCIENTIFIC EVENTS
Some forthcoming scientific events

November 2009, 130(5):668-668
Full text not available  [PDF]
  79 78 -
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