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   2007| November  | Volume 126 | Issue 5  
    Online since May 20, 2011

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An update on newer β-lactamases
V Gupta
November 2007, 126(5):417-427
The resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics is an increasing problem worldwide and beta lactamases production is the most common mechanism of drug resistance. Both global and Indian figures showed a marked increase in the number of beta-lactamases producing organisms. These enzymes extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are numerous and continuous mutation has led to the development of enzymes having expanded substrate profile. To date, there are more than 130 TEM type and more than 50 sulphydryl variable (SHV) type beta-lactamases found in Gram negative bacilli. ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae are, as a rule, resistant to all cephalosporins and extended spectrum penicillins including the monobactam, aztreonam, while resistance to trimethoprim - sulphamethaxazole and aminoglycosides is frequently co-transferred on the same plasmid. Many ESBL producing organisms also express Amp C beta-lactamases. Amp C- beta-lactamases are clinically significant, as these confer resistance to cephalosporins in the oxyimino group, 7 alpha-methoxy cephalosporins, and are poorly inhibited by clavulanic acid. Carbepenems are the drugs of choice for the treatment of infections caused by ESBL producing organisms but carbapenemases (MBLs) have emerged and have spread from Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Enterobacteriaceae. The routine clinical microbiology laboratories should employ simple methods to recognize these enzymes using various substrates and inhibitors. These organisms may lead to therapeutic dead ends. Presently, the therapy relies on beta-lactam/ beta-lactamases inhibitor combinations, carbepenems and piperacillin - tazobactam plus aminoglycoside combination. Proper infection control practices and barrier precautions are essential to contain the organisms producing beta-lactamases.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  237 324 -
Prevalence of goitre in 6 -12 years school-going children of Panchmahal district in Gujarat, India
S Misra, SL Kantharia, JR Damor
November 2007, 126(5):475-479
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  73 264 -
SCA 1, SCA 2 & SCA 3/MJD mutations in ataxia syndromes in southern India
N Krishna, S Mohan, BS Yashavantha, A Rammurthy, HB Kiran Kumar, U Mittal, S Tyagi, M Mukerji, S Jain, Pramod Kumar Pal, M Purushottam
November 2007, 126(5):465-470
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  113 214 -
Detection of ESBLs using third & fourth generation cephalosporins in double disc synergy test
V Gupta, N Singla, J Chander
November 2007, 126(5):486-487
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  90 201 -
Chronic kidney disease in India
C Shyam, V Sreenivas, KV Dakshinamurty
November 2007, 126(5):485-485
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  189 92 -
Effect of vitamin C on blood glucose, serum lipids & serum insulin in type 2 diabetes patients
M Afkhami-Ardekani, A Shojaoddiny-Ardekani
November 2007, 126(5):471-474
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  100 169 -
Effect of NR-ANX-C (a polyherbal formulation) on haloperidol induced catalepsy in albino mice
V Nair, A Arjuman, P Dorababu, HN Gopalakrishna, U Chakradhar Rao, L Mohan
November 2007, 126(5):480-484
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  124 117 -
Cognitive functions in stable schizophrenia & euthymic state of bipolar disorder
JK Trivedi, D Goel, S Sharma, AP Singh, PK Sinha, R Tandon
November 2007, 126(5):433-439
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  123 99 -
Cognitive functioning in schizophrenia : its relevance to rehabilitation
R Thara, Anuradha
November 2007, 126(5):414-416
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  121 99 -
Sputum conversion at the end of intensive phase of Category-1 regimen in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis patients with diabetes mellitus or HIV infection : An analysis of risk factors
VV Banu Rekha, R Balasubramanian, S Swaminathan, R Ramachandran, F Rahman, V Sundaram, K Thyagarajan, N Selvakumar, AR Adhilakshmi, S Iliayas, PR Narayanan
November 2007, 126(5):452-458
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  105 107 -
Production & purification of a fibrinolytic enzyme (thrombinase) from Bacillus sphaericus
K Balaraman, G Prabakaran
November 2007, 126(5):459-464
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  126 82 -
A new strategy for elimination of kala-azar from rural Bihar
CP Thakur
November 2007, 126(5):447-451
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  78 124 -
Impact of external haematology proficiency testing programme on quality of laboratories
R Saxena, SC Katoch, U Srinivas, S Rao, H Anand
November 2007, 126(5):428-432
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  101 86 -
Air quality guidelines: Global update 2005, Particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen, dioxide and sulfur dioxide
SK Jindal
November 2007, 126(5):492-493
Full text not available  [PDF]
  97 78 -
External proficiency testing programme & quality of haematology tests in India
N Varma
November 2007, 126(5):412-413
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  87 88 -
Agar gel disk as an alternative to paper disk diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test.
VJ Katkar, SD Kapale
November 2007, 126(5):488-489
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  75 92 -
Effect of pretreatment with chromium picolinate on haematological parameters during dengue virus infection in mice
R Shrivastava, R Nagar, GA Ravishankar, RK Upreti, UC Chaturvedi
November 2007, 126(5):440-446
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  86 78 -
Principles of pharmacology
BN Dhawan
November 2007, 126(5):491-492
Full text not available  [PDF]
  81 80 -
A health perspective of indoor air pollution
SK Jindal
November 2007, 126(5):409-411
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  68 83 -
Building foundations for eHealth, Progress of Member States, Report of the WHO Global Observatory for eHealth
K Ganapathy
November 2007, 126(5):490-491
Full text not available  [PDF]
  71 71 -
Some forthcoming scientific events

November 2007, 126(5):494-495
Full text not available  [PDF]
  56 67 -

November 2007, 126(5):495-495
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  57 63 -