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   2006| July  | Volume 124 | Issue 1  
    Online since May 20, 2011

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Smoking, educational status and health inequity in India
R Gupta
July 2006, 124(1):15-22
Health related behaviours, especially smoking and tobacco use, are major determinants of health and lead to health inequities. Smoking leads to acute respiratory diseases, tuberculosis and asthma in younger age groups and non communicable diseases such as chronic lung disease, cardiovascular diseases and cancer in middle and older age. We observed an inverse association of educational status with tobacco use (smoking and other forms) in western Indian State of Rajasthan. In successive cross-sectional epidemiological studies- the Jaipur Heart Watch (JHW)- in rural (JHWR; n=3148, men=1982), and urban subjects: JHW-1 (n=2212, men=1415), JHW-2 (n=1124, men=550) and JHW-3 (n=458, men=226), we evaluated various cardiovascular risk factors. The greatest tobacco consumption was observed among the illiterate and low educational status subjects (nil, 1-5, 6-10, >10 yr of formal education) as compared to more literate in men (JHW-R 60, 51, 46 and 36% respectively; JHW-1 44, 52, 30 and 18% JHW-2 54, 43, 29 and 24%; and JHW-3 50, 27, 25 and 25%) as well as women (Mantel Haenzel test, P for trend <0.05). In the illiterate subjects the odds ratios (OR) and 95 per cent confidence intervals (CI) for smoking or tobacco use as compared to the highest educational groups in rural (men OR 2.68, CI 2.02, 3.57; women OR 3.13, CI 1.22, 8.08) as well as larger urban studies- JHW-1 (men OR 2.47, CI 1.70, 3.60; women OR 13.78, CI 3.35, 56.75) and JHW-2 (men OR 3.81; CI 1.90, 7.66; women OR 13.73, CI 1.84, 102.45) were significantly greater (P<0.01). Smoking significantly correlated with prevalence of coronary heart disease and hypertension. Other recent Indian studies and national surveys report similar associations. Health ethicists argue that good education and health lead to true development in an underprivileged society. We propose that improving educational status, a major social determinant of health, can lead to appropriate health related behaviours and prevent the epidemics of non communicable diseases in developing countries.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  288 247 -
Emerging resistance to carbapenems in a tertiary care hospital in north India
E Gupta, S Mohanty, S Sood, B Dhawan, Bimal K Das, A Kapil
July 2006, 124(1):95-98
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  125 335 -
Predictive efficacy of nalidixic acid resistance as a marker of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica var Typhi
P Ray, J Sharma, Rungmei S Marak, RK Garg
July 2006, 124(1):105-108
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  115 302 -
Protein antigen b (Pab) based PCR test in diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis
SS Negi, R Anand, SF Basir, ST Pasha, S Gupta, S Khare, S Lal
July 2006, 124(1):81-88
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  93 264 -
Macrophage and dengue virus : friend or foe?
UC Chaturvedi, R Nagar, R Shrivastava
July 2006, 124(1):23-40
The cells of monocyte-macrophage (Mphi) lineage play important roles both in innate and adaptive immune responses. They are the first line of defence in body and their job is to phagocytose a foreign invader, the pathogen, digest it and remove it. Mphi help body in mounting the antigenspecific immune response by presenting the digested pathogen antigen in conjunction with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules to recruit B and T lymphocytes response. Usually Mphi succeed in their job of eliminating most pathogens from the body but sometimes the pathogen strikes a "friendship" with them and starts using them for its benefit. A number of pathogens, including dengue virus (DV), subvert Mphi and use them for their replication, increasing the severity of damage to the body. This duality may be related to the fact that Mphi serve as efficient host cell for DV replication, in addition to being responsible for innate immunity and for initiating adaptive immune responses. This review gives a brief overview of the various roles of Mphi (enmity and friendship) during dengue virus infection.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  222 110 -
Multiple constitutional aetiological factors in bone marrow failure syndrome (BMFS) patients from north India
N Varma, S Varma, Ram Kumar Marwaha, P Malhotra, D Bansal, K Malik, S Kaur, G Garewal
July 2006, 124(1):51-56
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  99 223 -
Skewed sex ratio and low aneuploidy in recurrent early missed abortion
A Halder, A Fauzdar
July 2006, 124(1):41-50
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  137 114 -
Molecular cytogenetics of recurrent missed abortions
I Lebedev
July 2006, 124(1):9-10
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  90 143 -
Antibiogram, phage typing and biotyping of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A from Rourkela, Orissa
U Das, SS Bhattacharya
July 2006, 124(1):109-111
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  108 117 -
Fuel for life: Household energy and health

July 2006, 124(1):118-118
Full text not available  [PDF]
  102 121 -
Comparison of straight sternotomy and interlocking sternotomy in open heart surgery
K Madan, Vishwa Prakash Gupta, R Singh, S Talwar, Shiv Kumar Choudhary, B Airan, A Sampath Kumar
July 2006, 124(1):57-62
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  109 111 -
Establish herd effect to interrupt wild poliovirus transmission
T Jacob John
July 2006, 124(1):1-4
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  87 131 -
Field performance of imidacloprid gel bait against German cockroaches (Dictyoptera : Blatellidae)
VK Agrawal, R Tilak
July 2006, 124(1):89-94
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  104 113 -
Serotype distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from ophthalmic and systemic infections and of commensal origin
Upendra K Kar, G Satpathy, N Nayak, BK Das, SK Panda
July 2006, 124(1):99-104
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  89 115 -
Impact of BCG vaccination on tuberculin surveys to estimate the annual risk of tuberculosis infection in south India
PG Gopi, R Subramani, T Nataraj, PR Narayanan
July 2006, 124(1):71-76
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  96 104 -
Gross anatomy of the retrohepatic segment of the inferior vena cava in northwest Indians
D Sahni, Harjeet , YK Chawla, Indar Jit
July 2006, 124(1):63-70
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  89 102 -
Chromosomal instability in bone marrow failure syndromes
V Babu Rao, Roshan B Colah
July 2006, 124(1):11-12
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  93 97 -
Coffee and health
Ranjit Roy Chaudhury
July 2006, 124(1):113-114
Full text not available  [PDF]
  82 105 -
Prevalence of primary drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mashhad, Iran
Mohammad H Namaei, A Sadeghian, M Naderinasab, M Ziaee
July 2006, 124(1):77-80
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  87 97 -
Vaccine preservatives : what is the big deal?
C John Clements
July 2006, 124(1):5-8
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  78 105 -
AIDS epidemic update: December 2005
Sanjay Mehendale
July 2006, 124(1):112-113
Full text not available  [PDF]
  71 93 -
Some forthcoming scientific events

July 2006, 124(1):115-116
Full text not available  [PDF]
  65 80 -

July 2006, 124(1):117-117
Full text not available  [PDF]
  65 76 -
A new approach for sternotomy incision--a possibility for improved sternal wound healing
J Sjögren
July 2006, 124(1):13-14
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  44 56 -
Framework for alcohol policy in the WHO European region

July 2006, 124(1):118-118
Full text not available  [PDF]
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