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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
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Clinical profile of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in first & second wave of the pandemic: Insights from an Indian registry based observational study


1 Clinical Studies, Trial & Projection Unit, Division of Epidemiology & Communicable Diseases, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India
2 ICMR-National Institute of Medical Statistics, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
4 Division of Epidemiology & Communicable Diseases, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India
5 National Centre for Disease Control, New Delhi, India
6 All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
7 Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Aparna Mukherjee,
Clinical Studies, Trial & Projection Unit, Division of Epidemiology and Communicable Diseases, Indian Council of Medical Research, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi 110 029
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.ijmr_1628_21

PMID: 34259194

   Abstract 

Background & objectives: India witnessed a massive second surge of COVID-19 cases since March 2021 after a period of decline from September 2020. Data collected under the National Clinical Registry for COVID-19 (NCRC) were analysed to describe the differences in demographic and clinical features of COVID-19 patients recruited during these two successive waves.
Methods: The NCRC, launched in September 2020, is an ongoing multicentre observational initiative, which provided the platform for the current investigation. Demographic, clinical, treatment and outcome data of hospitalized, confirmed COVID-19 patients were captured in an electronic data portal from 41 hospitals across India. Patients enrolled during September 1, 2020 to January 31, 2021 and February 1 to May 11, 2021 constituted participants of the two successive waves, respectively.
Results: As on May 11, 2021, 18961 individuals were recruited in the registry, 12059 and 6903 reflecting in-patients from the first and second waves, respectively. Mean age of the patients was significantly lower in the second wave [48.7 (18.1) yr vs. 50.7 (18.0) yr, P<0.001] with higher proportion of patients in the younger age group intervals of <20, and 20-39 yr. Approximately 70 per cent of the admitted patients were = 40 yr of age in both waves of the pandemic. The proportion of males were slightly lower in second wave as compared to the first [4400 (63.7%) vs. 7886 (65.4%), P=0.02]. Commonest presenting symptom was fever in both waves. In the second wave, a significantly higher proportion [2625 (48.6%) vs. 4420 (42.8%), P<0.003] complained of shortness of breath, developed ARDS [422(13%) vs. 880 (7.9%), P<0.001], required supplemental oxygen [1637 (50.3%) vs. 4771 (42.7%), P<0.001], and mechanical ventilation [260 (15.9%) vs. 530 (11.1%), P<0.001]. Mortality also significantly increased in the second wave [OR: 1.35 (95% CI: 1.19, 1.52)] in all age groups except in <20 yr.
Interpretation & conclusions: The second wave of COVID-19 in India was slightly different in presentation than the first wave, with a younger demography, lesser comorbidities, and presentation with breathlessness in greater frequency.



How to cite this URL:
Kumar G, Mukherjee A, Sharma RK, Menon GR, Sahu D, Wig N, Panda S, Rao VV, Singh S, Guleria R, Bhargava B, N1. Clinical profile of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in first & second wave of the pandemic: Insights from an Indian registry based observational study. Indian J Med Res [Epub ahead of print] [cited 2021 Sep 24]. Available from: https://www.ijmr.org.in/preprintarticle.asp?id=320580

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