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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 153  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 339-347

Experiences of Indian Council of Medical Research with tick-borne zoonotic infections: Kyasanur Forest disease & Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in India with One Health focus


1 ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2 Maximum Containment Facility, ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, Maharashtra, India
3 Division of Epidemiology and Communicable Diseases, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Devendra T Mourya
ICMR-Chair for Virology and Zoonoses, ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Sus-Pashan Road, Pune 411 021, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_532_21

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Emergence and re-emergence of several pathogens have been witnessed by this century in the form of outbreaks, epidemics and pandemics. In India, the influencing factor that promotes dissemination of emerging and re-emerging viral infections is the biogeographical zones: a megadiverse country, characterized by varied geographical, climatic conditions and ever-changing socio-economical and geopolitical issues. These influence the movement of humans and animals and add layers of complexity for the identification and timely management of infectious diseases. This review focuses on two tick-borne infections: Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and Kyasanur forest disease (KFD). In the last two decades, these viruses have emerged and caused outbreaks in different parts of India. KFD virus was initially identified in 1957 and was known to be endemic in Karnataka State while CCHF virus was first identified during 2010 in Gujarat State, India. These viruses have managed to emerge in new areas within the last decade. With changing epidemiology of these arboviruses, there is a probability of the emergence of these viruses from new areas in future. The investigations on these two diseases under the One Health focus involved early detection, quickly developing diagnostic tools, identifying stakeholders, capacity building by developing collaboration with major stakeholders to understand the epidemiology and geographical spread in domestic animal reservoirs and tick vectors in the affected areas, developing laboratory network, providing diagnostic reagents and biosafety and laboratory diagnosis training to the network laboratories to control these diseases.


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