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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 153  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 320-326

Journey towards National Institute of One Health in India

1 Centre for Zoonoses, Nagpur Veterinary College, Maharashtra Animal & Fishery Science University, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Microbiology, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Maharashtra, India
3 Research Centre, Central India Institute of Medical Sciences, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
4 Division of Epidemiology and Communicable Diseases, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India
5 ICAR-National Research Centre on Meat, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sandeep P Chaudhari
Department of Veterinary Public Health, Nagpur Veterinary College, Seminary Hills, Nagpur 440 006, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_636_21

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Background & objectives: Issues such as emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, antimicrobial resistance, food security, biosafety and biosecurity are associated with changes in land use, population growth, urbanization, global travel and trade and climate change. As a result, a trans-disciplinary approach among human, animal and environmental health disciplines gained support. The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) decided to establish a National Institute of One Health at Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. In this context, two collaborative research projects, funded by the ICAR and ICMR were initiated to conduct the epidemiological surveillance of selected zoonotic diseases in Central India. Methods: Disease surveillance and molecular detection employing standard techniques like enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immuno-fluroscent assay (IFA), standard tube agglutination test (STAT) , Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were undertaken based on the disease to be screened. Results: In animals, the seropositivities for listeriosis (7.66%) and brucellosis (11.69%) were recorded. The occurrence of tuberculosis (3.8%) and leptospirosis (6.33%) was detected by PCR. Through cross-sectional studies from suspected human population with associated risk factors for zoonotic diseases, the seropositivity of brucellosis (1.83-11%), listeriosis (1.01-10.18 %), leptospirosis (8.14-12.67%) and scrub typhus (1.78-20.34%) was recorded. The investigations on scrub typhus indicated bimodal pattern during the months of pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season with a peak in post-monsoon in human cases. Ornithonyssus bacoti mites were identified from the rodents as a vector harbouring Orientia tsutsugamushi. The bovine tuberculosis was detected in 1.43 per cent human cases employing molecular assay. Interpretation & conclusions: The data indicated the occurrence of important zoonotic diseases adversely affecting the livestock health and human wellbeing. The scientific collaboration between veterinary and medical faculties has set an example for effective implementation of One Health (OH) programme for the establishment of National Institute of OH.

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