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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 152  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 263-272

Clinical profile & long-term natural history of symptomatic coronary artery disease in young patients (<30 yr)


Department of Cardiology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences & Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr Harikrishnan Sivadasanpillai
Department of Cardiology, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences & Technology, Thiruvananthapuram 695 011, Kerala
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1090_18

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Background & objectives: Several studies have shown a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in patients in the age group of 30-74 yr, but there is a paucity of data in young patients below 30 yr. We analyzed the clinical and coronary angiographic profile of patients <30 yr of age with symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) and also assessed their intermediate and long-term outcomes. Methods: All patients less than 30 yr of age who presented with symptomatic CAD from 1978 to 2017 in the department of Cardiology of a tertiary care hospital in south India, were studied for coronary risk factors and angiographic and treatment patterns, and the follow up data were collected. Results: The mean age of the 159 patients <30 yr of age was 26.7±3.29 yr. Male preponderance was observed (91.8%), 63.5 per cent patients were smokers and 88.3 per cent were dyslipidaemic. Acute myocardial infarction was the most common mode of presentation. Forty one per cent patients were non-adherent to medications. Risk factor control was inadequate with respect to smoking cessation, alcoholism, physical activity and dietary regulation. The predictors of long-term mortality were multivessel CAD [hazard ratio (HR): 1.927, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.003-3.701] and reduction in ejection fraction (EF) (10% decrease in EF; HR: 1.349, 95% CI: 1.096-1.662). Overall mortality was 30 per cent at 10 yr and 48 per cent at 20 yr. Interpretation & conclusions: Decreasing EF and multivessel involvement were found to be the strong correlates for long-term mortality in young patients below 30 yr of age with CAD. High long-term mortality rates and poor risk factor control suggest the vast scope for the improvement of outcomes in these patients with aggressive risk factor control.


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