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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 152  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 227-233

Immunological markers for identifying recent HIV infection in North-West India


1 Department of Community Medicine, School of Public Health, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Internal Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India
3 Department of Immunopathology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr Rajesh Kumar
Department of Community Medicine, School of Public Health, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh 160 012
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2007_18

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Background & objectives: Being more efficient and widely used, limiting antigen (LAg)-avidity enzyme immunoassay (EIA) based on the recent infection testing algorithm (RITA) has been developed for differentiating recent and established HIV-1 infection. So far, LAg-avidity EIA has not been validated among the Indian population. Hence, the present study was planned to identify recent HIV infections in high risk patients in the North-West region of India using modified LAg-avidity RITA. Methods: Four hundred HIV-positive high risk patients registered on pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme in the last one year, from five ART centres in North-Western States of India, were included for identifying the recent HIV infections. One hundred HIV-positive cases registered for pre-ART for greater than two years in ART centres were included for estimating false recent rate (FRR). Single-well LAg-avidity EIA-based modified RITA was used to identify recent HIV infection cases. Results: Of the 400 HIV-1-positive samples, 64 (16%) were found to have been infected within the past 130 days. The proportion of recent HIV infections was 16.8 per cent (18/107) among female sex workers, 10.7 per cent (9/84) among men who have sex with men and 17.7 per cent (37/209) among injecting drug users. The FRR was one per cent (1/100). Interpretation & conclusions: LAg-avidity EIA-based modified RITA provided good discrimination between recent and non-recent HIV infection, hence, it could be considered suitable for estimating HIV incidence in sentinel surveillance system in India.


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