Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research
  Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login  
  Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size Users Online: 1296       
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 152  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 185-226

Epidemiology, diagnosis & treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacterial diseases


Department of Molecular Medicine, Jamia Hamdard Institute of Molecular Medicine, Jamia Hamdard (Deemed-to-be-University), New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr Surendra K Sharma
Department of Molecular Medicine, Jamia Hamdard Institute of Molecular Medicine, Jamia Hamdard (Deemed-to-be-University), Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi 110 062
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_902_20

Rights and Permissions

Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitously present in the environment, but NTM diseases occur infrequently. NTM are generally considered to be less virulent than Mycobacterium tuberculosis, however, these organisms can cause diseases in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. As compared to tuberculosis, person-to-person transmission does not occur except with M. abscessus NTM species among cystic fibrosis patients. Lung is the most commonly involved organ, and the NTM-pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) occurs frequently in patients with pre-existing lung disease. NTM may also present as localized disease involving extrapulmonary sites such as lymph nodes, skin and soft tissues and rarely bones. Disseminated NTM disease is rare and occurs in individuals with congenital or acquired immune defects such as HIV/AIDS. Rapid molecular tests are now available for confirmation of NTM diagnosis at species and subspecies level. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) is not routinely done except in non-responsive disease due to slowly growing mycobacteria ( M. avium complex, M. kansasii) or infection due to rapidly growing mycobacteria, especially M. abscessus. While the decision to treat the patients with NTM-PD is made carefully, the treatment is given for 12 months after sputum culture conversion. Additional measures include pulmonary rehabilitation and correction of malnutrition. Treatment response in NTM-PD is variable and depends on isolated NTM species and severity of the underlying PD. Surgery is reserved for patients with localized disease with good pulmonary functions. Future research should focus on the development and validation of non-culture-based rapid diagnostic tests for early diagnosis and discovery of newer drugs with greater efficacy and lesser toxicity than the available ones.


[FULL TEXT] [PDF]*
Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)
 

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed178    
    Printed0    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded90    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal