Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research
  Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login  
  Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size Users Online: 379       
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 152  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 21-40

Coronavirus disease 2019 in children: Clinical & epidemiological implications

1 ICMR-Vector Control Research Centre, Puducherry, India
2 Cardiothoracic Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Pediatrics, Advanced Pediatrics Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India
4 Division of Epidemiology & Communicable Diseases, Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr Vijesh Sreedhar Kuttiatt
ICMR-Vector Control Research Centre, Indira Nagar, Puducherry 605 006
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_977_20

Rights and Permissions

Despite the global spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, there are limited data emerging in children. This review provides an update on clinical features, diagnosis, epidemiology, management and prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children. Specific characteristics noted in children and their implications in disease management as well as transmission control are highlighted. Besides respiratory symptoms, gastrointestinal and atypical features such as chilblains, neurological symptoms and multisystem inflammation are also reported. Younger infants and those with comorbidity were found to be at risk of severe illness. Infected pregnant women and neonates were reported to have good prognosis. It is possible to manage the children with mild disease at home, with strict infection prevention control measures; severely affected require respiratory support and intensive care management. There are anecdotal reports of using antiviral and immunomodulatory drugs, benefit of which needs to be confirmed in clinical trials. A significant percentage of asymptomatic infection in children has epidemiological implication as these may act as links in transmission chain in the community. There is a need for systematic data on extra-pulmonary manifestations and atypical features, risk factors of severity, role of imaging and biomarkers, testing and management strategies and trials with antivirals and immunomodulatory drugs in children. The psychosocial effects of quarantine, closure of schools, lack of play activities and impact of lockdown need to be addressed. Understanding the biological basis for the profound age-dependent differential outcome of COVID-19 infection is important. Elucidating the protective mechanisms in children may aid in developing novel treatment strategies.

Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded1146    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal