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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 152  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 100-104

Epidemiological & clinical characteristics & early outcome of COVID-19 patients in a tertiary care teaching hospital in India: A preliminary analysis

Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Medicine & Critical Care, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dalim Kumar Baidya
Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Medicine & Critical Care, 5th Floor, Teaching Block, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110 029
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2890_20

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Background & objectives: In this study we describe the epidemiological data, comorbidities, clinical symptoms, severity of illness and early outcome of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. Methods: In this preliminary analysis of a prospective observational study, all adult patients admitted to the screening intensive care unit (ICU) of the institute who fulfilled the WHO case definition of COVID-19 and confirmed to have SARS-CoV-2 infection by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were included. Demographics, clinical data and 24 h outcome were assessed. Results: The preliminary analysis of 235 patients revealed that the mean age was 50.7±15.1 yr and 68.1 per cent were male. Fever (68.1%), cough (59.6%) and shortness of breath (71.9%) were the most common presenting symptoms. Hypertension (28.1%) and diabetes mellitus (23.3%) were the most common associated comorbid illnesses. Patients with mild, moderate, severe and critical illness were 18.3, 32.3, 31.1 and 18.3 per cent, respectively, at the time of ICU admission. The proportions (95% confidence interval) of patients requiring any form of oxygen therapy, oxygen therapy by high-flow nasal cannula and invasive mechanical ventilation were 77, 21.7 and 25.5 per cent, respectively, within 24 h of hospital admission. The 24 h ICU mortality was 8.5 per cent, and non-survivors had higher respiratory rate (P <0.01, n=198) and lower baseline oxyhaemoglobin saturation (P <0.001, n=198) at presentation and higher baseline serum lactate (P <0.01, n=122), total leucocyte count (P <0.001, n=186), absolute neutrophil count (P <0.001, n=132), prothrombin time (P <0.05, n=54) and INR (P <0.05, n=54) compared to survivors. Interpretation & conclusions: Nearly half of the patients presented with severe and critical disease and required high-flow nasal oxygen or invasive mechanical ventilation at admission. Severity of the presenting respiratory illness, haematological parameters and lactate rather than age or presence of comorbidity predicted early death within 24 h.

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