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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 151  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 71-78

Comparative assessment of commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay & rapid diagnostic tests used for dengue diagnosis in India


1 Department of Communicable Diseases, Interactive Research School for Health Affairs, Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Pune, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Medical Microbiology, Bharati Medical College & Research Center, Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Pune, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Immunohaematology & Blood Transfusion, Bharati Medical College & Research Center, Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Pune, Maharashtra, India
4 Interactive Research School for Health Affairs, Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Pune, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr Vidya A Arankalle
Department of Communicable Diseases, Interactive Research School for Health Affairs, Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University), Pune-Satara Road, Katraj-Dhankawadi, Pune 411 043, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_613_18

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Background & objectives: Dengue diagnosis is routinely carried out by detection of dengue virus (DENV) antigen NS1 and/or anti-DENV IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). This study was aimed at evaluation of quality of diagnostic assays currently in use in India for the identification of DENV infection. Methods: During 2016 dengue season (July-November) in Pune, India, comparative assessment of a few immunoassays was undertaken using (i) WHO-approved Panbio-Dengue-Early-(NS1)-ELISA and Panbio-Dengue-IgM-Capture-ELISA as reference tests, and (ii) Bayesian latent class analysis (BLCA) which assumes that no test is perfect. The assays included J.Mitra-Dengue-NS1-Ag-MICROLISA (JME-NS1), J.Mitra-Dengue-IgM-MICROLISA (JME-IgM), and two RDTs, namely, J.Mitra-Dengue-Day-1-Test (JM-RDT) and SD-BIOLINE-Dengue-Duo (SDB-RDT). Serum samples from patients seeking dengue diagnosis (n=809) were tested using the diagnostic kits. The presence of NS1 and/or IgM was taken as evidence for dengue-positive diagnosis. Results: Panbio-NS1/IgM-ELISAs identified 38.6 per cent patients as dengue positive. With Panbio-ELISA as reference, all the tests were less sensitive for IgM detection, while for NS1, JM-RDT was less sensitive. For combined diagnosis (both markers), sensitivity of all the tests was low (55.7-76.6%). According to BLCA, Panbio-ELISA was 84 per cent sensitive for NS1, 86 per cent specific for IgM and 87 per cent specific for combined diagnosis. Accordingly, performance of the other tests was substantially improved with BLCA; however, sensitivity of both the RDTs for IgM detection remained unacceptable. The NS1 ELISAs and RDTs detected all four DENV serotypes, JME being most efficient. All IgM tests exhibited higher sensitivity in secondary infections. Interpretation & conclusions: These results confirmed superiority of ELISAs, and testing for both NS1 and IgM markers for dengue diagnosis, and emphasized on improvement in sensitivity of RDTs.


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