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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 149  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 232-239

Phenotypic & genotypic study of antimicrobial profile of bacteria isolates from environmental samples

1 Division of Infectious Diseases, Nitte University Centre for Science Education and Research, Mangaluru, India
2 Department of Fisheries Microbiology, College of Fisheries, Mangaluru, India
3 Nitte University Centre for Science Education and Research, Mangaluru, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr Indrani Karunasagar
UNESCO MIRCEN for Medical & Marine Biotechnology, Center for Science Education & Research, Nitte (Deemed to be University), University Enclave, Medical Sciences Complex, Deralakatte, Mangaluru 575 018, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2097_17

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Background & objectives: The resistance to antibiotics in pathogenic bacteria has increased at an alarming rate in recent years due to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in healthcare, livestock and aquaculture. In this context, it is necessary to monitor the antibiotic resistance patterns of bacteria isolated from the environmental samples. This study was conducted to determine the phenotypic and genotypic profile of antimicrobial resistance in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from environmental samples. Methods: Two hundred and fifty samples were collected from different sources, viz. fish and fishery products (99), livestock wastes (81) and aquaculture systems (70), in and around Mangaluru, India. Isolation, identification and antimicrobial profiling were carried out as per standard protocols. The isolates were screened for the presence of resistance genes using PCR. Results: A total of 519 Gram-negative bacteria comprising Escherichia coli (116), Salmonella spp. (14), Vibrio spp. (258), Pseudomonas spp. (56), Citrobacter spp. (26) and Proteus spp. (49) were isolated and characterized from 250 samples obtained from different sources. A total of 12 antibiotics were checked for their effectiveness against the isolates. While 31.6 per cent of the isolates were sensitive to all the antibiotics used, 68.4 per cent of the isolates showed resistance to at least one of the antibiotics used. One-third of the isolates showed multidrug resistance. Maximum resistance was observed for ampicillin (43.4%), followed by nitrofurantoin (20.8%). Least resistance was seen for carbapenems and chloramphenicol. PCR profiling of the resistant isolates confirmed the presence of resistance genes corresponding to their antibiotic profile. Interpretation & conclusions: This study results showed high rate of occurrence of antimicrobial resistance and their determinants in Gram-negative bacteria isolated from different environmental sources.

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