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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 149  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 34-40

Comparative study of alloimmunization against red cell antigens in sickle cell disease & thalassaemia major patients on regular red cell transfusion

Surat Raktadan Kendra and Research Centre, Surat, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr Kanjaksha Ghosh
Surat Raktadan Kendra & Research Centre, 1st Fl. Udhna Khatodara Urban Health Centre, Udhna Magdalla Road, Nr. Chosath Joganio Mata Temple, Surat 395 002, Gujarat
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_940_17

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Background & objectives: Sickle cell disease (SCD) patients require red cell transfusion during different clinical complications of the disease. Such patients are at a high risk for developing alloantibody against red cell antigens. From India, there are limited data available on alloantibody formation in multiply transfused SCD patients. The present study was thus undertaken to fill up this lacunae by looking at the development of red cell alloantibodies in SCD and β-thalassaemia patients on regular transfusion. Methods: All sickle cell disease patients undergoing red cell transfusion between 2008 and 2016, were included. During this period, a large number of β-thalassaemia major patients also underwent regular red cell transfusion. These thalassaemia patients were also included to compare the tendency of antibody formation between SCD and β-thalassaemia major patients. All patients before regular transfusion were regularly assessed for the development of red cell antibody. Red cell antigen, antibody screen crossmatch and antibody identification were done using the standard technique. Results: A total of 138 patients with SCD aged between 4 and 53 yr (mean 17.6 yr) consisting of 83 males and 55 females (male:female, 1.5:1) along with 333 transfusion-dependent β-thalassaemia patients were studied. Over the last eight years, 15 patients with SCD and four patients with thalassaemia developed alloantibody (P <0.001). Antibody specificity of their alloantibodies was against Rhc, RhE, Kell, Fya and Fyb only. Sickle cell disease patients with and without alloantibody required on the average 11.8 and 8.6 units of red cell concentrate, respectively (P <0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: About 11 per cent of the transfused sickle cells patients developed alloantibodies. The antibody specificity was restricted to Rh, Kell and Duffy blood group systems. Extended antigen matching involving Rh, Kell and Duffy antigens may prevent alloantibody in such patients.

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