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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 148  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 453-455

Detection of Kyasanur forest disease in newer areas of Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra State

1 Maximum Containment Laboratory, ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune 411 021, Maharashtra, India
2 ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune 411 021, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission09-Aug-2017
Date of Web Publication21-Jan-2019

Correspondence Address:
Devendra T Mourya
ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune 411 021, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1292_17

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How to cite this article:
Yadav PD, Sahay RR, Mourya DT. Detection of Kyasanur forest disease in newer areas of Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra State. Indian J Med Res 2018;148:453-5

How to cite this URL:
Yadav PD, Sahay RR, Mourya DT. Detection of Kyasanur forest disease in newer areas of Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra State. Indian J Med Res [serial online] 2018 [cited 2021 Aug 5];148:453-5. Available from:


Western Ghats of India is known for the presence of ideal climatic conditions for ticks[1]. So far Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) hotspots have been detected in five States: Maharashtra, Goa, Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu[1]. In Maharashtra State, this disease was first detected in Sindhudurg district in 2016[2]. This district has eight talukas, namely, Deogad, Vaibhavwadi, Kankavli, Malwan, Kudal, Vengurla, Sawantwadi and Dodamarg. After first confirmation of KFD outbreak in the Dodamarg taluka (2016), there was confirmation of imported KFD cases from Sattari taluka Goa (among cashew-nut workers) to Belgaum (now Belagavi)[2],[3] and Banda area of Sawantwadi taluka where human, monkey autopsy and tick samples were positive.

The present communication reports detection of newer hot spots in Sindhudurg district in Maharashtra State: Kankavli, Kudal and Vengurla [Figure 1]. All the human serum/blood samples, monkey autopsy samples and tick pools referred from different talukas of Sindhudurg district to the National Institute of Virology, Pune, India, during 2015-2017 were included [Table 1]. The human samples were tested for the presence of KFD infection either by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or by anti-KFD virus (KFDV) IgM ELISA[2]. Tick pools and monkey necropsy samples were tested by real-time RT-PCR as defined earlier[2]. This study emphasized on the presence of KFD activity in monkeys and ticks in other talukas of Sindhudurg such as Kankavli, Kudal and Vengurla where human positivity for KFD was not yet reported [Figure 1]. The data presented showed that either KFD was spreading in newer areas of Sindhudurg or it was already present [Table 1] and now identified due to increased awareness among people and public health authorities of Maharashtra State, India.
Figure 1: Kyasanur forest disease virus activity in human, ticks and monkeys in different talukas of Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra State, India (2015-2016 & 2016-2017).

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Table 1: Kyasanur forest disease virus activity in human, ticks and monkeys in different talukas of Sindhudurg district of Maharashtra State, India

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Sindhudurg district in Maharashtra has become a public health concern for this tick-borne disease. Movement of monkey and rodents play as an important contributor for the spread of KFD as they harbour infected ticks maintaining the transovarial and transstadial transmission[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9],[10],[11]. Since 1920, rate of deforestation in the Western Ghats has been estimated to be 0.57 per cent annually[12]. The deforestation and encroachment of local population for livestock activities helped in the transmission of this disease. The temperature and humidity of the area support the development of ticks as well as its survival, maintaining wildlife-livestock-human interfaces. The risk behaviours identified among KFDV cases in Sindhudurg were visiting to forest areas (for farming, collection of dry woods and leaves, cashew nut and coconut farming) for their livelihood.

Increase in magnitude of KFD disease in newer talukas of Sindhudurg calls for increase in active case surveillance and early case detection. There is also a need for preventive strategies such as KFD vaccination, health education regarding the spread of the KFD and use of tick repellent. The community should be educated to inform health authorities about monkey deaths, as it creates a hot zone for the presence of infected ticks. The morbidity and mortality prediction among animals can be an early sign for the detection of spread of the KFD in newer areas. There is a need for intersectoral coordination among forest authorities, animal husbandries, environmentalist, entomologist and public health system for future prediction of the disease spread, which is posing a public health challenge. Apart from vaccination, development of therapeutic antiviral drugs against KFD needs to be done.

Acknowledgment: Authors acknowledge the support rendered by Dr Pradeep Awate, State Epidemiologist, Dr Mahendra Jagtap, State Entomologist and Dr Mahesh Khalife, Additional Director of Health Services, Kolhapur district. Authors thank Dr Yogesh K. Gurav, Scientist 'D', National Institute of Virology, Pune and Shri Nikhilesh Pacharane, data entry operator, BSL-4 laboratory for support provided during the study.

Financial support & sponsorship: Financial supported was provided by GHSA-CDC grant no.6 NU2GGH001903-02-01, and the intramural funding was provided by the ICMR-NIV (Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Virology), Pune.

Conflicts of Interest: None.

   References Top

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Awate P, Yadav P, Patil D, Shete A, Kumar V, Kore P, et al. Outbreak of Kyasanur forest disease (monkey fever) in Sindhudurg, Maharashtra State, India, 2016. J Infect 2016; 72 : 759-61.  Back to cited text no. 2
Patil DY, Yadav PD, Shete AM, Nuchina J, Meti R, Bhattad D, et al. Occupational exposure of cashew nut workers to Kyasanur forest disease in Goa, India. Int J Infect Dis 2017; 61 : 67-9.  Back to cited text no. 3
Pattnaik P. Kyasanur forest disease: An epidemiological view in India. Rev Med Virol 2006; 16 : 151-65.  Back to cited text no. 4
Mourya DT, Yadav PD. Recent scenario of emergence of Kyasanur forest disease in India and public health importance. Curr Trop Med Rep 2016; 3 : 7-13.  Back to cited text no. 5
Banerjee K. Kyasanur forest disease. In: Monath TP, editor. Arboviruses epidemiology and ecology. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 1988. p. 93-116.  Back to cited text no. 6
Kasabi GS, Murhekar MV, Yadav PD, Raghunandan R, Kiran SK, Sandhya VK, et al. Kyasanur forest disease, India, 2011-2012. Emerg Infect Dis 2013; 19 : 278-81.  Back to cited text no. 7
Mourya DT, Yadav PD, Sandhya VK, Reddy S. Spread of Kyasanur forest disease, Bandipur tiger reserve, India, 2012-2013. Emerg Infect Dis 2013; 19 : 1540-1.  Back to cited text no. 8
Mourya DT, Yadav PD, Patil DY. Highly infectious tick borne viral diseases: Kyasanur forest disease and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in India. WHO South East Asia J Public Health 2014; 3 : 8-21.  Back to cited text no. 9
Yadav PD, Shete AM, Patil DY, Sandhya VK, Prakash KS, Surgihalli R, et al. Outbreak of Kyasanur forest disease in Thirthahalli, Karnataka, India, 2014. Int J Infect Dis 2014; 26 : 132-4.  Back to cited text no. 10
Tandale BV, Balakrishnan A, Yadav PD, Marja N, Mourya DT. New focus of Kyasanur forest disease virus activity in a tribal area in Kerala, India, 2014. Infect Dis Poverty 2015; 4 : 12.  Back to cited text no. 11
Jha CS, Dutt CBS, Bawa KS. Deforestation and land use changes in Western Ghats, India. Curr Sci 2000; 79 : 231-8.  Back to cited text no. 12


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