Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research
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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 147  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 603-610

Development of immunodetection system for botulinum neurotoxin serotype E

1 Biotechnology Division, Defence Research Development & Establishment, Gwalior, India
2 School of Studies in Zoology, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Sarkaraisamy Ponmariappan
Biotechnology Division, Defence Research Development & Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior 474 002, Madhya Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1375_16

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Background & objectives: Botulism, a potentially fatal paralytic illness, is caused by the botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) secreted by Clostridium botulinum. It is an obligate anaerobic, Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium. BoNTs are classified into seven serotypes based on the serological properties. Among these seven serotypes, A, B, E and, rarely, F are responsible for human botulism. The present study was undertaken to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based detection system for the detection of BoNT/E. Methods: The synthetic gene coding the light chain of BoNT serotype E (BoNT/E LC) was constructed using the polymerase chain reaction primer overlapping method, cloned into pQE30UA vector and then transformed into Escherichia coli M15 host cells. Recombinant protein expression was optimized using different concentrations of isopropyl-β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), different temperature and the rBoNT/E LC protein was purified in native conditions using affinity column chromatography. The purified recombinant protein was checked by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and further confirmed by western blot and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF). Polyclonal antibodies were generated against rBoNT/E LC using Freund's adjuvant in BALB/c mice and rabbit. Sandwich ELISA was optimized for the detection of rBoNT/E LC and native crude BoNT/E, and food matrix interference was tested. The developed antibodies were further evaluated for their specificity/cross-reactivity with BoNT serotypes and other bacterial toxins. Results: BoNT/E LC was successfully cloned, and the maximum expression was achieved in 16 h of post-induction using 0.5 mM IPTG concentration at 25°C. Polyclonal antibodies were generated in BALB/c mice and rabbit and the antibody titre was raised up to 128,000 after the 2nd booster dose. The developed polyclonal antibodies were highly specific and sensitive with a detection limit about 50 ng/ml for rBoNT/E LC and 2.5×10[3] MLD50 of native crude BoNT/E at a dilution of 1:3000 of mouse (capturing) and rabbit (revealing) antibodies. Further, different liquid, semisolid and solid food matrices were tested, and rBoNT/E LC was detected in almost all food samples, but different levels of interference were detected in different food matrices. Interpretation & conclusions: There is no immune detection system available commercially in India to detect botulism. The developed system might be useful for the detection of botulinum toxin in food and clinical samples. Further work is in progress.

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