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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 146  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 754-758

Incidence & prognosis of acute kidney injury in individuals of snakebite in a tertiary care hospital in India

1 Department of General Medicine, Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad, India
2 ICMR-National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India
3 Department of Surgery, Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad, India
4 Department of Biochemistry, University College of Science, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ramulu Pulimaddi
Department of General Medicine, Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad 500 095, Telangana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1581_16

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Background & objectives: The snakebites are considered to be an occupational hazard in agriculture workers and the snake handlers, resulting in a considerable morbidity, mortality and economical implications. This study was conducted to determine the incidence, clinical presentation, renal injury and clinical outcome in snakebite victims who developed acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: This hospital-based prospective, observational study was done on 100 cases who were admitted for the management of snakebite and found to develop AKI in a tertiary care hospital at Hyderabad, India. Renal function tests, complete blood picture, urine routine examination, ultrasound examination of abdomen and coagulation profile were done and the prognosis was assessed by noting recovery, mortality, morbidity and/or progress to chronic stage. Results: A total of 100 patients with a mean age of 43.80±12.63 yr (range 18-70); 62 males and 38 females were studied. All had bites on lower limbs. A total of 86 patients arrived in the hospital within 24 h, and 14 arrived after 24 h. Oliguria was found in 60, bleeding tendencies in 64, haemodynamic instability noted - tachycardia in 86. Systolic blood pressure (BP) was <120 mm Hg in 68 and BP was not recordable in four patients. Twelve patients were in stage III kidney disease and needed haemodialysis. Of the 100 cases of snakebite-induced acute kidney failure, 86 recovered and six died. On follow up, after six months eight patients developed chronic kidney failure. Interpretation & conclusions: A cascade of events tends to occur in severe haemotoxic envenomation such as bleeding disorders, hypotension/circulatory shock, intravascular haemolysis, disseminated intravascular coagulation and acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS). The findings of this study showed that early hospitalization, quick antisnake venom administration and adequate supporting care provided promising results.

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