Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 146  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 305-315

Evolution of technology for molecular genotyping in blood group systems


1 Department of Transfusion Medicine, ICMR- National Institute of Immunohaematology, Mumbai, India
2 Surat Raktadan Kendra & Research Centre, Surat, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr Ajit Gorakshakar
ICMR-National Institute of Immunohaematology, 13th Floor, New Multistoreyed Building, K. E. M. Hospital Campus, Parel, Mumbai 400 012, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_914_16

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The molecular basis of the blood group antigens was identified first in the 1980s and 1990s. Since then the importance of molecular biology in transfusion medicine has been described extensively by several investigators. Molecular genotyping of blood group antigens is one of the important aspects and is successfully making its way into transfusion medicine. Low-, medium- and high-throughput techniques have been developed for this purpose. Depending on the requirement of the centre like screening for high- or low-prevalence antigens where antisera are not available, correct typing of multiple transfused patients, screening for antigen-negative donor units to reduce the rate of alloimmunization, etc. a suitable technique can be selected. The present review discusses the evolution of different techniques to detect molecular genotypes of blood group systems and how these approaches can be used in transfusion medicine where haemagglutination is of limited value. Currently, this technology is being used in only a few blood banks in India. Hence, there is a need for understanding this technology with all its variations.


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