Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 145  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 804-814

Occurrence, patterns & predictors of hypogonadism in patients with HIV infection in India


1 Department of Endocrinology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research & Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Biochemistry, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research & Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Medicine, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research & Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi, India
4 Medicine Anti-Retroviral Therapy Clinic, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research & Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Deep Dutta
Department of Endocrinology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education & Research & Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, 1 Baba Kharak Singh Marg, New Delhi 110 001
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1926_15

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Background & objectives: Data on hypogonadism among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected Indians are not available. This study was aimed to evaluate the occurrence, pattern and predictors of hypogonadism in HIV-infected Indians. Methods: Consecutive stable HIV-infected patients, 18-70 yr age, without any severe comorbid state, having at least one year follow up data at the antiretroviral therapy clinic, underwent clinical assessment and hormone assays. Results: From initially screened 527 patients, 359 patients (225 males; 134 females), having disease duration of 61.44±39.42 months, 88.58 per cent on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), 40.67 per cent having tuberculosis history and 89.69 per cent with vitamin D insufficiency were analyzed. Testosterone <300 ng/dl was documented in 39.11 per cent males. Primary, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HypoH) and compensated hypogonadism were observed in 7.56, 31.56 and 12.44 per cent males, respectively. Males with hypogonadism were significantly older (P=0.009), and had higher opportunistic infections (P<0.001) with longer disease duration (P=0.05). Menstrual abnormalities were observed in 40.3 per cent females, who were significantly older (P<0.001), had lower CD4 count (P=0.038) and higher tuberculosis history (P=0.005). Nearly 46.3, 16.2 and 13 per cent women with menstrual abnormalities were in peri-/post-menopausal state, premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and HypoH, respectively. Age, CD4 count at diagnosis and 25(OH)D were best predictors of male hypogonadism. Age and CD4 count increment in first 6-12 months following HAART were the best predictors of POI. Interpretation & conclusions: Hypogonadism was observed to be a significant problem in HIV-infected men and women in India, affecting 39 and 29 per cent patients, respectively. HypoH was the most common form in males whereas ovarian failure being the most common cause in females.


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