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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 144  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 622-629

Long-term outbreak of Klebsiella pneumoniae& third generation cephalosporin use in a neonatal intensive care unit in north India

1 Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India
2 Department of Microbiology, Assam University, Silchar, India
3 Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India

Correspondence Address:
Shampa Anupurba
Department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0971-5916.200900

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Background & objectives: The indiscriminate use of third generation cephalosporin has contributed to the emergence and widespread dissemination of extended spectrum β lactamases (ESBL) genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae. This study was undertaken to elaborate the genetic behaviour of ESBL - producing K. pneumoniae isolates in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a tertiary care hospital in north India causing successive outbreaks in context with empirical third generation cephalosporin use. Methods: Isolates of K. pneumoniae (43 from blood, 3 from pus and endotracheal tube, 4 from environment) causing successive outbreaks in the NICU of a tertiary care university hospital were studied for two years. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination by agar dilution methods. ESBL production was determined by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Clonal relatedness among the isolates was studied by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR). Genetic environment of these isolates was assessed by the presence of integrons and gene cassettes. Transformation experiments were done, and plasmids of these isolates were characterized by stability testing and incompatibility testing. Subsequently, a change in the ongoing antibiotic policy was adopted, and corresponding changes in the behaviour of these isolates studied. Results: During the period from August 2011 to January 2013, 46 isolates of monoclonal ESBL K. pneumoniae were obtained from different neonates and four similar environmental isolates were studied. Multidrug-resistant ESBL isolates harboured both blaCTXM-15 and bla SHV-5. The dfr and aac-6 ' resistant genes were found in gene cassettes. A 50 kb plasmid belonging to IncFIIA group was detected in all the isolates which was transferable and stable. The emergence and regression of the outbreaks coincided with antibiotic usage in the NICU, with widespread empirical use of cefotaxime being responsible for their persistence in the environment. Interpretation & conclusions: The study indicates that empirical use of third generation cephalosporins may promote the emergence, persistence, and dissemination of resistant isolates in the hospital environment. Periodic review of antibiotic policy is necessary for rationalized use of antibiotics.

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