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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 143  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 722-730

Use of Family CAGE-AID questionnaire to screen the family members for diagnosis of substance dependence

Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Debasish Basu
Drug De-addiction & Treatment Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh 160 012
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0971-5916.191931

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Background & objectives: CAGE-AID questionnaire is a short, useful screening tool for substance dependence. Assessment of one family member for the screening of substance dependence in the family could be useful in clinical practice and research. In this study, we aimed to assess the validity of the Family CAGE-AID questionnaire for the diagnosis of substance dependence. Methods: Cross-sectional assessments using CAGE-AID and Family CAGE-AID questionnaires were conducted both for the study participants (n = 210) and their family members. The participants were recruited from two different treatment settings: a treatment seeking population from a de-addiction centre, and non-treatment seekers for substance use disorders from the psychiatry outpatient department. ICD-10 criteria and subsequent detailed clinical interview by a trained psychiatrist were used for the final diagnosis of substance dependence. Results: In the psychiatry outpatient group, the scores on CAGE-AID and Family CAGE-AID questionnaires were significantly correlated with the ICD-10 symptom score (r=0.81 and 0.70, respectively). In the same group, inter-rater agreement of the Family CAGE-AID was good with CAGE-AID and moderate with ICD-10 diagnosis of substance dependence (Cohen's kappa 0.78 and 0.61, respectively). A cut-off score of three on Family CAGE-AID was found to be 95·8 per cent sensitive and 100 per cent specific. Interpretation & conclusions: Family CAGE-AID questionnaire is a valid screening instrument for the diagnosis of substance dependence, with acceptable sensitivity and specificity of a cut-off score of three. The simplicity and the brevity of such an instrument can be valuable in the clinical settings of developing countries and also for epidemiological studies.

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