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CORRESPONDENCE
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 143  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 371-372

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Malwa region of Punjab (North-West India)


Department of Microbiology, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College (GGSMC) & Hospital, Faridkot 151 203, Punjab, India

Date of Web Publication19-May-2016

Correspondence Address:
Rubina Malhotra
Department of Microbiology, Guru Gobind Singh Medical College (GGSMC) & Hospital, Faridkot 151 203, Punjab
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-5916.182630

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How to cite this article:
Jindal N, Malhotra R, Grover P, Singh S, Bansal R, Kaur S. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Malwa region of Punjab (North-West India). Indian J Med Res 2016;143:371-2

How to cite this URL:
Jindal N, Malhotra R, Grover P, Singh S, Bansal R, Kaur S. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Malwa region of Punjab (North-West India). Indian J Med Res [serial online] 2016 [cited 2020 Nov 24];143:371-2. Available from: https://www.ijmr.org.in/text.asp?2016/143/3/371/182630

Sir,

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a dangerous pathogen of hospital acquired infection and is also spreading in the community[1],[2]. we report here data on this infection from a teaching hospital located in North-West India.

During 2012-2013, a total of 248 Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from various clinical specimens like pus, blood, urine, body fluids, catheter tips etc. of the patients visiting Guru Gobind Singh Medical College (GGSMC) and Hospital, Faridkot, Punjab, India, were studied. Of these, 161 (64.9%) were detected as MRSA and 87 (35%) as methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) by observing their resistance to cefoxitin (30 µg) disc[3]. Further confirmation of methicillin resistance was done by demonstration of mecA gene by PCR4. Overall, MRSA was found in 64.9 per cent (161/248) samples which was higher than the prevalence reported in Indian Network of Surveillance of Antimicrobial Resistance (INSAR) study (41%)1 but was in the range (22 to 68%) observed by various centres participated in the study[1]. The MRSA increased from 60.5 per cent (92/152) in 2012 to 71.8 per cent (69/96) in 2013, but the difference was not significant. Similar increase has also been reported by six of the 15 tertiary care centres during the two years period (January 2008 to December 2009) of the surveillance[1].

In our study, the isolation rates of MRSA from non-ICU inpatients (50% in 2012; 69.6% in 2013) were higher than that of outpatients (29.3% in 2012; 18.8% in 2013) and ICU patients (20.7% in 2012; 13% in 2013). This was in contrast to the INSAR study where the isolation rates of MRSA were maximum from ICU followed by non-ICU inpatients and outpatients[1]. The study of S. aureus isolates from various clinical specimens at our centre showed that maximum isolates were from skin and soft tissue infections followed by blood stream infections and respiratory infections.

Susceptibility to various antibiotics is shown in the [Table 1] Similar to the various studies of the INSAR surveillance1, we observed that MRSA isolates were more resistant to antimicrobial agents in comparison to MSSA. However, this difference was not significant for erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. However, for ampicillin and co-trimoxazole the difference was found to be significant (P<0.001). All S. aureus isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and linezolid.
Table 1. Antibiotic susceptibility results of 248 isolates of methicillin resistant (n=161) and methicillin sensitive (n=87) Staphylococcus aureus (2012-2013)


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Thus, our results showed a high and increasing isolation rates of MRSA in the Malwa region of Punjab. This underscores the need of judicious use of antibiotics and strengthening of the implementation of infection control measures. Although the MRSA and MSSA isolates in our study showed sensitivity to glycopeptides and linezolid, but their use should be cautiously preserved for MRSA isolates only as reports of reduced susceptibility to vancomycin [vancomycin intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) and vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA)] have already been reported[5].

 
   References Top

1.
Joshi S, Ray P, Manchanda V, Bajaj J, Chitnis DS, Gautam V, et al. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in India: Prevalence and susceptibility pattern. Indian J Med Res 2013; 137 : 363-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
D' Souza N, Rodrigues C, Mehta†††A. Molecular characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with emergence of epidemic clones of sequence type (ST) 22 and ST 772 in Mumbai, India. J clin Microbiol 2010;48:1806-11.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance standards for antimicrobial disc diffusion tests, Approved standards. 9th ed. CLSI Document M2-M9. Wayne Pa, USA: CLSI; 2011.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Geha DJ, Uhl JR, Gustafuro CA, Persing DH. Multiplex PCR for identification of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the clinical laboratory. J Clin Microbiol 1994; 32 : 1768-72.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Appelbaum PC. The emergence of vancomycin-intermediate and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clin Microbiol Infect 2006; 12 : 16-23.  Back to cited text no. 5
    



 
 
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