Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research
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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 143  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 43-48

Novel ATRX gene damaging missense mutation c.6740A>C segregates with profound to severe intellectual deficiency without alpha thalassaemia

1 Hôpital Necker - Enfants Malades. Laboratoire de génétique médicale, Paris, France
2 Department of Genetics & Fetal Medecine, Fortis Hospital, New Delhi, India
3 Erfan & Bagedo Hospital, Genetics Unit, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
4 Aziziah Maternity & Children Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Habib Bouazzi
Hôpital Necker - Enfants Malades. Laboratoire de génétique médicale, Unité INSERM U781 Tour Lavoisier - 3ème étage, 149 rue de Sèvres 75743, Paris cedex 15
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0971-5916.178589

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Background & objectives: ATRX is a recessive X-linked intellectual deficiency (X-LID) gene causing predominately alpha-thalassaemia with a wide and clinically heterogeneous spectrum of intellectual deficiency syndromes. Although alpha-thalassaemia is commonly present, some patients do not express this sign despite the ATRX gene being altered. Most pathological mutations have been localized in two different major domains, the helicase and the plant homeo-domain (PHD)-like domain. In this study we examined a family of three males having an X-linked mental deficiency and developmental delay, and tried to establish a genetic diagnosis while discussing and comparing the phenotype of our patients to those reported in the literature. Methods: Three related males with intellectual deficiency underwent clinical investigations. We performed a karyotype analysis, CGH-array, linkage study, and X-exome sequencing in the index case to identify the genetic origin of this disorder. The X-inactivation study was carried out in the mother and Sanger sequencing was achieved in all family members to confirm the mutation. Results: a0 novel ATRX gene missense mutation (p.His2247Pro) was identified in a family of two uncles and their nephew manifesting intellectual deficiency and specific facial features without alpha-thalassaemia. The mutation was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. It segregated with the pathological phenotype. The mother and her two daughters were found to be heterozygous. Interpretation & conclusions: The novel mutation c.6740A>C was identified within the ATRX gene helicase domain and confirmed by Sanger sequencing in the three affected males as well as in the mother and her two daughters. This mutation was predicted to be damaging and deleterious. The novel mutation segregated with the phenotype without alpha-thalassaemia and with non-skewed X chromosome.

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