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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 141  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 789-798

Widespread inequalities in smoking & smokeless tobacco consumption across wealth quintiles in States of India: Need for targeted interventions


1 School of Public Health, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh, India
2 WHO, South East Asia Regional Office, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
J S Thakur
School of Public Health, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh 160 012
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-5916.160704

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Background & objectives: India is a large country with each State having distinct social, cultural and economic characteristics. Tobacco epidemic is not uniform across the country. There are wide variations in tobacco consumption across age, sex, regions and socio-economic classes. This study was conducted to understand the wide inequalities in patterns of smoking and smokeless tobacco consumption across various States of India. Methods: Analysis was conducted on Global Adult Tobacco Survey, India (2009-2010) data. Prevalence of both forms of tobacco use and its association with socio-economic determinants was assessed across States and Union Territories of India. Wealth indices were calculated using socio-economic data of the survey. Concentration index of inequality and one way ANOVA assessed economic inequality in tobacco consumption and variation of tobacco consumption across quintiles. Multiple logistic regression was done for tobacco consumption and wealth index adjusting for age, sex, area, education and occupation. Results: Overall prevalence of smoking and smokeless tobacco consumption was 13.9 per cent (14.6, 13.3) and 25.8 per cent (26.6, 25.0), respectively. Prevalence of current smoking varied from 1.6 per cent (richest quintile in Odisha) to 42.2 per cent (poorest quintile in Meghalaya). Prevalence of current smokeless tobacco consumption varied from 1.7 per cent (richest quintile in Jammu and Kashmir) to 59.4 per cent (poorest quintile in Mizoram). Decreasing odds of tobacco consumption with increasing wealth was observed in most of the States. Reverse trend of tobacco consumption was observed in Nagaland. Significant difference in odds of smoking and smokeless tobacco consumption with wealth quintiles was observed. Concentration index of inequality was significant for smoking tobacco -0.7 (-0.62 to-0.78) and not significant for smokeless tobacco consumption -0.15 (0.01to-0.33) Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of our analysis indicate that tobacco control policy and public health interventions need to consider widespread socio-economic inequities in tobacco consumption across the States in India.


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