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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 141  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 697-708

Socio-economic & demographic determinants of hypertension & knowledge, practices & risk behaviour of tribals in India

Division of Community Studies, National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR), Hyderabad, India

Correspondence Address:
A Laxmaiah
Division of Community Studies, National Institute of Nutrition (ICMR), Jamai-Osmania (PO), Tarnaka, Hyderabad 500 007, Telangana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0971-5916.159592

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Background & objectives: An increase in prevalence of hypertension has been observed in all ethnic groups in India. The objective of the present study was to estimate prevalence and determinants of hypertension among tribals and their awareness, treatment practices and risk behaviours in nine States of India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study adopting multistage random sampling procedure was carried out. About 120 Integrated Tribal Development Authority villages were selected randomly from each State. From each village, 40 households were covered randomly. All men and women ≥ 20 yr of age in the selected households were included for various investigations. Results: A total of 21141 men and 26260 women participated in the study. The prevalence of hypertension after age adjustment was 27.1 and 26.4 per cent among men and women, respectively. It was higher in the s0 tates of Odisha (50-54.4%) and Kerala (36.7-45%) and lowest in Gujarat (7-11.5%). The risk of hypertension was 6-8 times higher in elderly people and 2-3 times in 35-59 yr compared with 20-34 yr. Only <10 per cent of men and women were known hypertensives and more than half on treatment (55-68%). Men with general and abdominal obesity were at 1.69 (CI: 1.43-2.01) and 2.42 (CI: 2.01-2.91) times higher risk of hypertension, respectively, while it was 2.03 (CI=1.77-2.33) and 2.35 (CI 2.12-2.60) times higher in women. Those using tobacco and consuming alcohol were at a higher risk of hypertension compared with the non users. Interpretation & conclusions: The study revealed high prevalence of hypertension among tribals in India. Age, literacy, physical activity, consumption of tobacco, alcohol and obesity were significantly associated with hypertension. Awareness and knowledge about hypertension and health seeking behaviour were low. Appropriate intervention strategies need to be adopted to increase awareness and treatment practices of hypertension among tribals.

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