Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research
  Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login  
  Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size Users Online: 2814    

   Table of Contents      
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 141  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 5-7

Lung cancer: Prevalent trends & emerging concepts

1 Department of Medical Oncology, Dr B.R. Ambedkar Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi 110 029, India
2 Department of Medical Oncology & Haematology, Fortis Memorial Research Institute Sector 44, Gurgaon 122 002, Haryana, India

Date of Web Publication2-Apr-2015

Correspondence Address:
Vinod Raina
Department of Medical Oncology & Haematology, Fortis Memorial Research Institute Sector 44, Gurgaon 122 002, Haryana
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0971-5916.154479

Rights and Permissions

How to cite this article:
Malik PS, Raina V. Lung cancer: Prevalent trends & emerging concepts. Indian J Med Res 2015;141:5-7

How to cite this URL:
Malik PS, Raina V. Lung cancer: Prevalent trends & emerging concepts. Indian J Med Res [serial online] 2015 [cited 2021 Sep 21];141:5-7. Available from:

Lung cancer is one of the commonest cancers and cause of cancer related deaths all over the world. It accounts for 13 per cent of all new cancer cases and 19 per cent of cancer related deaths worldwide. There were 1.8 million new lung cancer cases estimated to occur in 2012 [1] . In India, lung cancer constitutes 6.9 per cent of all new cancer cases and 9.3 per cent of all cancer related deaths in both sexes, it is the commonest cancer and cause of cancer related mortality in men, with the highest reported incidences from Mizoram in both males and females (Age adjusted rate 28.3 and 28.7 per 100,000 population in males and females, respectively) [2] . The time trends of lung cancer show a significant rise in Delhi, Chennai and Bengaluru in both sexes. The incidence and pattern of lung cancer differ as per geographic region and ethnicity and largely reflect the prevalence and pattern of smoking. The overall 5-year survival rate of lung cancer is dismal with approximately 15 per cent in developed countries and 5 per cent in developing countries [3] . s0 creening by low dose computed tomography (CT) in high risk population demonstrated a relative risk reduction of 20 per cent in lung cancer mortality but with a false positive rate of 96 per cent [4] . In India where tuberculosis is prevalent, the applicability of such screening tool is questionable. Development of newer non invasive methods/ biomarkers for early diagnosis and screening of high risk population is warranted.

Over the years, our understanding of disease biology has evolved. The histological classification is now stretching to molecular classification. Newer molecular targets and driver mutations have been identified which play a major role in pathogenesis that can be addressed with therapeutic interventions [5] . These advancements have led to the development of more individualized treatment modalities, the so called era of "personalized medicine". There has been a new interest in the histological characterization of lung cancer in view of newer histology guided therapeutic modalities and genomic classification [6],[7] . The use of generic terms non small cell and small cell lung cancer (NSCLC and SCLC), is being challenged [8] . In the Western countries and most of the Asian countries [9],[10] adenocarcinoma has surpassed squamous cell carcinoma [9],[10] . This shift might be attributable partly to the smoking habits, particularly filtered cigarettes; moreover, there is also increasing incidence of lung cancer in females and non smokers [9],[11],[12] . Most of the previous Indian studies have described squamous cell carcinoma as the commonest histology [13],[14] however, some recent studies from two major centres are showing a changing pattern in India [15],[16] . We have reported that adenocarcinoma has become the commonest subtype provided a careful pathology review is done [16] . The use of appropriate immunohistochemistry improves the histological sub-typing and should be used more often.

At present more than 50 per cent of lung adenocarcinomas and about a third of squamous cell carcinomas can be characterized based on the mutation profile [17] . This molecular classification has led to development of targeted therapeutic strategies. Mutations in epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) best illustrate the therapeutic importance of molecular classification. EGFR mutations strongly predict the efficacy of inhibitors of EGFR with response rates higher than 70 per cent seen in many studies [18] . Two prospective, randomized, phase 3 studies of patients with untreated metastatic NSCLC (Iressa Pan-Asia Study and WJTOG3405) have found that first-line gefitinib leads to longer progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with tumours positive for EGFR mutations than does platinum based doublet chemotherapy [18],[19] . Similarly erlotinib has also shown better response rates and PFS as compared to chemotherapy for first line treatment in EGFR mutation positive advanced NSCLC [20],[21] .

genomic expression, mutational and proteomic profiling studies, as well as various mouse lung tumour models have led to the identification of additional molecular driver mutations [22],[23] . Another such example of mutation driven therapy is targeting EML4-ALK (echinoderm microtubule-associated protein like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase) rearrangement. Biologically, EML4-ALK fusions result in protein oligomerisation and constitutive activation of the kinase [24] . The frequency of EML4-ALK translocation ranges from 3 to 7 per cent in unselected NSCLC [24] . Detection methods include reverse-transcriptase PCR, fluorescence in-situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. EML4-ALK translocations are generally found in tumours with wild type EGFR and KRAS [25] . Tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting ALK, crizotinib has shown a response rate of 65 per cent in previously treated patients of NSCLC that harbour ALK rearrangement and has been approved for this indication [26],[27] . Another ALK inhibitor certinib has also been recently approved based on its encouraging response rates of 56 per cent in patients who have progressed on crizotinib [28] .

The prevalence of specific mutation varies among various ethnic and geographic populations. For example, the prevalence of EGFR mutation is around 10 per cent in Caucasians while it has been reported to be as high as 60 per cent in Asians [29],[30] . In India the frequency of EGFR mutations has been found to be between 25-50 per cent in various studies [31],[32],[33],[34] .

With these advances, the validation of targeted therapeutic compounds should ideally parallel with the development of predictive biomarkers [35] . In this context, the availability of high quality molecular testing is pivotal and should be integrated into treatment guidelines. The accessibility of such testing to majority of our population is largely limited due to the high cost. Lack of quality control and uniformity of techniques and standards among various laboratories are also issues of concern. Bulk use of these new techniques are likely to reduce the cost of these tests. Adequacy of tumour tissue for molecular profiling is an important issue and even more relevant in lung cancer where the tissue yield is limited by small core biopsies. Judicious use of immunohistochemistry and conservation of samples for molecular testing would be helpful. Cell free circulating tumour DNA is also emerging as a useful tool in these situations and can be used for mutation testing and therapeutic monitoring [36] . The genetic heterogeneity among various ethnic populations has brought to the stage the issue of molecular characterizations in lung cancer and the need for regional studies.

   References Top

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, Dikshit R, Eser S, Mathers C, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from:, accessed on January 21, 2014.  Back to cited text no. 1
National Cancer Registry Programme. Three Year Report of Population Based Cancer Registries: 2009-2011. Indian Council of Medical Research; 2013. Available from:, accessed on January 21, 2014.  Back to cited text no. 2
Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin 2005; 55 : 74-108.   Back to cited text no. 3
National Lung Screening Trial Research Team, Aberle DR, Adams AM, Berg CD, Black WC, Clapp JD, Fagerstrom RM, et al. Reduced lung-cancer mortality with low-dose computed tomographic screening. N Engl J Med 2011; 365 : 395-409.   Back to cited text no. 4
Pao W, Girard N. New driver mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer. Lancet Oncol 2011; 12 : 175-80.   Back to cited text no. 5
Standfield L, Weston AR, Barraclough H, Van Kooten M, Pavlakis N. Histology as a treatment effect modifier in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: a systematic review of the evidence. Respirol Carlton Vic 2011; 16 : 1210-20.   Back to cited text no. 6
Scagliotti G, Brodowicz T, Shepherd FA, Zielinski C, Vansteenkiste J, Manegold C, et al. Treatment-by-histology interaction analyses in three phase III trials show superiority of pemetrexed in nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer. J Thorac Oncol 2011; 6 : 64-70.   Back to cited text no. 7
Ettinger DS. NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Non Small Cell Lung Cancer, Ver 2.2012. National Comprehensive Cancer Network; 2012. Available from:, accessed on January 21, 2014.  Back to cited text no. 8
Valaitis J, Warren S, Gamble D. Increasing incidence of adenocarcinoma of the lung. Cancer 1981; 47 : 1042-6.   Back to cited text no. 9
Janssen-Heijnen MLG, Coebergh J-WW. The changing epidemiology of lung cancer in Europe. Lung Cancer 2003; 41 : 245-58.   Back to cited text no. 10
Thun MJ, Henley SJ, Burns D, Jemal A, Shanks TG, Calle EE. Lung cancer death rates in lifelong nonsmokers. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006; 98 : 691-9.   Back to cited text no. 11
Wakelee HA, Chang ET, Gomez SL, Keegan TH, Feskanich D, Clarke CA, et al. Lung cancer incidence in never smokers. J Clin Oncol 2007; 25 : 472-8.   Back to cited text no. 12
Behera D, Balamugesh T. Lung cancer in India. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 2004; 46 : 269-81.   Back to cited text no. 13
Singh N, Aggarwal AN, Gupta D, Behera D, Jindal SK. Unchanging clinico-epidemiological profile of lung cancer in north India over three decades. Cancer Epidemiol 2010; 34 : 101-4.   Back to cited text no. 14
Noronha V, Dikshit R, Raut N, Joshi A, Pramesh CS, George K, et al. Epidemiology of lung cancer in India: focus on the differences between non-smokers and smokers: a single-centre experience. Indian J Cancer 2012; 49 : 74-81.   Back to cited text no. 15
Malik PS, Sharma MC, Mohanti BK, Shukla NK, Deo S, Mohan A, et al. Clinico-pathological profile of lung cancer at AIIMS: a changing paradigm in India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2013; 14 : 489-94.   Back to cited text no. 16
Stella GM, Luisetti M, Pozzi E, Comoglio PM. Oncogenes in non-small-cell lung cancer: emerging connections and novel therapeutic dynamics. Lancet Respir Med 2013; 1 : 251-61.   Back to cited text no. 17
Mok TS, Wu Y-L, Thongprasert S, Yang C-H, Chu D-T, Saijo N, et al. Gefitinib or carboplatin-paclitaxel in pulmonary adenocarcinoma. N Engl J Med 2009; 361 : 947-57.   Back to cited text no. 18
Mitsudomi T, Morita S, Yatabe Y, Negoro S, Okamoto I, Tsurutani J, et al. Gefitinib versus cisplatin plus docetaxel in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer harbouring mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor (WJTOG3405): an open label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 2010; 11 : 121-8.   Back to cited text no. 19
Zhou C, Wu Y-L, Chen G, Feng J, Liu X-Q, Wang C, et al. Erlotinib versus chemotherapy as first-line treatment for patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (OPTIMAL, CTONG-0802): a multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol 2011; 12 : 735-42.   Back to cited text no. 20
Rosell R, Carcereny E, Gervais R, Vergnenegre A, Massuti B, Felip E, et al. Erlotinib versus standard chemotherapy as first-line treatment for European patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (EURTAC): a multicentre, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol 2012; 13 : 239-46.   Back to cited text no. 21
Motoi N, Szoke J, Riely GJ, Seshan VE, Kris MG, Rusch VW, et al. Lung adenocarcinoma: modification of the 2004 WHO mixed subtype to include the major histologic subtype suggests correlations between papillary and micropapillary adenocarcinoma subtypes, EGFR mutations and gene expression analysis. Am J Surg Pathol 2008; 32 : 810-27.   Back to cited text no. 22
Fisher GH, Wellen SL, Klimstra D, Lenczowski JM, Tichelaar JW, Lizak MJ, et al. Induction and apoptotic regression of lung adenocarcinomas by regulation of a K-Ras transgene in the presence and absence of tumor suppressor genes. Genes Dev 2001; 15 : 3249-62.   Back to cited text no. 23
Soda M, Choi YL, Enomoto M, Takada S, Yamashita Y, Ishikawa S, et al. Identification of the transforming EML4-ALK fusion gene in non-small-cell lung cancer. Nature 2007; 448 : 561-6.   Back to cited text no. 24
Shaw AT, Yeap BY, Mino-Kenudson M, Digumarthy SR, Costa DB, Heist RS, et al. Clinical features and outcome of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer who harbor EML4-ALK. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27 : 4247-53.   Back to cited text no. 25
Camidge DR, Bang Y-J, Kwak EL, Iafrate AJ, Varella-Garcia M, Fox SB, et al. Activity and safety of crizotinib in patients with ALK-positive non-small-cell lung cancer: updated results from a phase 1 study. Lancet Oncol 2012; 13 : 1011-9.   Back to cited text no. 26
Shaw AT, Kim D-W, Nakagawa K, Seto T, Crinó L, Ahn M-J, et al. Crizotinib versus chemotherapy in advanced ALK-positive lung cancer. N Engl J Med 2013; 368 : 2385-94.   Back to cited text no. 27
Shaw AT, Kim D-W, Mehra R, Tan DSW, Felip E, Chow LQM, et al. Ceritinib in ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 2014; 370 : 1189-97.   Back to cited text no. 28
Sharma SV, Bell DW, Settleman J, Haber DA. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in lung cancer. Nat Rev Cancer 2007; 7 : 169-81.   Back to cited text no. 29
Shi Y, Au JS-K, Thongprasert S, Srinivasan S, Tsai C-M, Khoa MT, et al. A prospective, molecular epidemiology study of EGFR mutations in Asian patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer of adenocarcinoma histology (PIONEER). J Thorac Oncol 2014; 9 : 154-62.   Back to cited text no. 30
Noronha V, Prabhash K, Thavamani A, Chougule A, Purandare N, Joshi A, et al. EGFR mutations in Indian lung cancer patients: clinical correlation and outcome to EGFR targeted therapy. P l0 oS One 2013; 8 : e61561.   Back to cited text no. 31
Veldore VH, Rao RM, Kakara S, Pattanayak S, Tejaswi R, Sahoo R, et al. Epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in non-small-cell lung carcinomas: a retrospective analysis of 1036 lung cancer specimens from a network of tertiary cancer care centers in India. Indian J Cancer 2013; 50 : 87-93.   Back to cited text no. 32
Chougule A, Prabhash K, Noronha V, Joshi A, Thavamani A, Chandrani P, et al. Frequency of EGFR mutations in 907 lung adenocarcioma patients of Indian ethnicity. P l0 oS One 2013; 8 : e76164.   Back to cited text no. 33
Sahoo R, Harini VV, Babu VC, Patil Okaly GV, Rao S, Nargund A, et al. Screening for EGFR mutations in lung cancer, a report from India. Lung Cancer 2011; 73 : 316-9.   Back to cited text no. 34
Li T, Kung H-J, Mack PC, Gandara DR. Genotyping and genomic profiling of non-small-cell lung cancer: implications for current and future therapies. J Clin Oncol 2013; 31 : 1039-49.   Back to cited text no. 35
Oxnard GR, Paweletz CP, Kuang Y, Mach SL, O'Connell A, Messineo MM, et al. Noninvasive detection of response and resistance in EGFR-mutant lung cancer using quantitative next-generation genotyping of cell-free plasma DNA. Clin Cancer Res 2014; 20 : 1698-705.  Back to cited text no. 36

This article has been cited by
Manveer kour Raina,Neena Gupta,Sanjeev Kumar,Anuradha Kusum
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
Sabari Devi,Rituparna Dhekial
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Genetic evaluation of the variants using MassARRAY in non-small cell lung cancer among North Indians
Gh. Rasool Bhat,Itty Sethi,Amrita Bhat,Sonali Verma,Divya Bakshi,Bhanu Sharma,Muddasser Nazir,Khursheed A. Dar,Deepak Abrol,Ruchi Shah,Rakesh Kumar
Scientific Reports. 2021; 11(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 A comprehensive meta-analysis and a case–control study give insights into genetic susceptibility of lung cancer and subgroups
Debmalya Sengupta,Souradeep Banerjee,Pramiti Mukhopadhyay,Ritabrata Mitra,Tamohan Chaudhuri,Abhijit Sarkar,Gautam Bhattacharjee,Somsubhra Nath,Susanta Roychoudhury,Samsiddhi Bhattacharjee,Mainak Sengupta
Scientific Reports. 2021; 11(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Thiol antioxidants sensitize malabaricone C induced cancer cell death via reprogramming redox sensitive p53 and NF-?B proteins in vitro and in vivo
Mrityunjay Tyagi,Ajay Kumar Bauri,Subrata Chattopadhyay,Birija Sankar Patro
Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 DNA biodots based targeted theranostic nanomedicine for the imaging and treatment of non-small cell lung cancer
Abhishek Jha,Matte Kasi Viswanadh,Ankita Sanjay Burande,Abhishesh Kumar Mehata,Suruchi Poddar,Kanchan Yadav,Sanjeev Kumar Mahto,Avanish Singh Parmar,Madaswamy S. Muthu
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules. 2020;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Cell Derived Matrix Fibulin-1 Associates With Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor to Inhibit Its Activation, Localization and Function in Lung Cancer Calu-1 Cells
Keerthi Harikrishnan,Omkar Joshi,Saili Madangirikar,Nagaraj Balasubramanian
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology. 2020; 8
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Evaluation of diagnostic utility of Acridine orange staining using fluorescence microscopy in lung cancers: A diagnostic test evaluation
Dhabale Mukund Y,Gadkari Rasika U
IP Archives of Cytology and Histopathology Research. 2020; 5(4): 288
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 High frequency of exon 20 S768I EGFR mutation detected in malignant pleural effusions: A poor prognosticator of NSCLC
George DæSouza,Chirag Dhar,Vishal Kyalanoor,Lokendra Yadav,Mugdha Sharma,Mohammad Nawaz S,Sweta Srivastava
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Genetic variant rs2494938 of LRFN2 gene is associated with non-small cell lung cancer risk in North-Indian population
Gh. Rasool Bhat,Sonali Verma,Amrita Bhat,Ruchi Shah,Itty Sethi,Khursheed A. Dar,Deepak Abrol,Audesh Bhat,Rakesh Raina,Rakesh Kumar
3 Biotech. 2020; 10(9)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 TIPE2 Induced the Proliferation, Survival, and Migration of Lung Cancer Cells Through Modulation of Akt/mTOR/NF-?B Signaling Cascade
Devivasha Bordoloi,Kishore Banik,Ganesan Padmavathi,Rajesh Vikkurthi,Choudhary Harsha,Nand Kishor Roy,Anuj Kumar Singh,Javadi Monisha,Hong Wang,Alan Prem Kumar,Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara
Biomolecules. 2019; 9(12): 836
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Association of newly identified genetic variant rs2853677 of TERT with non-small cell lung cancer and leukemia in population of Jammu and Kashmir, India
Gh. Rasool Bhat,Amrita Bhat,Sonali Verma,Itty Sethi,Ruchi Shah,Varun Sharma,Khursheed A. Dar,Deepak Abrol,Subiya Kaneez,Sandeep Kaul,Ramesh Ganju,Rakesh Kumar
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Genetic variant rs10937405 of TP63 and susceptibility to lung cancer risk in north Indian population
GH. Rasool Bhat,Amrita Bhat,Sonali Verma,Itty Sethi,Ruchi Shah,Varun Sharma,S. Minerva,Divya Bakshi,Bhanu Sharma,Sandeep Koul,Deepak Abrol,Audesh Bhat,Rakesh Kumar
Journal of Genetics. 2019; 98(3)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 EGFR Mutation Analysis in Non-small Cell Lung Carcinoma Patients: A Liquid Biopsy Approach
Jigna Joshi,Apexa Raval,Urja Desai,Vinal Upadhyay,Mansi Bhavsar,Kanisha Shah,Rakesh Rawal,Harsha Panchal,Franky Shah
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry. 2019;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Biomarkers in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers: Indian Consensus Guidelines for Molecular Testing
Kumar Prabhash,Suresh H. Advani,Ullas Batra,Bivas Biswas,Anuradha Chougule,Mithua Ghosh,Vamshi Krishna Muddu,T. P. Sahoo,Ashok K. Vaid
Advances in Therapy. 2019; 36(4): 766
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
Sourav Chakraborty,Saugata Ghosh
Journal of Evidence Based Medicine and Healthcare. 2018; 5(15): 1301
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Anti-Proliferative Activities of Vasicinone on Lung Carcinoma Cells Mediated via Activation of Both Mitochondria-Dependent and Independent Pathways
Tapan Dey,Prachurjya Dutta,Prasenjit Manna,Jatin Kalita,Hari Prasanna Deka Boruah,Alak Kumar Buragohain,Balagopalan Unni
Biomolecules & Therapeutics. 2018; 26(4): 409
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 The Prognostic Role of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) in Lung Cancer
Joanna Kapeleris,Arutha Kulasinghe,Majid E. Warkiani,Ian Vela,Liz Kenny,Kenneth OæByrne,Chamindie Punyadeera
Frontiers in Oncology. 2018; 8
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Licarin A induces cell death by activation of autophagy and apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells
Uma Maheswari,Krishna Ghosh,Sudha Rani Sadras
Apoptosis. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Spatial gradients of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air, atmospheric deposition, and surface water of the Ganges River basin
Brij Mohan Sharma,Lisa Melymuk,Girija K. Bharat,Petra Pribylová,Ondrej Sánka,Jana Klánová,Luca Nizzetto
Science of The Total Environment. 2018; 627: 1495
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Mutations in EMT-Related Genes in ALK Positive Crizotinib Resistant Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers
Jiacong Wei,Anthonie van der Wekken,Ali Saber,Miente Terpstra,Ed Schuuring,Wim Timens,T. Hiltermann,Harry Groen,Anke van den Berg,Klaas Kok
Cancers. 2018; 10(1): 10
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Metástasis gastrointestinales de carcinoma pulmonar primario. Serie de casos y revisión sistemática de la literatura
Andrea Balla,José D. Subiela,Jesús Bollo,Carmen Martínez,Carlos Rodriguez Luppi,Pilar Hernández,Yuliana Pascual-González,Silvia Quaresima,Eduard M. Targarona
Cirugía Española. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 Formulation of vitamin D encapsulated cinnamon oil nanoemulsion: Its potential anti-cancerous activity in human alveolar carcinoma cells
Nikita Meghani,Pal Patel,Krupa Kansara,Shivendu Rajan,Nandita Dasgupta,Chidambaram Ramalingam,Ashutosh Kumar
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
Jyothi Rani E.R,Supriya N.K,Rejna Sreedharan,Ravindran Chetambath
Journal of Evidence Based Medicine and Healthcare. 2018; 5(32): 2402
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
Shailley Arora Sehgal,Anil Khurana,Paramjeet Kaur,Ashok Chauhan
Journal of Evidence Based Medicine and Healthcare. 2018; 5(52): 3601
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Gastrointestinal Metastasis From Primary Lung Cancer. Case Series and Systematic Literature Review
Andrea Balla,José D. Subiela,Jesús Bollo,Carmen Martínez,Carlos Rodriguez Luppi,Pilar Hernández,Yuliana Pascual-González,Silvia Quaresima,Eduard M. Targarona
Cirugía Española (English Edition). 2018; 96(4): 184
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 XPF polymorphism toward lung cancer susceptibility and survival in patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy
Shweta Lawania,Siddharth Sharma,Navneet Singh,Digamber Behera
Future Oncology. 2018; 14(11): 1071
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Association of 12 polymorphic variants conferring genetic risk to lung cancer in Indian population: An extensive meta-analysis
Debmalya Sengupta,Udayan Guha,Samsiddhi Bhattacharjee,Mainak Sengupta
Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Radiography and Risk Factors of Lung Cancer: Modeling Using an Intelligent System
Bouharati Saddek,Bouharati Imene,Babouche Farid
International Journal of Radiology & Radiation Therapy. 2017; 3(5)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 XPC Polymorphism and Risk for Lung Cancer in North Indian Patients Treated with Platinum Based Chemotherapy and Its Association with Clinical Outcomes
Shweta Lawania,Navneet Singh,Digamber Behera,Siddharth Sharma
Pathology & Oncology Research. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 CD38 as a PET Imaging Target in Lung Cancer
Emily B. Ehlerding,Christopher G. England,Dawei Jiang,Stephen A. Graves,Lei Kang,Saige Lacognata,Todd E. Barnhart,Weibo Cai
Molecular Pharmaceutics. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32 Upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), its role in progression and prognosis of non-small cell lung carcinoma
Niyaz A. Naikoo,Roohi Rasool,Sonaullah Shah,A.G. Ahangar,Mushtaq A. Siddiqi,Zafar A. Shah
Cancer Genetics. 2017; 216-217: 67
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
Mehak Sawhney,Neena Chauhan,Manju Saini,Rakhee Khanduri
Journal of Evidence Based Medicine and Healthcare. 2017; 4(32): 1877
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 ImmunoPET Imaging of CTLA-4 Expression in Mouse Models of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer
Emily B. Ehlerding,Christopher G. England,Rebecca L. Majewski,Hector F. Valdovinos,Dawei Jiang,Glenn Liu,Douglas G. McNeel,Robert J. Nickles,Weibo Cai
Molecular Pharmaceutics. 2017; 14(5): 1782
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 Pulmonary injury associated with radiation therapy – Assessment, complications and therapeutic targets
Rasmi Rajan Radha,Guruvayoorappan Chandrasekharan
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2017; 89: 1092
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
Uday Kakodkar C,Akashdeep Singh Arora,Rohit Vadala
Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences. 2016; 5(43): 2687
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
37 Somatic mutation analysis of KRAS, BRAF, HER2 and PTEN in EGFR mutation-negative non-small cell lung carcinoma: determination of frequency, distribution pattern and identification of novel deletion in HER2 gene from Indian patients
Sangeet Bhaumik,Firoz Ahmad,Bibhu Ranjan Das
Medical Oncology. 2016; 33(10)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
38 Disability-adjusted life years and economic cost assessment of the health effects related to PM2.5 and PM10 pollution in Mumbai and Delhi, in India from 1991 to 2015
Kamal Jyoti Maji,Anil Kumar Dikshit,Ashok Deshpande
Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded587    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 38    

Recommend this journal