Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research
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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 139  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 754-761

Entomological investigations into an epidemic of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in northern districts of West Bengal, India (2011-2012)

1 Centre for Research in Medical Entomology (ICMR), Madurai, India
2 West Bengal Public Health & Administrative Service, Darjeeling, India

Correspondence Address:
B K Tyagi
Centre for Research in Medical Entomology (ICMR) #4. Sarojini Street, Chinna Chokkikulam, Madurai 625 002
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

PMID: 25027086

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Background & objectives: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most important arboviral diseases of human beings with outbreaks in many parts of Southeast Asia including India. We present the entomological findings of an outbreak occurred in northern part of West Bengal during 2011-2012 with special emphasis on the role of JE vectors in different seasons. Methods: Adult mosquito collections were made with the help of mouth aspirators, aided by flash lights during day time resting inside human and animal habitations as indoor, and resting outside field grasses, bushes, underneath of culverts and bridges as outdoor, and in and around the pig enclosures and cattle sheds during dusk period in JE affected villages from Cooch Behar, Dakshin Dinajpur, Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts in North West Bengal. In all study villages, a long handled with enamel bowl dipper was used to obtain immature stages of mosquitoes from various breeding habitats. Results: A total of 19 different types of mosquito breeding habitats were examined for vectors of JE. From these habitats, 23.7 per cent were positive for breeding during the study period. Overall, nine different species were recorded through emergence, but none was positive for JE virus when subjected for detection of virus. Adult mosquitoes of more than 50 per cent of the potential JE vector species obtained through dusk and the rest through indoor and outdoor collections in all seasons. Altogether, 27 different species were recorded. Most of these were JE vectors. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that in addition to Cx. vishnui subgroup, detection of JE virus antigen in Cx. quinquefasciatus indicated the possible maintenance of JE virus in nature through poor vector mosquitoes throughout the year. Since, all potential vector species reported elsewhere in India were also found in this region and fluctuated in density in different seasons, a proper integrated vector control programme needs to be implemented to control JE transmission.

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