Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research
  Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login  
  Home Print this page Email this page Small font sizeDefault font sizeIncrease font size Users Online: 2501       
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2014  |  Volume : 139  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 349-370

Cytogenomics of hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) exposed cells: A comprehensive review


1 Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, India
2 Department of Biotechnology, Integral University, Lucknow, India

Correspondence Address:
Sushil Kumar
Environmental Carcinogenesis Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research Mahatma Ganghi Marg, Post Box 80, Lucknow 226 026
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 24820829

Rights and PermissionsRights and Permissions

The altered cellular gene expression profile is being hypothesized as the possible molecular basis navigating the onset or progress of various morbidities. This hypothesis has been evaluated here in respect of Cr 6+ induced toxicity. Several studies using gene microarray show selective and strategic dysregulations of cellular genes and pathways induced by Cr 6+ . Relevant literature has been reviewed to unravel these changes in different test systems after exposure to Cr 6+ and also to elucidate association if any, of the altered cytogenomics with Cr 6+ induced toxicity or carcinogenicity. The aim was to verify the hypothesis for critical role of altered cytogenomics in onset of Cr 6+ induced biological / clinical effects by identifying genes modulated commonly by the toxicant irrespective of test system or test concentrations / doses, and by scrutinizing their importance in regulation of the flow of mechanistically linked events crucial for resultant morbidities. Their probability as biomarkers to monitor the toxicant induced biological changes is speculative. The modulated genes have been found to cluster under the pathways that manage onset of oxidative stress, DNA damage, apoptosis, cell-cycle regulation, cytoskeleton, morphological changes, energy metabolism, biosynthesis, oncogenes, bioenergetics, and immune system critical for toxicity. In these studies, the identity of genes has been found to differ remarkably; albeit the trend of pathways' dysregulation has been found to remain similar. We conclude that the intensity of dysregulation of genes or pathways involved in mechanistic events forms a sub-threshold or threshold level depending upon the dose and type (including speciation) of the toxicant, duration of exposure, type of target cells, and niche microenvironment of cells, and the intensity of sub-threshold or threshold level of the altered cytogenomics paves way in toxicant exposed cells eventually either to opt for reversal to differentiation and growth, or to result in toxicity like dedifferentiation and apoptosis, respectively.


[FULL TEXT] [PDF]*
Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)
 

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed2167    
    Printed17    
    Emailed1    
    PDF Downloaded437    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal