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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 138  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 663-681

Genomic architecture of HIV-1 infection: Current status & challenges


1 Department of Transplant Immunology & Immunogenetics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Gurvinder Kaur
Senior Research Scientist, Department of Transplant Immunology & Immunogenetics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110 029
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 24434320

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Studies on host genomics have revealed the existence of identifiable HIV-1 specific protective factors among infected individuals who remain naturally resistant viraemia controllers with little or no evidence of virus replication. These factors are broadly grouped into those that are immune associated (MHC, chemokines, cytokines, CTLs and others), linked to viral entry (chemokine co-receptors and ligands), act as post-entry restriction elements (TRIM5a, APOBEC3) and those associated with viral replication (cytokines and others). These features have been identified through multiple experimental approaches ranging from candidate gene approaches, genome wide association studies (GWAS), expression analysis in conjunction with functional assays in humans to primate based models. Several studies have highlighted the individual and population level gross differences both in the viral clade sequences as well as host determined genetic associations. This review collates current information on studies involving major histocompatibility complex (MHC) as well as non MHC genes in the context of HIV-1 infection and AIDS involving varied ethnic groups. Special focus of the review is on the genetic studies carried out on the Indian population. Further challenges with regard to therapeutic interventions based on current knowledge have been discussed along with discussion on documented cases of stem cell therapy and very early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) interventions.


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