Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research
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Year : 2012  |  Volume : 136  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 192-204

Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India

1 Department of Microbiology, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Gangtok, Sikkim, India
2 Department of Parasitology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan
3 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, Thailand

Correspondence Address:
T Shantikumar Singh
Professor & Head, Department of Microbiology, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Gangtok 737 102, Sikkim
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

PMID: 22960885

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Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit'ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade.

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