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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 131  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 150-164

Central sleep apnoea


John D. Dingell Veterans Affairs Medical Center & Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA

Correspondence Address:
S Chowdhuri
John D. Dingell Veterans Affairs Medical Center & Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201, USA

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


PMID: 20308740

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Central sleep apnoea (CSA) is characterized by the cessation of breathing during sleep due to absent ventilatory drive and may be associated with symptoms of insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness or frequent arousals. Central apnoeas occur through two pathophysiologic patterns, either post- hyperventilation or post-hypoventilation. The prevalence of CSA is dependent on the population being studied, the predominant risk factors being elderly age group and co-morbid conditions.Data regarding the racial distribution of this disorder are very limited. CSA may be a clinical marker of underlying medical disorders, including cardiac or neurological disease, with resultant significant morbidity and mortality. Given that the underlying pathogenesis remains poorly understood, therapeutic options are currently limited to empiric treatment with PAP devices and rudimentary attempts at pharmacologic therapy with respiratory stimulant drugs and/or oxygen/carbon dioxide gas supplementation as well as treating the underlying cause. The long-term impact of CSA on health and mortality needs further clarification. Future research should be aimed at elucidating the physiologic determinants and consequences of central breathing instability in populations of different age groups, gender and racial descent, as a prerequisite to the development of novel therapeutic interventions in the different populations.


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