Figure 2: Schematic representation of signalling induced by adhesion molecules inside the host cell. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) binding to fibrinogen (Fn) on the host cell induces the uptake of iron which is to be acquired by the host cell for its own use. Cpn60.2 binding to CD43 induces interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production and also leads to actin reorganization. Adhesion of fibronectin-binding protein (FnBP) to fibronectin stimulates FAK/Src kinase which also leads to actin reorganization and also recruits tryptophan aspartate containing coat protein to early phagosome and prevents its fusion with lysosome. It also triggers calcium upregulation. Malate synthase binding with fibronectin or laminin has been shown. It mainly helps bacteria to survive under hypoxic conditions inside the host cell. Antigen-85 complex binding with fibronectin/elastin induces interferon-γ (IFN-γ) which indicates that it also participates in host cell signalling mechanism. Binding of lipoarabinomannan to C-type lectin/DC-SIGN stimulates Akt protein which phosphorylates Bad protein, and hence, the intrinsic apoptotic pathway is blocked. Mycobacterium tuberculosis pili binding to laminin promotes strong adhesion activity; 19 kDa protein binds with mannose receptor and blocks human leukocyte antigen-antigen D-related (HLA-DR) protein present on major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) and leads to delayed antigen presentation. Heparin-binding haemagglutinin binds to heparin present on host cell and triggers mycobacterial dissemination which is important for its survival inside the host cell.