Figure 2. Schematic representation of neuronal control of the heart. Vagal trunks originating from vagal nuclei in brain-stem exert a negative influence on intrinsic cardiac autonomic nervous system or ganglionated plexi (GP). 4 major GP have been shown here; anterior right (ARGP), inferior right (IRGP), superior left (SLGP) and inferior left (ILGP). A small group of GP located along the Ligament of Marshal (LOM) has also been shown. The right side of the chart represents the chronology of events that lead to atrial fibrillation (AF) when the inhibitory tone from higher centers is lost as in the elderly. Also shown are the different neuro-modulation strategies that could be effective in treating or preventing the episodes of AF; 1. Vagus nerve stimulation [electrical or electromagnetic stimulation of vagus] 2. Radiogrequency GP ablation [usually performed along with conventional pulmonary vein isolation (PV)]3. Magnetic nano-particle (MNP) induced GP ablation [MNPs carrying a neurotoxin N-isopropyl acrylamide monomer (NIPA-M) are trapped within the GP with the help of magnetic field which results in suppression of GP activity].