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   2018| February  | Volume 147 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 25, 2018

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Changing facades of Vibrio cholerae: An enigma in the epidemiology of cholera
N Lekshmi, Iype Joseph, T Ramamurthy, Sabu Thomas
February 2018, 147(2):133-141
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_280_17  PMID:29806601
Cholera, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae, has ravaged humanity from time immemorial. Although the disease can be treated using antibiotics along with administration of oral rehydration salts and controlled by good sanitation, cholera is known to have produced mayhems in ancient times when little was known about the pathogen. By the 21st century, ample information about the pathogen, its epidemiology, genetics, treatment and control strategies was revealed. However, there is still fear of cholera outbreaks in developing countries, especially in the wake of natural calamities. Studies have proved that the bacterium is mutating and evolving, out-competing all our efforts to treat the disease with previously used antibiotics and control with existing vaccines. In this review, the major scientific insights of cholera research are discussed. Considering the important role of biofilm formation in the V. cholerae life cycle, the vast availability of next-generation sequencing data of the pathogen and multi-omic approach, the review thrusts on the identification of suitable biofilm-inhibiting targets and the discovery of anti-biofilm drugs from nature to control the disease.
  6 2,433 721
Screening for mutation hotspots in Bardet–Biedl syndrome patients from India
Sathya Priya Chandrasekar, Sheela Namboothiri, Parveen Sen, Sripriya Sarangapani
February 2018, 147(2):177-182
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1822_15  PMID:29806606
Background & objectives: Bardet–Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple organ defects involving retina, kidney, liver and brain. Disease-causing mutations in BBS genes narrowed down by homozygosity mapping in small consanguineous and non-consanguineous pedigrees were reported in 80 per cent of the study population. This study was aimed to screen these genes (BBS3, BBS10) and specific exons of BBS genes (BBS1, BBS5, MKKS, BBS9, BBS11 and BBS12) for recurrent mutations in a selected sample of BBS patients. Methods: The recurrent mutations in BBS genes were screened in the BBS affected individuals by PCR based direct sequencing. The pathogenicity of the observed mutations were confirmed by co-segregation analysis, screening of healthy unrelated controls and in silico analysis. Results: In the 64 BBS patients (44 males, 20 females) were studied, mutations were predominant in BBS10 and ARL6 genes; the c.272T>C; p.(I91T) mutation in ARL6 gene was a recurrent mutation. One novel non-sense mutation c.425T>G; p(L142*) was obtained in BBS5 gene (family BSI-31). Interpretation & conclusions: BBS10 gene mutations clustered in exon 2 of the gene suggesting the exon as a probable hotspot for mutations in Indian population. A cost- and time-effective strategy for the molecular diagnosis of BBS was designed based on these results.
  4 1,181 249
C-glycosyl flavone from Urginea indica inhibits proliferation & angiogenesis & induces apoptosis via cyclin-dependent kinase 6 in human breast, hepatic & colon cancer cell lines
Ganesh Babu Bevara, AD Naveen Kumar, K Laxmi Koteshwaramma, Anil Badana, Seema Kumari, Rama Rao Malla
February 2018, 147(2):158-168
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_51_16  PMID:29806604
Background & objectives: Search for novel compounds beneficial to the treatment of cancer attracts a great deal of attention. We earlier demonstrated the isolation of 5,7-dihydroxy-2-[4'-hydroxy-3'-(methoxymethyl)phenyl]-6-C-β-glucopyranosyl flavone, a novel C-glycosyl flavone from Urginea indica bulb. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of this novel compound on human normal epithelial and breast, hepatic and colon cancer cell lines. Methods: The maximum non-toxic concentration (MNTC) and cytotoxicity of C-glycosyl flavone were assayed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). Cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Docking studies were performed to predict possible targets. Levels of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and CDK6, Bcl2 and BAX and cytochrome c were quantified by specific ELISA. Mitochondrial membrane potential was determined using JC-1 dye. Apoptosis was quantified by Annexin V ELISA method. Results: Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated G0/G1 arrest. In silico docking studies predicted CDK1 and CDK6 as a possible target of C-glycosyl flavone. In vitro study confirmed CDK6 as the main target in C-glycosyl flavone-treated cancer cell lines. C-glycosyl flavone treatment also induced membrane blebbing, chromatin fragmentation and nucleosome formation. C-glycosyl flavone treatment caused marked loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, decrease in Bcl2/BAX ratio and activation of caspase-3 and release of caspase-9 and cytochrome c. In addition, C-glycosyl flavone inhibited the tumour-induced angiogenesis and reduced the vascular endothelial growth factor levels. Similarly, CDK6 inhibitor significantly inhibited proliferation and angiogenesis and induced apoptosis in tested cell lines. Interpretation & conclusions: The results indicate that C-glycosyl flavone may exert induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and inhibition of angiogenesis via CDK6. Thus, targeting CDK6 using C-glycosyl flavone may serve as a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of breast, hepatic and colon cancers.
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Assessment of potential biomarkers of atherosclerosis in Indian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Namrata Bindurao Kulkarni, Meghana Ulhas Ganu, Sanjay Ganpati Godbole, Sudha S Deo
February 2018, 147(2):169-176
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_852_16  PMID:29806605
Background & objectives: Various biological markers of subclinical atherosclerosis have been proposed to predict cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, there are only a few clinical studies assessing the role of invasive biomarkers [CD-36, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and YKL-40] in Indian patients with type 2 DM (T2DM). Hence, the present study was conducted to assess protein levels and gene expression of CD-36, PPAR-γ and YKL-40 in patients with T2DM and compare that with hypertensive and healthy controls. Methods: All the participants were subjected to medical history, anthropometric measurements and biochemical and biomarker (ELISA and real-time polymerase chain reaction) estimations. The study groups consisted of patients with T2DM (>5 yr) with hypertension (n=55), patients with T2DM (<2 yr) without hypertension (n=28), hypertensive controls (n=31) and healthy controls (n=30). Results: Gene expressions of YKL-40 and CD36 were significantly higher in patients with T2DM (>5 yr) with hypertension compared to healthy controls (P=0.006). In addition, a significant increase in serum levels of sCD36, PPAR-γ and YKL-40 was observed in patients with T2DM (>5 yr) with hypertension compared to healthy controls (P<0.05). Serum levels as well as gene expression of CD36 showed significant correlation with serum levels as well as gene expression of PPAR-γ (ρ=0.45 and ρ=0.51; P<0.001), respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: CD36 and YKL-40 may be potential inflammatory biomarkers for early onset of atherosclerosis in patients with T2DM.
  2 1,433 378
Chemoradiation therapy induces in vivo changes in gene promoter methylation & gene transcript expression in patients with invasive cervical cancer
Swati Sood, Firuza D Patel, Radhika Srinivasan, Lakhbir K Dhaliwal
February 2018, 147(2):151-157
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1939_16  PMID:29806603
Background & objectives: Invasive cervical cancer patients are primarily treated with chemoradiation therapy. The overall and disease-free survival in these patients is variable and depends on the tumoral response apart from the tumour stage. This study was undertaken to assess whether in vivo changes in gene promoter methylation and transcript expression in invasive cervical cancer were induced by chemoradiation. Hence, paired pre- and post-treatment biopsy samples were evaluated for in vivo changes in promoter methylation and transcript expression of 10 genes (ESR1, BRCA1, RASSF1A, MYOD1, MLH1, hTERT, MGMT, DAPK1, BAX and BCL2L1) in response to chemoradiation therapy. Methods: In patients with locally advanced invasive cervical cancer, paired pre- and post-treatment biopsies after 10 Gy chemoradiation were obtained. DNA/RNA was extracted and gene promoter methylation status was evaluated by custom-synthesized methylation PCR arrays, and the corresponding gene transcript expression was determined by absolute quantification method using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results: Changes in the gene promoter methylation as well as gene expression following chemoradiation therapy were observed. BAX promoter methylation showed a significant increase (P<0.01) following treatment. There was a significant increase in the gene transcript expression of BRCA1 (P<0.01), DAPK1 and ESR1 (P<0.05), whereas MYOD1 and MLH1 gene transcript expression was significantly decreased (P<0.05) following treatment. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of our study show that chemoradiation therapy can induce epigenetic alterations as well as affect gene expression in tissues of invasive cervical cancer which may have implications in determining radiation response.
  2 915 270
Aetiological spectrum of severe community-acquired pneumonia in HIV-positive patients from Pune, India
Arati Mane, Pankaj Gujar, Shraddha Gaikwad, Shilpa Bembalkar, Sanjay Gaikwad, Tilak Dhamgaye, Arun Risbud
February 2018, 147(2):202-206
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1590_16  PMID:29806610
  1 1,181 245
Celiac disease in type 1 diabetes mellitus: What are the implications of early diagnosis?
Ankur Gupta
February 2018, 147(2):207-208
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1396_17  PMID:29806611
  1 644 215
Medication adherence patterns in aortic dissection survivors
Ashish Chaddha, Steven Erickson, Eva Kline-Rogers, Daniel Montgomery, Elise Woznicki, Justin Jabara, Kim Eagle
February 2018, 147(2):183-188
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1198_15  PMID:29806607
Background & objectives: Beta-blockers have been shown to improve survival in both type A and type B acute aortic dissection (AAD) patients. Calcium channel blockers have been shown to selectively improve survival only in type B AAD patients. There is a lack of data on medication adherence in AAD survivors. The purpose of this study was to assess medication adherence in patients who survived an AAD. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey-based study of individuals from a single medical centre which was part of the larger International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD). Patients with type A or B AAD who survived to discharge were included in this study. Individuals who were deceased based on the results of an online Social Security Death Index were excluded from the study. Data were obtained from both a survey and also from abstraction from the local academic institution's IRAD registry. A survey packet was sent to patients. One section of this survey was dedicated to assessing medication adherence using the 4-item Morisky scale. Results: Eighty two completed surveys were returned; 74 patients completed the section of the survey pertaining to medication adherence (response rate 38%). Morisky score was ≥1.0 for 27 (36%) patients and 0 for 47 (64%) patients. Thirty three patients reported yes to 'forget to take medications' and eight reported yes to 'careless with medications.' Medication non-adherence (defined as a score of ≥1.0 on Morisky) was associated with increased follow up recurrence of chest pain at one year of follow up. Only two patients stopped their antihypertensive on their own and did not cite a reason for doing this. Interpretation & conclusions: The medication adherence rate for patients who survived an AAD was 64 per cent at a median (Q1, Q3) of 7.1 yr (5.6, 11.5) after discharge, as per the Morisky scale. The clinicians should educate their patients on the importance of antihypertensive therapy and assess for forgetfulness and carelessness at each clinic visit, as well as understand patients' beliefs about drug therapy, all of which have been shown to increase medication adherence.
  1 835 228
Bartonella henselae infection in diverse clinical conditions in a tertiary care hospital in north India
Rama Chaudhry, Prathyusha Kokkayil, Arnab Ghosh, Tej Bahadur, Kamala Kant, Tanu Sagar, Sunil Kumar Kabra, Rakesh Lodha, Aparajit Ballav Dey, Vimala Menon
February 2018, 147(2):189-194
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1932_16  PMID:29806608
Background & objectives: Bartonella henselae causes infections which closely resemble febrile illness and chronic diseases such as tuberculosis and haematological malignancies. There are not many studies on Bartonella infections from India. The present study was undertaken to diagnose B. henselae infection in diverse clinical conditions in a tertiary care hospital in north India. Methods: A total of 145 patients including those with fever and lymphadenopathy, infective endocarditis and neuroretinitis were enrolled in the study. Whole blood, serum and lymph node aspirate and valvular vegetations if available, were obtained. Samples were plated on chocolate agar and brain-heart infusion agar containing five per cent fresh rabbit blood and were incubated at 35°C for at least four weeks in five per cent CO2with high humidity. Immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA) was done for the detection of IgM antibodies in the serum using a commercial kit. Whole blood was used to perform polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the citrate synthase gene (gltA). Results: IFA was positive in 11 of 140 (7.85%) patients and PCR was positive in 3 of 140 (2.14%) patients. Culture was negative in all the cases. A higher incidence of Bartonella infection was seen in patients with fever and lymphadenopathy (n=30), seven of whom were children. In ophthalmological conditions, four cases were IFA positive. Interpretation & conclusions: The present study shows that the threat of Bartonella infection is a reality in India. It is also an important treatable cause of fever and lymphadenopathy in children. Serology and PCR are useful tests for its diagnosis. Clinicians should consider Bartonella infection in the differential diagnosis of febrile illnesses and chronic diseases.
  1 1,264 283
Rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis
SC Sharma
February 2018, 147(2):211-211
  - 293 121
OCT angiography in retinal and macular diseases
Jay Chhablani
February 2018, 147(2):212-212
  - 358 125
Salivary gland neoplasms
Abhay T Kamath
February 2018, 147(2):212-213
  - 300 121
Reflections on medical law and ethics in India
MC Gupta
February 2018, 147(2):213-214
  - 748 197
Post-obstructive pulmonary oedema in a patient following tracheal stent implantation
Jin-De Hou, Chian-Ze Peng
February 2018, 147(2):209-210
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_689_16  PMID:29806613
  - 503 203
Adrenal disorders in people with HIV: The highs and lows
Eesh Bhatia
February 2018, 147(2):125-127
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1087_17  PMID:29806599
  - 841 331
Authors' response
SK Bhadada, A Rastogi, A Agarwal, Rashi Kochhar, R Kochhar, A Bhansali
February 2018, 147(2):208-208
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.233211  PMID:29806612
  - 512 125
A stitch in time saves nine: Answer to the cancer burden in India
Ravi Mehrotra, Ravi Kaushik
February 2018, 147(2):121-124
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_388_18  PMID:29806598
  - 1,448 476
Presence, patterns & predictors of hypocortisolism in patients with HIV infection in India
Neera Sharma, Lokesh Kumar Sharma, Atul Anand, Adesh Kisanji Gadpayle, Kumar Gaurav, Sabyasachi Mukherjee, Bindu Kulshreshtha, Deep Dutta
February 2018, 147(2):142-150
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_43_16  PMID:29806602
Background & objectives: Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is rarely diagnosed in patients with HIV infection, in spite of autopsy studies showing very high rates of adrenal involvement. This study was aimed to determine the presence, patterns and predictors of AI in patients with HIV infection. Methods: Consecutive HIV patients, 18-70 yr age, without any severe co-morbid state, having at least one-year follow up at the antiretroviral therapy clinic, underwent clinical assessment and hormone assays. Results: From initially screened 527 patients, 359 patients having good immune function were analyzed. Basal morning cortisol <6 μg/dl (<165 nmol/l; Group 1), 6-11 μg/dl (165-300 nmol/l; Group 2), 11-18 μg/dl (300-500 nmol/l; Group 3) and ≥18 μg/dl (500 nmol/l; Group 4) were observed in 13, 71, 199 and 76 patients, respectively. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test revealed 87 patients (24.23%) to have AI. AI in groups 1-4 was 100, 56.34, 17.09 and 0 per cent, respectively. AI patients were more likely to be females (P<0.05), having longer disease duration (P<0.05), immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, hyperkalaemia (P<0.01), lower fasting glucose (P<0.01), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and vitamin D. Regression analysis revealed morning cortisol and DHEAS to be best predictors of AI (P=0.004 and 0.028, respectively). Interpretation & conclusions: AI is a significant problem in HIV-infected individuals, observed in nearly a quarter of patients. Diagnosis warrants high index of suspicion and low threshold for screening, especially in those having low DHEAS and hyperkalaemia. Morning cortisol is a reasonable screening test, with ACTH stimulation warranted to confirm diagnosis, especially in patients with morning cortisol <11 μg/dl (300 nmol/l).
  - 1,363 374
Bioinformatics characterization of envelope glycoprotein from Kyasanur Forest disease virus
Pratip Shil, Pragya Dhruv Yadav, Avinash A Patil, R Balasubramanian, Devendra T Mourya
February 2018, 147(2):195-201
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1445_16  PMID:29806609
Background & objectives: Kyasanur Forest disease (KFD) is a febrile illness characterized by haemorrhages and caused by KFD virus (KFDV), which belongs to the Flaviviridae family. It is reported to be an endemic disease in Shimoga district of Karnataka State, India, especially in forested and adjoining areas. Several outbreaks have been reported in newer areas, which raised queries regarding the changing nature of structural proteins if any. The objective of the study was to investigate amino acid composition and antigenic variability if any, among the envelope glycoprotein (E-proteins) from old and new strains of KFDV. Methods: Bioinformatic tools and techniques were used to predict B-cell epitopes and three-dimensional structures and to compare envelope glycoprotein (E-proteins) between the old strains of KFDV and those from emerging outbreaks till 2015. Results: The strain from recent outbreak in Thirthahalli, Karnataka State (2014), was similar to the older strain of KFDV (99.2%). Although mutations existed in strains from 2015 in Kerala KFD sequences, these did not alter the epitopes. Interpretation & conclusions: The study revealed that though mutations existed, there were no drastic changes in the structure or antigenicity of the E-proteins from recent outbreaks. Hence, no correlation could be established between the mutations and detection in new geographical areas. It seems that KFDV must be present earlier also in many States and due to availability of testing system and alertness coming into notice now.
  - 1,001 295
Blocking natural killer cells in testicular torsion may prevent autoimmunity against low expressing major histocompatibility complex class I germ cells
AS Alireza Bolourian, Zahra Mojtahedi
February 2018, 147(2):128-131
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1705_16  PMID:29806600
  - 814 293