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   2017| January  | Volume 145 | Issue 1  
    Online since May 30, 2017

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Community based kangaroo mother care for low birth weight babies: A pilot study
Reeta Rasaily, KK Ganguly, M Roy, SN Vani, N Kharood, R Kulkarni, S Chauhan, S Swain, L Kanugo
January 2017, 145(1):51-57
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_603_15  PMID:28574014
Background & objectives: Kangaroo mother care (KMC - early continuous skin-to-skin contact between mother and infants) has been recommended as an alternative care for low birth weight infants. There is limited evidence in our country on KMC initiated at home. The present study was undertaken to study acceptability of KMC in different community settings. Methods: A community-based pilot study was carried out at three sites in the States of Odisha, Gujarat and Maharashtra covering rural, urban and rural tribal population, respectively. Trained health workers provided IEC (information, education and communication) on KMC during antenatal period along with essential newborn care messages. These messages were reinforced during the postnatal period. Outcome measures were the proportion of women accepting KMC, duration of KMC/day and total number of days continuing KMC. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were also carried out. Results: KMC was provided to 101 infants weighing 1500-2000 g; 57.4 per cent were preterm. Overall, 80.2 per cent mothers received health education on KMC during antenatal period, family members (68.3%) also attended KMC sessions along with pregnant women and 55.4 per cent of the women initiated KMC within 72 h of birth. KMC was provided on an average for five hours per day. Qualitative survey data indicated that the method was acceptable to mothers and family members; living in nuclear family, household work, twin pregnancy, hot weather, etc., were cited as reasons for not being able to practice KMC for a longer duration. Interpretation & conclusions: It was feasible to provide KMC using existing infrastructure, and the method was acceptable to most mothers of low birth infants.
  2,444 574 3
Clinical profile & complications of neurotoxic snake bite & comparison of two regimens of polyvalent anti-snake venom in its treatment
Krishna Sarin, Tarun Kumar Dutta, KV Vinod
January 2017, 145(1):58-62
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1319_14  PMID:28574015
Background & objectives: The optimal anti-snake venom (ASV) dose required to treat neurotoxic snake envenomation is not known. Low-dose ASV (national protocol: maximum dose 200 ml) may be as efficacious as the conventional regimen (100 ml six hourly till all symptoms disappear), but a direct comparison of the regimens is not available. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of low-dose ASV regimen against the conventional high-dose regimen. Methods: The clinical profile of 51 patients with neurotoxic snake envenomation was studied. Patients were treated with either the national protocol or the conventional protocol for ASV administration. The time to complete recovery of symptoms, duration of mechanical ventilation and total dose of ASV were compared. Results: More patients were females (28 vs. 23) bitten in the early morning hours (2400-0600 h). Thirty nine of 51 (76.4%) patients required mechanical ventilation. In terms of progression of neuroparalysis, time to complete resolution of ptosis and occurrence of VAP and ASV reactions, there was no difference. Duration of mechanical ventilation was less with the national protocol (24 vs. 43.5 h). Significantly less amount of ASV was used with the national protocol (224 vs. 982 ml) per patient. There were no mortality or permanent neurological sequelae with either regimen. Interpretation & conclusions: In this preliminary study, it was found that the national ASV protocol was as effective as the conventional regimen for neurotoxic snake bites. However, the findings need to be tested in a larger randomized controlled trial for definitive conclusions.
  2,193 344 -
Potential biomarkers for bipolar disorder: Where do we stand?
Rajesh Sagar, Raman Deep Pattanayak
January 2017, 145(1):7-16
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1386_16  PMID:28574009
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe, recurrent mood disorder, associated with a significant morbidity and mortality, with high rates of suicides and medical comorbidities. There is a high risk of mood disorders among the first-degree relatives of patients with BD. In the current clinical practice, the diagnosis of BD is made by history taking, interview and behavioural observations, thereby lacking an objective, biological validation. This approach may result in underdiagnosis, misdiagnosis and eventually poorer outcomes. Due to the heterogeneity of BD, the possibility of developing a single, specific biomarker is still remote; however, there is a set of promising biomarkers which may serve as predictive, prognostic or treatment markers in the future. The review presents a critical appraisal and update on some of the most promising candidates for biomarkers, namely, neuroimaging markers, peripheral biomarkers and genetic markers, including a brief discussion on cognitive endophenotypes as indicative of genetic risk. The lessons learnt from other fields and specialties in medicine need to be applied to psychiatry to translate the knowledge from 'bench to bedside' by means of clinically useful biomarkers. Overall, the biomarkers may help in pushing the shift towards personalized medicine for psychiatric patients.
  1,832 654 8
Effect of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on glycosylated haemoglobin among elderly patients with type 2 diabetes & peripheral neuropathy
Snehil Dixit, Arun Maiya, BA Shastry
January 2017, 145(1):129-132
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_699_14  PMID:28574026
Aerobic exercise has been known to improve glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of eight week moderate-intensity aerobic (heart rate reserve 40-60%) exercise on glycaemic control in elderly patients with T2DM and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). The participants (n=87) were randomly assigned to an eight-week programme by a computer-generated random number table to the study or control group, respectively. There were 47 participants in the control group and 40 participants in the study group after randomization. There was a significant difference in the mean values of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) at baseline and 8th week between the two groups. Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise of eight weeks duration helped in achieving enhanced glycaemic control in the T2DM patients with DPN.
  1,781 535 3
Rare cancers: Challenges & issues
Raveendran K Pillai, K Jayasree
January 2017, 145(1):17-27
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_915_14  PMID:28574010
Rare cancers account for about 22 per cent of all cancers diagnosed worldwide, disproportionately affecting some demographic groups, with an occurrence of less than 6 per 100,000 individuals annually. Many rare cancers in adults, adolescents and children are not curable, and patients and care providers have little option to take therapeutic decisions. The epidemiology of rare cancers is a challenging area of study but is inadequately addressed. Despite efforts mainly in some European nations, a few improvements have been observed in the management of rare cancers. Reasons for this obvious stagnation are multifactorial and are mainly inherent to logistical difficulties in carrying out clinical trials in very small patient populations, hesitation of the pharmaceutical industry to spend in small markets and complexity in creating adequate information for the development of cost-effective drugs. Rare cancers also face specific challenges that include late and incorrect diagnosis, lack of clinical expertise and lack of research interest and development of new therapies. The utilization of nationally representative study findings for the patients' evaluation may possibly offer chances to find out pathogenesis and prevalence, and this will eventually lead to control and prevention. Currently, advancing targeted therapies offer a great opportunity for the better management of rare cancers. Conducting clinical trials with small patient population, innovative clinical trial approach, prevailing controlling obstacles for international cooperation and financial support for research are the present challenges for rare cancers. The International Rare Cancers Initiative functions as a main platform for achieving new international clinical trials in rare tumours. This review delineates the current challenges and issues in the interpretation, management and research scenarios of rare cancers.
  1,394 419 4
Coexistence of celiac disease & type 1 diabetes mellitus in children
Preeti Singh, Anju Seth, Praveen Kumar, Sushma Sajjan
January 2017, 145(1):28-32
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_199_15  PMID:28574011
Background & objectives: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and celiac disease (CD) tend to co-exist due to similar underlying genetic predisposition. Failure to recognize CD in patients with T1DM predisposes them to complications. The present study was aimed to assess children with T1DM for the presence of CD. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of the records of children with T1DM attending paediatric endocrinology clinic at a tertiary care hospital in north India from January 2006 to May 2014. All children were screened for CD at the time of diagnosis of T1DM using IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) levels in serum. Seropositive children were subjected to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and duodenal biopsy for histopathological confirmation. The children also underwent thyroid function testing (TFT); those with deranged TFT were evaluated for thyroid-specific antibodies. Results: Positive serology for CD was present in 43 of 126 children with T1DM whose records were reviewed [34.1%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 25.9-43.1]. Confirmed CD was diagnosed in 17 (13.5%; CI: 8.1-20.7) of the children screened and 17 of 40 (42.5%; CI: 27.1-59.1) seropositive participants. Four out of 17 children with coexisting CD and T1DM also had autoimmune thyroiditis with overt hypothyroidism. The children with confirmed CD were more likely to have short stature [odds ratios (OR)-3.16; 95% CI: 1.09-9.20, P<0.05] and hypothyroidism (OR-6.4; 95% CI: 1.52-26.90, P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed a higher proportion of CD in children with T1DM as compared to that reported in general population. Regular screening of children with T1DM for CD is needed to improve metabolic control and prevent long-term complications.
  1,197 492 7
Coverage & missed opportunity for Japanese encephalitis vaccine, Gorakhpur division, Uttar Pradesh, India, 2015: Implications for Japanese encephalitis control
Manoj V Murhekar, Chinmay Oak, Prashant Ranjan, K Kanagasabai, Satish Shinde, Ashok Kumar Pandey, Mahima Mittal, Milind Gore, Sanjay M Mehendale
January 2017, 145(1):63-69
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_712_16  PMID:28574016
Background & objectives: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an important aetiology of acute encephalitis syndrome in Gorakhpur division, Uttar Pradesh, India. Two doses of JE vaccine ( first during 9-12 months and second during 16-24 months of age) are administered under the Universal Immunization Programme. We conducted surveys to estimate the coverage of JE vaccine and magnitude of missed opportunity for vaccination (MoV) for JE in Gorakhpur division. Methods: To estimate the JE vaccine coverage, cluster surveys were conducted in four districts of Gorakhpur division by selecting 30 clusters by probability proportional to size method in each district, seven children aged 25-36 months were selected from each cluster and their mothers were interviewed about JE vaccination. To estimate the magnitude of MoV, exit surveys were conducted in vaccination clinics in selected health facilities, mothers were interviewed about the vaccination status of their children and vaccines administered to the child on the day of interview. Results: A total of 840 children were surveyed, 210 from each district. The coverages of one and two doses of JE vaccine in Gorakhpur division were 75 per cent [95% confidence interval (CI): 71.0-78.9] and 42.3 per cent (95% CI: 37.8-46.8), respectively. Facility-based exit survey indicated that 32.7 per cent of the eligible children missed JE vaccine. Interpretation & conclusions: The survey results showed that three of the four children aged 25-36 months in Gorakhpur division had received at least one dose of JE vaccine. The coverage of second dose of JE vaccine, however, was low. Failure to administer vaccination simultaneously was the most common reason for MoV for JE vaccine. Training vaccinators about correct vaccination schedule and removing their misconception about administering vaccines simultaneously would substantially improve JE vaccine coverage in Gorakhpur.
  1,357 329 4
Bacterial aetiology of neonatal meningitis: A study from north-east India
Utpala Devi, Reeta Bora, Vinita Malik, Rumi Deori, Bibhash Gogoi, Jayanta Kumar Das, Jagadish Mahanta
January 2017, 145(1):138-143
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_748_15  PMID:28574028
  1,206 311 -
Line probe assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex: An experience from Central India
Prabha Desikan, Nikita Panwalkar, Shaina Beg Mirza, Aparna Chaturvedi, Kudsia Ansari, Reeta Varathe, Manju Chourey, Pradeep Kumar, Manoj Pandey
January 2017, 145(1):70-73
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_831_14  PMID:28574017
Background & objectives: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex may sometimes not be detected in sputum samples of suspected multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients by line probe assay (LPA) even though they are smear positive for acid-fast bacilli (AFB). This retrospective analysis was attempted to understand and document our experience with LPA for detection of M. tuberculosis complex and diagnosis of MDR-TB under programmatic conditions. Methods: One thousand two hundred and ninety four sputum samples of MDR-TB suspects that were smear positive for AFB, and received from February to November 2013, were tested by LPA for the presence of M. tuberculosis complex and resistance to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin as per the diagnostic mandate of an accredited reference laboratory. As per the mandate, those samples that were negative for M. tuberculosis complex were cultured, and the growth again tested by LPA. A retrospective analysis of the results was carried out. Results: M. tuberculosis complex could be detected in 1217 (94.04%) but not in 77 (5.9%) of smear-positive sputum samples. Of the 1217 positive samples, 232 (19.1%) were MDR, 130 (10.6%) were rifampicin monoresistant and 101 (8.3%) were INH monoresistant. Seven hundred and fifty four (61.9%) strains were found to be pansensitive. Overall, 5.1 per cent of the sputum samples were negative for M. tuberculosis complex by LPA and culture. In at least 10 (0.77%) sputum samples smear positive for AFB, M. tuberculosis complex could not be identified by LPA though M. tuberculosis was present, as evidenced by culture positivity. Interpretation & conclusions: LPA is a robust technique for diagnosis of drug-resistant TB that has provided the basis for rapid and effective control of drug-resistant TB in India. While the reasons for concomitantly negative LPA and culture results of smear-positive sputum samples from MDR-TB suspects may be many, the possible presence of non-tubercular mycobacteria in these samples and the likelihood of inappropriate therapy in these patients cannot be ruled out. Addition of culture to the diagnostic algorithm may enhance the diagnostic yield.
  1,116 311 3
Isolation of bacteria from diabetic foot ulcers with special reference to anaerobe isolation by simple two-step combustion technique in candle jar
Jayeeta Haldar, Poulami Mukherjee, Satinath Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta Kumar Maiti
January 2017, 145(1):97-101
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1436_14  PMID:28574021
Background & objectives: Although polymicrobial infections involving both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria are very common in diabetic foot ulcers, in many centres of developing countries, anaerobes are rarely isolated due to technical difficulties. This can be overcome by using a new simple, innovative technique of a combination of candle combustion and use of acidified copper-coated steel wool, as reported here. Methods: In-house developed method was used in a prospective clinico-microbiological study for anaerobes from randomly selected 43 patients with diabetic foot ulcers along with conventional method of anaerobic culture in GasPak system and aerobic culture by standard laboratory procedures. For primary isolation of anaerobes, Brucella blood agar supplemented with hemin (5 μg/ml) and menadione (1 μg/ml) was used. Antibiotic sensitivity tests were performed by the standard disc diffusion method for aerobes and E-test method for anaerobes. Results: All the 43 samples were culture positive, of which aerobic Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) predominated, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus and diphtheroids. Anaerobes isolated from 21 samples were Peptostreptococcus, Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, Veillonella spp. and Clostridium perfringens by both GasPak and in-house developed and modified candle jar techniques. Imipenem and metronidazole were most sensitive while clindamycin, penicillin and cefoxitin were least sensitive drugs for anaerobes. Aerobic GNB were found to be multidrug resistant, especially to penicillin and cephalosporins. The most sensitive drug was piperacillin-tazobactam. Interpretation & conclusions: For isolation of anaerobes from clinical specimens such as diabetic foot ulcers, modified candle jar technique was found to be as reliable as GasPak system. This modified technique needs to be tested for many other clinical materials which are not yet evaluated.
  1,059 313 2
Utility of p57 immunohistochemistry in differentiating between complete mole, partial mole & non-molar or hydropic abortus
Abhimanyu Samadder, Rakhee Kar
January 2017, 145(1):133-137
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_982_15  PMID:28574027
Background & objectives: There is considerable inter-observer variability in the diagnosis of molar pregnancies by histomorphological examination of products of conception (POC). The p57KIP2 gene is paternally imprinted and expressed from the maternal allele. On immunohistochemistry (IHC) with p57, complete mole (CM) shows absent staining whereas hydropic abortus (HA) and partial mole (PM) show positive staining. This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of p57 IHC along with histomorphology in differentiating between CM, PM and non-molar or HA. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study over a period of three and a half years on archival material. Detailed histomorphological review along with p57 IHC was carried out in 28 diagnosed cases (23 CM, 4 PM and 1 molar pregnancy not categorized) and 25 controls of four normal placentas and 21 POC (8 non-hydropic and 13 HA). Results: In 14.8 per cent (4/27) cases, there was discordance in accurate subtyping of molar pregnancy. One case of CM showed inconsistent IHC pattern. In 15.4 per cent (2/13) HA, molar pregnancy was final diagnosis. After final review, there were 25 CM, five PM, 22 non-molar controls including 10 HA and one not assigned (PM/HA). IHC with p57 was negative in 96 per cent CM and positive in 100 and 95 per cent PM and non-molar controls, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: This study showed that negative p57KIP2 immunostaining reliably identified CM and could be used in association with the histological findings to distinguish CM from its mimics.
  1,023 277 4
N-acetyltransferase gene polymorphisms & plasma isoniazid concentrations in patients with tuberculosis
AK Hemanth Kumar, K Ramesh, T Kannan, V Sudha, Hemalatha Haribabu, J Lavanya, Soumya Swaminathan, Geetha Ramachandran
January 2017, 145(1):118-123
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2013_15  PMID:28574024
Background & objectives: Variations in the N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) gene among different populations could affect the metabolism and disposition of isoniazid (INH). This study was performed to genotype NAT2 gene polymorphisms in tuberculosis (TB) patients from Chennai, India, and compare plasma INH concentrations among the different genotypes. Methods: Adult patients with TB treated in the Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, were genotyped for NAT2 gene polymorphism, and two-hour post-dosing INH concentrations were compared between the different genotypes. Plasma INH was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Genotyping of the NAT2 gene polymorphism was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Results: Among the 326 patients genotyped, there were 189 (58%), 114 (35%) and 23 (7%) slow, intermediate and fast acetylators, respectively. The median two-hour INH concentrations in slow, intermediate and fast acetylators were 10.2, 8.1 and 4.1 μg/ml, respectively. The differences in INH concentrations among the three genotypes were significant (P<0.001). Interpretation & conclusions: Genotyping of TB patients from south India for NAT2 gene polymorphism revealed that 58 per cent of the study population comprised slow acetylators. Two-hour INH concentrations differed significantly among the three genotypes.
  943 302 3
K time & maximum amplitude of thromboelastogram predict post-central venous cannulation bleeding in patients with cirrhosis: A pilot study
Chandra K Pandey, Vandana Saluja, Kumar Gaurav, Manish Tandon, Vijay K Pandey, Ajeet S Bhadoria
January 2017, 145(1):84-89
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_749_14  PMID:28574019
Background & objectives: Coagulation and haemostasis are dynamic processes. The haemostatic changes in liver disease affect all aspects of coagulation. The prothrombin time (PT)/ international normalized ratio (INR) was developed to monitor oral anticoagulant therapy and the activated partial thromboplastin time to investigate inheritable single factor deficiencies. Viscoelastic tests such as thromboelastogram (TEG) give information about dynamics of clot formation (coagulation factor and anticoagulant activity), clot strength (platelets and fibrinogen) and clot stability (finbrinolysis and factor XIII). Administration of blood products before invasive procedures is still guided by INR and platelet count in patients of liver disease. This study was aimed to evaluate the validity of TEG to predict post-procedural bleed after central venous cannulation in patients with cirrhosis. Methods: Ninety patients aged 20-70 yr diagnosed with liver cirrhosis requiring elective central venous catheter (CVC) insertion were studied. Platelet count, INR, serum creatinine, TEG and Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score were recorded before the procedure. Right-sided internal jugular vein was cannulated. On the basis of presence or absence of post-procedural bleed, patients were divided into bleeding and non-bleeding groups. The CTP score, component of TEG (R - reaction time, K - coagulation time, MA - maximum amplitude and α - angle) and laboratory parameters of both the groups were compared. Results: Bleeding was seen more when CTP scores were ≥10 (P=0.05). The K time of 3.05 min or more on thromboelastograph was a significant predictor of bleeding [area under the curve (AUC) 0.694, P=0.047]. MA of 48.8 mm or more was a significant predictor of non-bleeding. INR ≥2.6 was a significant predictor of bleeding (AUC 0.765, P=0.005). K time had a low-positive predictive value of 20 per cent and the positive and negative likelihood ratios of 1.87 and 0.48, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results show that the cut-off value for INR ≥2.6 and K time ≥3.05 min predict bleeding and MA ≥48.8 mm predicts non-bleeding in patients with cirrhosis undergoing central venous pressure catheter cannulation.
  930 309 5
Celiac disease & type 1 diabetes mellitus: Connections & implications
Varuna Vyas, Vandana Jain
January 2017, 145(1):4-6
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1223_16  PMID:28574008
  850 336 1
Interpreting data in policy & control: The case of leprosy
Graham F Medley, Ron E Crump, Diana N. J Lockwood
January 2017, 145(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2027_16  PMID:28574007
  813 369 1
Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome
Amey Dilip Sonavane, Pravin M Rathi
January 2017, 145(1):147-147
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1417_15  PMID:28574030
  877 278 2
Patterns in antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonellae isolated at a tertiary care hospital in northern India
Preeti Behl, Varsha Gupta, Atul Sachdev, Vishal Guglani, Jagdish Chander
January 2017, 145(1):124-128
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_862_14  PMID:28574025
Background & objectives: Multidrug-resistant Salmonellae have emerged worldwide as also in India. The aim of this study was to study the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated at a tertiary care hospital in northern India. Methods: A total of 106 S. enterica serovars isolated from various clinical samples from January 2011 to June 2012 were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone was determined both by agar dilution method and E-test for all the isolates. Results: Salmonella Typhi (73.6%) was the predominant isolate followed by S. Paratyphi A (15.1%), S. Typhimurium (9.4%) and S. Enteritidis (1.9%). Of these, 34 (32.1%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC ≥1 μg/ml by agar dilution) with MIC90 of ciprofloxacin for S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi A and S. Typhimurium being 32, 4 and 1 μg/ml, respectively. All the isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol (MIC ≤8 μg/ml) and ceftriaxone (MIC ≤1 μg/ml). Disk diffusion method showed high susceptibility rates to cefotaxime (100%), azithromycin (93.4%) and co-trimoxazole (97.2%). Nalidixic acid resistance was seen in 105 (99.1%) isolates. Of the nalidixic acid-resistant strains, only 34 (32.3%) were found to be resistant to ciprofloxacin (MIC ≥1 μg/ml). Interpretation & conclusions: This study showed an alarming increase in MIC to quinolones and re-emergence of susceptibility to conventional antibiotics among Salmonellae.
  755 227 -
Genetic diversity & drug sensitivity profiles of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from two slums of Jaipur city, Rajasthan, India
Bharti Malhotra, Deepti Dashora, Vipin Kumar, Sumit Goyal, Bhavana Sharma, Madhu Kumar, Kailash Narayan Gupta, Vishnu Dutt Sharma, DS Chauhan, Kiran Katoch, Vishwa Mohan Katoch
January 2017, 145(1):74-83
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_336_14  PMID:28574018
Background & objectives: Slums are considered as hotspots of tuberculosis (TB). The study of genetic diversity and drug susceptibility profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) will help understand the transmission dynamics and can be used for better prevention and control of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the drug susceptibility profiles and genetic diversity using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU VNTR) of MTB isolates from sputum samples of pulmonary TB patients residing in the two slums of Jaipur city in Rajasthan, India. Methods: Sputum samples collected from pulmonary TB patients, their contacts and suspects during 2010-2012 were processed for microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Drug susceptibility testing was done by one per cent indirect proportion method on Lowenstein–Jensen medium for first-line anti-TB drugs rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol and streptomycin. MTB DNA was extracted by physicochemical method, and DNA fingerprinting was done by RAPD and MIRU VNTR analysis. Results: Among 175 sputum samples collected, 75 were positive (43.8%) for acid-fast bacilli, 83 for MTB culture and four were contaminated. Fifty two isolates (62.7%) were fully sensitive to four drugs, and five (6%) were multidrug resistant (MDR). RAPD analysis of 81 isolates revealed six clusters containing 23 (28.4%) isolates, and 58 (71.6%) were unique. MIRU VNTR analysis clustered 20 (24.7%) isolates, and 61 (75.3%) were unique. Interpretation & conclusions: About 62.7 per cent isolates from the sputum samples from slum areas were sensitive to four drugs; six per cent of isolates were MDR. Poly-resistance other than MDR was high (16%). About one-fourth isolates were clustered by either method. RAPD was rapid, less expensive but had low reproducibility. MIRU VNTR analysis could identify to greater extent the epidemiological link in the population studied.
  744 205 -
Multilocus sequence typing of Cryptosporidium hominis from northern India
Pooja Yadav, Bijay Ranjan Mirdha, Govind K Makharia, Rama Chaudhry
January 2017, 145(1):102-111
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1064_14  PMID:28574022
Background & objectives: Human cryptosporidiosis is endemic worldwide, and at least eight species have been reported in humans; the most common being Cryptosporidium hominis and C. parvum. Detailed understanding of the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium is increasingly facilitated using standardized universal technique for species differentiation and subtyping. In this study micro- and minisatellite targets in chromosome 6 were used to assess genetic diversity of C. hominis by sequence length polymorphisms along with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Methods: A total of 84 Cryptosporidium positive stool specimens were subjected to speciation and genotyping using small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) as the target gene. Genetic heterogeneity amongst C. hominis isolates was assessed by sequencing minisatellites, microsatellites and polymorphic markers including genes encoding the 60 kDa glycoprotein (GP60), a 47 kDa protein (CP47), a mucin-like protein (Mucin-1), a serine repeat antigen (MSC6-7) and a 56 kDa transmembrane protein (CP56). Results: Of the 84 Cryptosporidium positive stool specimens, 77 (92%) were positive by SSU rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Of these 77 isolates, 54 were identified as C. hominis and 23 as C. parvum. Of all the loci studied by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), GP60 gene could reveal the highest genetic diversity. Population substructure analysis of C. hominis performed by combined sequence length and nucleotide polymorphism showed nine multilocus subtypes, all of which were distinct groups in the study population. Interpretation & conclusions: MLST, a powerful discriminatory test, demonstrated both variations and distribution pattern of Cryptosporidium species and its subtypes.
  731 207 4
Identifying the risk of producing aneuploids using meiotic recombination genes as biomarkers: A copy number variation approach
Raviraj V Suresh, Kusuma Lingaiah, Avinash M Veerappa, Nallur B Ramachandra
January 2017, 145(1):39-50
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_965_14  PMID:28574013
Background & objectives: Aneuploids are the most common chromosomal abnormality in liveborns and are usually the result of non-disjunction (NDJ) in meiosis. Copy number variations (CNVs) are large structural variations affecting the human genome. CNVs influence critical genes involved in causing NDJ by altering their copy number which affects the clinical outcome. In this study influence of CNVs on critical meiotic recombination was examined using new computational technologies to assess their role in causing aneuploidy. Methods: This investigation was based on the analysis of 12 random normal populations consisting of 1714 individuals for aneuploid causing genes under CNV effect. To examine the effect of CNVs on genes causing aneuploidy, meiotic recombination genes were analyzed using EnrichR, WebGestalt and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Results: Forty three NDJ genes were found under CNV burden; IPA (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analysis of CNV in meiotic recombination genes revealed a significant role of breast cancer gene 1, amyloid protein precursor, mitogen-activated protein kinase and nerve growth factor as key molecular players involved in causing aneuploidy. Interaction between these genes with other CNV-overlapping genes involved in cell cycle, recombination and meiosis might lead to increased incidences of aneuploidy. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of this study implied that the effect of CNVs on normal genome contributed in amplifying the occurrences of chromosomal aneuploidies. The normal individuals consisting of variations in the susceptible genes causing aneuploids in the population remain undetected until the disorder genes express in the succeeding generations.
  754 184 -
Development of polymerase chain reaction-based diagnostic tests for detection of Malsoor virus & adenovirus isolated from Rousettus species of bats in Maharashtra, India
Anita M Shete, Pragya Yadav, Vimal Kumar, Tushar Nikam, Kurosh Mehershahi, Prasad Kokate, Deepak Patil, Devendra T Mourya
January 2017, 145(1):90-96
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1447_15  PMID:28574020
Background & objectives: Bats are recognized as important reservoirs for emerging infectious disease and some unknown viral diseases. Two novel viruses, Malsoor virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus, Phlebovirus) and a novel adenovirus (AdV) (family, Adenoviridae genus, Mastadenovirus), were identified from Rousettus bats in the Maharashtra State of India. This study was done to develop and optimize real time reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays for Malsoor virus and real time and nested PCR for adenovirus from Rousettus bats. Methods: For rapid and accurate screening of Malsoor virus and adenovirus a nested polymerase chain reaction and TaqMan-based real-time PCR were developed. Highly conserved region of nucleoprotein gene of phleboviruses and polymerase gene sequence from the Indian bat AdV isolate polyprotein gene were selected respectively for diagnostic assay development of Malsoor virus and AdV. Sensitivity and specificity of assays were calculated and optimized assays were used to screen bat samples. Results: Molecular diagnostic assays were developed for screening of Malsoor virus and AdV and those were found to be specific. Based on the experiments performed with different parameters, nested PCR was found to be more sensitive than real-time PCR; however, for rapid screening, real-time PCR can be used and further nested PCR can be used for final confirmation or in those laboratories where real-time facility/expertise is not existing. Interpretation & conclusions: This study reports the development and optimization of nested RT-PCR and a TaqMan-based real-time PCR for Malsoor virus and AdV. The diagnostic assays can be used for rapid detection of these novel viruses to understand their prevalence among bat population.
  738 190 1
Comparison of injectable doxorubicin & its nanodrug complex chemotherapy for the treatment of 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide induced oral squamous cell carcinoma in rats
Monir Moradzadeh Khiavi, Khadijeh Abdal, Mehran Mesgari Abbasi, Hamed Hamishehkar, Amir Ala Aghbali, Roya Salehi, Mahmoud Sina, Bita Abdollahi, Soheila Fotohi
January 2017, 145(1):112-117
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_542_14  PMID:28574023
Background & objectives: Combination treatments of chemotherapy and nanoparticle drug delivery have shown significant promise in cancer treatment. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of a nanodrug complex with its free form in the treatment of tongue squamous cell carcinoma induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide in rats. Methods: In this study, 75 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was induced by using 4- nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) as a carcinogen. Newly formulated doxorubicin (DOX)-methotrexate (MTX)-loaded nanoparticles, and free DOX-MTX were administrated intravenously to rats. During the study, the animals were weighed once a week. At the end of the treatment, rats' tongues were evaluated histopathologically. Results: There was significant difference between the mean weight of rats in groups A and B (P=0.001) and also groups A and K (P<0.001). No significant association was found between the mortality rate of groups. The difference between the severity of dysplasia of treated and untreated groups was significant (P<0.001). Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed that DOX-MTX nanoparticle complex was more effective than free DOX-MTX in chemotherapy treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma in rat models. Further investigations are necessary to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of the nanoparticle complex and its potential therapeutic application for different types of cancer.
  702 200 -
World report on ageing and health
AB Dey
January 2017, 145(1):150-151
  614 242 5
Innovations in family planning: Case studies from India
Chander Shekhar
January 2017, 145(1):149-150
  653 174 -
Association of ankyrin repeats & kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1) gene polymorphism with co-morbid alcohol & nicotine dependence: A pilot study from a tertiary care treatment centre in north India
Rizwana Quraishi, Raka Jain, Ashwani K Mishra, Atul Ambekar
January 2017, 145(1):33-38
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_458_14  PMID:28574012
Background & objectives: The frequently encountered co-morbidity of alcohol dependence (AD) with nicotine dependence (ND) increases the risk for various diseases. Ankyrin repeats and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1) gene polymorphism is reported to be associated with both ND and AD. This study was undertaken to investigate the possible association of alcohol and tobacco use variables with ANKK1 polymorphism in co-morbid alcohol- and nicotine-dependent treatment seekers visiting a tertiary care centre in north India. Methods: Seventy nine male participants (18-65 yr old) fulfilling diagnostic criteria for ND and AD were included in the study. The socio-demographic data, along with alcohol and tobacco use profile, was recorded and ANKK1 profiling was carried out. Both the allele groups, A1 and A2, were compared with respect to demographic and substance dependence profile. Univariate binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the risk of high nicotine and alcohol consumption with genotype. Results: The A1 carrier group (n=33) reported a significantly higher amount of alcohol and tobacco consumed per day. The scores on parameters of ND were found to be significantly higher in this group. The logistic regression analysis revealed that participants with A1 genotype were 2.5 times more likely to report higher amount of alcohol and nicotine consumption than A2 carriers. Interpretation & conclusions: The study provides an indication for the association of ANKK1 polymorphism in the form of higher substance consumption among alcohol dependent smokers, who are A1 carriers and thus may require higher attention of the treatment provider.
  562 166 1
Opportunistic cervical cancer screening of women visitors at a trade fair in India
Roopa Hariprasad, Pushpa Sodhani, Sanjay Gupta, Latha Sriram, Deepika Saraf, Suman Bodat, Rajeev Kumar, Preetha Rajaraman, Ravi Mehrotra
January 2017, 145(1):144-146
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1570_15  PMID:28574029
  519 190 -
An unusual vesical stone
Stephen Lalfakzuala Sailo, Laltanpuii Sailo
January 2017, 145(1):148-148
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1452_15  PMID:28574031
  476 165 -
Autoimmune diseases of the liver
Radha K Dhiman, Sandeep Satsangi
January 2017, 145(1):151-153
  336 167 -