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   2016| June  | Volume 143 | Issue 6  
    Online since October 12, 2016

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The 2015 influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 outbreak in India
Manoj Murhekar, Sanjay Mehendale
June 2016, 143(6):821-823
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.192077  PMID:27748308
  5 1,261 329
Current costs & projected financial needs of India's Universal Immunization Programme
Susmita Chatterjee, Manish Pant, Pradeep Haldar, Mahesh Kumar Aggarwal, Ramanan Laxminarayan
June 2016, 143(6):801-808
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.192073  PMID:27748306
Background & objectives: India's Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) is one of the largest programmes in the world in terms of quantities of vaccines administered, number of beneficiaries, number of immunization sessions, and geographical extent and diversity of areas covered. Strategic planning for the Programme requires credible information on the cost of achieving the objectives and the financial resources needed at national, State, and district levels. We present here expenditures on immunization services in India in 2012 (baseline) and projected costs for five years (2013-2017). Methods: Data were collected from the Immunization Division of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, and immunization partners, such as the World Health Organization and UNICEF. The cost components were immunization personnel, vaccines and injection supplies, transportation, trainings, social mobilization, advocacy and communication activities, disease surveillance, Programme management, maintenance of cold chain and other equipment, and capital costs. Results: Total baseline expenditure was ₹ 3,446 crore [1 crore = 10 million] (US$718 million), including shared personnel costs. In 2012, the government paid for 90 per cent of the Programme. Total resource requirements for 2013-2017 are ₹ 34,336 crore (US$ 5, 282 million). Allocations for vaccines increase from ₹ 511 crore in 2013 to ₹ 3,587 crore in 2017 as new vaccines are assumed to be introduced in the Programme. Interpretation & conclusions: The projections show that the government immunization budget will be double in 2017 as compared to 2013. It will increase from ₹ 4,570 crore in 2013 to ₹ 9,451 crore in 2017.
  5 1,355 293
Impact of community-based health insurance in rural India on self-medication & financial protection of the insured
David M Dror, Arpita Chakraborty, Atanu Majumdar, Pradeep Panda, Ruth Koren
June 2016, 143(6):809-820
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.192075  PMID:27748307
Background & objectives: The evidence-base of the impact of community-based health insurance (CBHI) on access to healthcare and financial protection in India is weak. We investigated the impact of CBHI in rural Uttar Pradesh and Bihar s0 tates of India on insured households' self-medication and financial position. Methods: Data originated from (i) household surveys, and (ii) the Management Information System of each CBHI. Study design was "staggered implementation" cluster randomized controlled trial with enrollment of one-third of the treatment group in each of the years 2011, 2012 and 2013. Around 40-50 per cent of the households that were offered to enroll joined. The benefits-packages covered outpatient care in all three locations and in-patient care in two locations. To overcome self-selection enrollment bias, we constructed comparable control and treatment groups using Kernel Propensity Score Matching (K-PSM). To quantify impact, both difference-in-difference (DiD), and conditional-DiD (combined K-PSM with DiD) were used to assess robustness of results. Results: Post-intervention (2013), self-medication was less practiced by insured HHs. Fewer insured households than uninsured households reported borrowing to finance care for non-hospitalization events. Being insured for two years also improved the HH's location along the income distribution, namely insured HHs were more likely to experience income quintile-upgrade in one location, and less likely to experience a quintile-downgrade in two locations. Interpretation & conclusions: The realized benefits of insurance included better access to healthcare, reduced financial risks and improved economic mobility, suggesting that in our context health insurance creates welfare gains. These findings have implications for theoretical, ethical, policy and practice considerations.
  5 833 304
Carriage of blaNDM-1 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa through multiple Inc type plasmids in a tertiary referral hospital of northeast India
Deepjyoti Paul, Anand Prakash Maurya, Debadatta Dhar Chanda, Gauri Dutt Sharma, Atanu Chakravarty, Amitabha Bhattacharjee
June 2016, 143(6):826-829
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.192079  PMID:27748310
  4 609 171
Nucleophosmin mutation analysis in acute myeloid leukaemia: Immunohistochemistry as a surrogate for molecular techniques
Anita Chopra, Sushant Soni, Haraprasad Pati, Dev Kumar, Rahul Diwedi, Deepak Verma, Garima Vishwakama, Sameer Bakhshi, Suman Kumar, Ajay Gogia, Rajive Kumar
June 2016, 143(6):763-768
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.192027  PMID:27748301
Background & objectives: Mutation of nucleophosmin (NPM1) gene in the absence of FLT3-ITD (FMS related tyrosine kinase 3 - internal tandem duplications) mutation carries a good prognosis in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). NPM1, a multifunctional nucleolar phosphoprotein that shuttles between nucleus and cytoplasm, gets trapped in the cytoplasm when mutated. Immunohistochemical (IHC) demonstration of its aberrant cytoplasmic location (NPMc+) has been suggested as a simple substitute for the standard screening molecular method. This study was aimed to assess the diagnostic utility of IHC on formalin fixed bone marrow biopsies in comparison with the reference molecular method (allele specific oligonucleotide - polymerase chain reaction; ASO-PCR) to predict NPM1 mutation status in AML patients. Methods: NPM protein IHC was performed using mouse anti-NPM monoclonal antibody on 35 paraffin-embedded bone marrow biopsies of patients with primary AML of any French-American-British (FAB) subtype. Results of IHC were compared with those of ASO-PCR. Results: Of the 35 AML patients, 21 (60%) were positive for NPM1 exon 12 gene mutation by ASO-PCR, 19 (90.47%) of these 21 were NPMc+. Thirteen of the 35 patients were negative by both the methods. One NPMc+ patient was not detected by ASO-PCR. IHC had a sensitivity and specificity of 90 and 93 per cent, respectively, compared to the molecular screening gold standard. Interpretation & conclusions: Mutation of NPM1 determined by the widely available and inexpensive IHC agrees closely with results of the standard molecular methods. Thus, technically and financially not well endowed laboratories can provide the prognostically and potentially therapeutically important information on NPM1 mutation using IHC.
  4 762 251
Strategies & recent development of transmission-blocking vaccines against Plasmodium falciparum
Neha Chaturvedi, Praveen K Bharti, Archana Tiwari, Neeru Singh
June 2016, 143(6):696-711
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.191927  PMID:27748294
Transmission blocking malaria vaccines are aimed to block the development and maturity of sexual stages of parasite within mosquitoes. The vaccine candidate antigens (Pfs25, Pfs48/45, Pfs230) that have shown transmission blocking immunity in model systems are in different stages of development. These antigens are immunogenic with limited genetic diversity. Pfs25 is a leading candidate and currently in phase I clinical trial. Efforts are now focused on the cost-effective production of potent antigens using safe adjuvants and optimization of vaccine delivery system that are capable of inducing strong immune responses. This review addresses the potential usefulness, development strategies, challenges, clinical trials and current status of Plasmodium falciparum sexual stage malaria vaccine candidate antigens for the development of transmission-blocking vaccines.
  4 1,048 409
Association of organochlorine pesticides with the mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) & cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) genes in idiopathic preterm birth
Vipin Tyagi, MD Mustafa, Tusha Sharma, BD Banerjee, Rafat S Ahmed, AK Tripathi, Kiran Guleria
June 2016, 143(6):731-738
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.191986  PMID:27748297
Background & objectives: Preterm birth (PTB) is an important cause of prenatal death, neonatal morbidity and mortality and adult illness. Increased inflammation occurs in normal parturition, and inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress are found to be higher in PTB cases. The present study was planned to investigate the association of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with mRNA expression of inflammatory pathway genes such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in preterm delivery (PTD) cases. Methods: Maternal blood samples of PTD (n=30) cases and equal number of term delivery (n=30) were collected at the time of labour. Women occupationally exposed to OCPs and other high risk factors such as anaemia, hypertension, bacterial vaginosis, renal and heart disease, diabetes, etc. were excluded. The OCP levels were estimated by gas chromatography, and mRNA expressions of TNF-α and COX-2 genes were analysed using real-time PCR (qPCR). Results: Significantly higher levels of β-HCH (beta-hexachlorocyclohexane, 95% CI=2.08-4.633, p0 =0.001), p'p'-DDE (para, para-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, 95% CI=0.546-2.551, p0 =0.003), and o'p'-DDD (ortho, para-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, 95% CI=0.004-0.690, P=0.047) were observed in maternal blood of PTB cases as compared to term delivery. The mRNA expressions of COX-2 and TNF-α genes were 3.13 and 2.31 folds higher in PTB cases in comparison to term delivery. l0 inear positive correlations were observed between period of gestation (POG) and ΔCt of COX-2 and TNF-α genes. Interpretation & conclusions: Environmental factors such as OCPs may be associated with inflammatory events showing gene-environment interaction in PTB cases. Evaluating the molecular control of inflammation along with gene environment interaction may be used as a model to explore the aetiology of idiopathic PTB cases and may be considered for the prognosis of adverse reproductive outcomes.
  3 990 272
Changing clinical scenario in Chandipura virus infection
AB Sudeep, YK Gurav, VP Bondre
June 2016, 143(6):712-721
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.191929  PMID:27748295
Chandipura virus (CHPV) (Vesiculovirus: Rhabdoviridae) garnered global attention as an emerging neurotropic pathogen inflicting high mortality in children within 24 h of commencement of symptoms. The 2003-2004 outbreaks in Central India witnessed case fatality rates ranging from 56-75 per cent in Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat with typical encephalitic symptoms. Due to the acute sickness and rapid deterioration, the precise mechanism of action of the virus is still unknown. Recent studies have shown increased expression of CHPV phosphoprotein upto 6 h post infection (PI) demonstrating CHPV replication in neuronal cells and the rapid destruction of the cells by apoptosis shed light on the probable mechanism of rapid death in children. Phlebotomine sandflies are implicated as vectors due to their predominance in endemic areas, repeated virus isolations and their ability to transmit the virus by transovarial and venereal routes. Significant contributions have been made in the development of diagnostics and prophylactics, vaccines and antivirals. Two candidate vaccines, viz. a recombinant vaccine and a killed vaccine and siRNAs targeting P and M proteins have been developed and are awaiting clinical trials. Rhabdomyosarcoma and Phlebotomus papatasi cell lines as well as embryonated chicken eggs have been found useful in virus isolation and propagation. Despite these advancements, CHPV has been a major concern in Central India and warrants immediate attention from virologists, neurologists, paediatricians and the government for containing the virus.
  3 1,418 309
High occurrence of high-level mupirocin & chlorhexidine resistant genes in methicillin resistant staphylococcal isolates from dialysis unit of a tertiary care hospital
Nagaraj Perumal, Saravanan Murugesan, VijayaKumar Ramanathan, Padma Krishnan
June 2016, 143(6):824-825
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.192078  PMID:27748309
  2 506 170
Sickle cell disease: Status with particular reference to India
David C Rees, Valentine A.M. Brousse
June 2016, 143(6):675-677
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.191916  PMID:27748289
  2 1,182 436
A cross-sectional study to assess any possible linkage of C/T polymorphism in CYP17A1 gene with insulin resistance in non-obese women with polycystic ovarian syndrome
Ushasi Banerjee, Anindya Dasgupta, Aparna Khan, Mrinal Kanti Ghosh, Pranab Roy, Jayanta Kumar Rout, Priyankar Roy, Suparna Dhara
June 2016, 143(6):739-747
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.191990  PMID:27748298
Background & objectives: Insulin resistance (IR) is a major confounding factor in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) irrespective of obesity. Its exact mechanism remains elusive till now. C/T polymorphism in the -34 promoter region of the CYP17 gene is inconsistently attributed to elucidate the mechanism of IR and its link to hyperandrogenemia in obese PCOS patients. In the present study we aimed to evaluate any association of this polymorphism with IR in non-obese women with PCOS. Methods: Polymorphism study was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the Msp A1 digest of the PCR product of the target gene in 75 PCOS cases against 73 age and BMI matched control women. Serum testosterone, BMI and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model of assessment-insulin resistance) were analyzed by standard techniques. A realistic cut-off value for the HOMA-IR was obtained through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for exploring any possible link between IR and T/C polymorphism in the case group. Results: Significant increases in serum testosterone and HOMA-IR values were observed among the case group (P<0.001) without any significant elevation in BMI and FBG compared to controls. Cut-off value for IR in the PCOS patients was 1.40 against a maximum sensitivity of 0.83 and a minimum false positivity of 0.13. The analysis revealed an inconclusive link between the C/T polymorphic distribution and insulin resistant case subjects. Interpretation & conclusions: The results showed that CYP17A1 gene was not conclusively linked to either IR or its associated increased androgen secretion in non-obese women with PCOS. We propose that an increased sensitivity of insulin on the ovarian cells may be the predominant reason for the clinical effects and symptoms of androgen excess observed in non-obese PCOS patients in our region.
  2 849 261
Aetiology, outcomes & predictors of mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome from a tertiary care centre in north India
Surendra K Sharma, Anunay Gupta, Ashutosh Biswas, Abhishek Sharma, Atul Malhotra, KT Prasad, Sreenivas Vishnubhatla, Sajal Ajmani, Hridesh Mishra, Manish Soneja, Shobha Broor
June 2016, 143(6):782-792
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.192063  PMID:27748303
Background & objectives: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common disorder in critically ill patients and is associated with high mortality. There is a paucity of literature on this condition from developing countries. This prospective observational study was designed to find out the aetiology, outcomes and predictors of mortality in ARDS. Methods: Sixty four consecutive patients who satisfied American-European Consensus Conference (AECC) definition of ARDS from medical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of a tertiary care centre in New Delhi, India, were enrolled in the study. Demographic, biochemical and ventilatory variables were recorded for each patient. Baseline measurements of serum interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), procalcitonin (PCT) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were performed. Results: Common causes of ARDS included pneumonia [44/64 (68.7%)], malaria [9/64 (14.1%)] and sepsis [8/64 (12.5%]. Eight of the 64 (12.5%) patients had ARDS due to viral pneumonia. The 28-day mortality was 36/64 (56.2%).Independent predictors of mortality included non-pulmonary organ failure, [Hazard ratio (HR) 7.65; 95% CI 0.98-59.7, P=0.05], Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS-II) [HR 2.36; 95% CI 1.14-4.85, P=0.02] and peak pressure (P peak ) [HR 1.13; 95% CI 1.00-1.30, P = 0.04] at admission. Interpretation & conclusions: Bacterial and viral pneumonia, malaria and tuberculosis resulted in ARDS in a considerable number of patients. Independent predictors of mortality included non-pulmonary organ failure, SAPS II score and P peak at baseline. Elevated levels of biomarkers such as TNF-α, PCT and hsCRP at admission might help in identifying patients at a higher risk of mortality.
  2 1,041 354
Homocysteine & its metabolite homocysteine-thiolactone & deficiency of copper in patients with age related macular degeneration - A pilot study
Muthuvel Bharathselvi, Sayantan Biswas, Rajiv Raman, Radhakrishnan Selvi, Karunakaran Coral, Angayarkanni Narayanansamy, Sivaramakrishnan Ramakrishnan, Konerirajapuram N Sulochana
June 2016, 143(6):756-762
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.192026  PMID:27748300
Background & objectives: Age related macular degeneration (ARMD) is a leading cause of blindness, particularly in persons above 60 yr of age. Homocysteine is implicated in many ocular diseases including ARMD. This study was undertaken to assess the status and relationship between plasma homocysteine, homocysteine - thiolactone, homocysteinylated protein and copper levels in patients with ARMD. Methods: A total of 16 patients with ARMD and 16 age-matched controls were recruited for the study. Plasma glutathione, homocysteine, homocysteine - thiolactone and extent of homocysteine conjugation with proteins, copper and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were measured. Results: Homocysteine levels were elevated with increase in homocysteine-thiolactone, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and a decrease of glutathione. The levels of homocysteinylated protein were elevated in ARMD. The elevated homocysteine, homocysteine-thiolactone correlated with the decrease in copper level. Interpretation & conclusions: Elevated homocysteine and its metabolite homocysteine-thiolactone and decreased levels of copper may play an important role in the pathogenesis of ARMD.
  2 642 195
Pathognomonic acetabular cysts in camptodactyly-arthropathy-coxa vara-pericarditis (CACP) syndrome
Ravindranath Vutukuru, Kotha Krishna Mohan Reddy
June 2016, 143(6):834-835
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.192082  PMID:27748313
  1 624 172
Colonic carcinoma metastatic to the left testis, epididymis & spermatic cord
Xiao-cong Zhou, Yi Jiang
June 2016, 143(6):836-837
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.192083  PMID:27748314
  1 572 137
Organochlorine pesticides exposure & preterm birth
Maria Grazia Porpora, Serena Resta, Eliana Fuggetta
June 2016, 143(6):685-687
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.191922  PMID:27748292
  1 641 255
World Sickle Cell Day 2016 : A time for appraisal
Mya S Thein, Swee L Thein
June 2016, 143(6):678-681
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.191917  PMID:27748290
  1 708 244
Genetics in diabetes: Type 2 diabetes and related trait
Radha Venkatesan, V Mohan
June 2016, 143(6):838-839
  - 388 143
Nutrition, gut microbiota and immunity: Therapeutic targets for IBD
AS Puri
June 2016, 143(6):839-841
  - 493 227
Global status report on violence prevention 2014
KS Jacob
June 2016, 143(6):841-841
  - 243 117
Family substance use screening: less to hide, more to gain
Paolo Mannelli, Li-Tzy Wu
June 2016, 143(6):682-684
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.191920  PMID:27748291
  - 530 194
National multicentric M13 Stem Cell Trial reports negative outcome - Need to look at VSELs as an alternative to bone marrow MNCs for cardiac regeneration
Deepa Bhartiya
June 2016, 143(6):830-832
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.192080  PMID:27748311
  - 469 121
Authors' response
V Nair, H Madan, S Sofat, P Ganguli, MJ Jacob, R Datta, P Bharadwaj, RS Sarkar, AJ Pandit, S Nityanand, PK Goel, N Garg, S Gambhir, PV George, S Chandy, V Mathews, OK George, KK Talwar, A Bahl, N Marwah, A Bhatacharya, B Bhargava, B Airan, S Mohanty, CD Patel, A Sharma, S Bhatnagar, A Mondal, J Jose, A Srivastava, for MI3 Trial
June 2016, 143(6):833-833
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.192081  PMID:27748312
  - 438 115
Influence of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene rs4362 polymorphism on the progression of kidney failure in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)
Gnanasambandan Ramanathan, Santu Ghosh, Ramprasad Elumalai, Soundararajan Periyasamy, Bhaskar V.K.S. Lakkakula
June 2016, 143(6):748-755
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.191992  PMID:27748299
Background & objectives: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an inherited systemic disorder, characterized by the fluid filled cysts in the kidneys leading to end stage renal failure in later years of life. Hypertension is one of the major factors independently contributing to the chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. The renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) genes have been extensively studied as hypertension candidate genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of angiotensin converting enzyme tagging - single nucleotide polymorphisms (ACE tag-SNPs) in progression of CKD in patients with ADPKD. m0 ethods: In the present study six ACE tagSNPs (angiotensin converting enzyme tag single nucleotide polymorphisms) and insertion/deletion (I/D) in 102 ADPKD patients and 106 control subjects were investigated. The tagSNPs were genotyped using FRET-based KASPar method and ACE ID by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and electrophoresis. Genotypes and haplotypes were compared between ADPKD patients and controls. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the effect of genotypes and hypertension on CKD advancement. Mantel-Haenszel (M-H) stratified analysis was performed to study the relationship between different CKD stages and hypertension and their interaction. Results: All loci were polymorphic and except rs4293 SNP the remaining loci followed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Distribution of ACE genotypes and haplotypes in controls and ADPKD patients was not significant. A significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed between SNPs forming two LD blocks. The univariate analysis revealed that the age, hypertension, family history of diabetes and ACE rs4362 contributed to the advancement of CKD. Interpretation & conclusions: The results suggest that the ACE genotypes are effect modifiers of the relationship between hypertension and CKD advancement among the ADPKD patients.
  - 725 267
Use of Family CAGE-AID questionnaire to screen the family members for diagnosis of substance dependence
Debasish Basu, Abhishek Ghosh, Nandita Hazari, Preeti Parakh
June 2016, 143(6):722-730
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.191931  PMID:27748296
Background & objectives: CAGE-AID questionnaire is a short, useful screening tool for substance dependence. Assessment of one family member for the screening of substance dependence in the family could be useful in clinical practice and research. In this study, we aimed to assess the validity of the Family CAGE-AID questionnaire for the diagnosis of substance dependence. Methods: Cross-sectional assessments using CAGE-AID and Family CAGE-AID questionnaires were conducted both for the study participants (n = 210) and their family members. The participants were recruited from two different treatment settings: a treatment seeking population from a de-addiction centre, and non-treatment seekers for substance use disorders from the psychiatry outpatient department. ICD-10 criteria and subsequent detailed clinical interview by a trained psychiatrist were used for the final diagnosis of substance dependence. Results: In the psychiatry outpatient group, the scores on CAGE-AID and Family CAGE-AID questionnaires were significantly correlated with the ICD-10 symptom score (r=0.81 and 0.70, respectively). In the same group, inter-rater agreement of the Family CAGE-AID was good with CAGE-AID and moderate with ICD-10 diagnosis of substance dependence (Cohen's kappa 0.78 and 0.61, respectively). A cut-off score of three on Family CAGE-AID was found to be 95·8 per cent sensitive and 100 per cent specific. Interpretation & conclusions: Family CAGE-AID questionnaire is a valid screening instrument for the diagnosis of substance dependence, with acceptable sensitivity and specificity of a cut-off score of three. The simplicity and the brevity of such an instrument can be valuable in the clinical settings of developing countries and also for epidemiological studies.
  - 1,065 269
Cleistanthus collinus poisoning: experience at a medical intensive care unit in a tertiary care hospital in south India
Alladi Mohan, G Sivaram Naik, J Harikrishna, D Prabath Kumar, MH Rao, KVS Sarma, KK Guntupalli
June 2016, 143(6):793-797
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.192068  PMID:27748304
Background & objectives: Ingestion of Cleistanthus collinus causes hypokalemia and cardiac arrhythmias leading to mortality in most cases. We undertook this retrospective study to evaluate the clinical presentation and predictors of outcome in critically ill patients admitted with C. collinus poisoning. Methods: The case records of 56 patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) of a tertiary care teaching hospital in south India (2000-2014) with C. collinus poisoning were retrospectively analysed. Results: The mean age of patients was 36.7±13.3 yr; there were 30 males. Salient clinical manifestations included hypokalemia (58%), neutrophilic leucocytosis (48.2%), acute kidney injury (AKI) (42.9%), acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation (AcRFMv) (32.1%), shock (21.4%); cardiac arrhythmias and neuromuscular weakness (19.6% each); 21 patients (37.5%) had adverse outcome. Longer time-lapsed from consumption to reaching emergency room [median (interquartile range)] (hours) [49 (22-97) vs. 28 (7-56), p =0.0380 ]; higher acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score at presentation [14 (8.25-14.75) vs. 2 (0-6) P<0.001]; and presence of the following [odds ratio (95% confidence intervals)] at initial presentation: shock [37.40 (4.29-325.98), P=0.001]; AcRFMv [26.67 (5.86-121.39), P<0.001]; elevated alanine aminotransferase [5.71 (1.30-25.03), p0 =0.021]; metabolic acidosis [5.48 (1.68-17.89), P=0.005]; acute kidney injury (AKI) [5 (1.55-16.06), P=0.007]; hyponatremia [4.67 (1.25-17.44), P=0.022]; and neutrophilic leucocytosis [3.80 (1.02-14.21), P=0.047] predicted death. A significant (P<0.001) increasing trend in mortality was observed with increasing International Program on Chemical Safety Poisoning Severity Score (IPCS-CSS) grade. Interpretation & conclusions: C. collinus is a lethal poison associated with high mortality for which there is no specific antidote. Careful search and meticulous monitoring of the predictors of death and initiating appropriate corrective measures can be life saving.
  - 1,179 192
Presence of acute hepatitis D infection in HBsAg positive cancer patients: A preliminary study from west Gujarat
Foram Maulin Patel, Parijath N Goswami
June 2016, 143(6):798-800
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.192071  PMID:27748305
Background & objectives: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection is well known to induce a spectrum of acute and chronic liver diseases. There has been global decline in the prevalence of hepatitis D infection. The aim of the present study was to know the presence of acute HDV infection among hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive cancer patients. Methods: A total of 5043 samples were subjected for routine testing of HBV, HIV and HCV by ELISA method. Further, 150 HbsAg positive samples were tested for HDV IgM detection by ELISA method. Results: Of the 5043 blood samples tested in the laboratory, 150 (2.97%) were positive for HBsAg. HDV IgM was negative in all HbsAg positive samples. Interpretation & conclusions: Acute infection by HDV (IgM detection) was not present in HBsAg positive cancer patients. Further studies on a large number of patients in different regions are required to confirm our preliminary findings.
  - 815 216
The making of indigenous vascular prosthesis
Madathipat Unnikrishnan, Sidharth Viswanathan, K Balasubramaniam, CV Muraleedharan, Arthur Vijayan Lal, PV Mohanan, Meera Mohanty, Tirur Raman Kapilamoorthy
June 2016, 143(6):769-781
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.192059  PMID:27748302
Background & objectives: Vascular illnesses are on the rise in India, due to increase in lifestyle diseases and demographic transition, requiring intervention to save life, organ or limbs using vascular prosthesis. The aim of this study was to develop indigenous large diameter vascular graft for treatment of patients with vascular pathologies. Methods: The South India Textile Research Association, at Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, developed seamless woven polyester (Polyethylene terephthalate) graft at its research wing. Further characterization and testing followed by clinical trials were conducted at Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Fifteen in vivo experiments were carried out in 1992-1994 in pigs as animal model. Controlled (phase I) clinical trial in ten patients was performed along with control graft. Thereafter, phase II trial involved 22 patients who underwent multi-centre clinical trial in four centres across India. Results: Laboratory testing showed that polyester graft was non-toxic, non-leeching and non-haemolytic with preserved long-term quality, further confirming in pigs by implanting in thoracic aorta, comparable to control Dacron grafts. Perigraft incorporation and smooth neointima formation which are prime features of excellent healing characteristics, were noted at explantation at planned intervals. Subsequently in the phase I and II clinical trials, all patients had excellent recovery without mortality or device-related adverse events. Patients receiving the test graft were followed up for 10 and 5 years, respectively. Serial clinical, duplex scans and CT angiograms performed periodically confirmed excellent graft performance. Interpretation & conclusions: Indigenously developed Chitra vascular graft was comparable to commercially available Dacron graft, ready for clinical use at affordable cost to patients as against costly imported grafts.
  - 660 179
The surgical approach to managing differentiated thyroid cancer
Kim To, Iain J Nixon
June 2016, 143(6):689-695
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.191923  PMID:27748293
In recent decades, our understanding of thyroid cancer has improved significantly with the recognition that differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) has good survival and oncological outcomes. Along with the recent rise in the detection of otherwise subclinical tumours due to improved diagnostics, there has been much debate on how aggressive one should be when performing thyroid and lymph node surgery. The use of risk stratification to categorize patients into low, intermediate and high risk has led to a more tailored approach to treating differentiated thyroid cancer. This ensures patients are not subject to preventable morbidity from overtreatment while maintaining good outcomes. We discuss the approach to primary thyroid and lymph node surgery by reviewing the current literature.
  - 844 321