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   2015| June  | Volume 141 | Issue 6  
    Online since July 14, 2015

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Genetic markers, genotyping methods & next generation sequencing in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Srinidhi Desikan, Sujatha Narayanan
June 2015, 141(6):761-774
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.160695  PMID:26205019
Molecular epidemiology (ME) is one of the main areas in tuberculosis research which is widely used to study the transmission epidemics and outbreaks of tubercle bacilli. It exploits the presence of various polymorphisms in the genome of the bacteria that can be widely used as genetic markers. Many DNA typing methods apply these genetic markers to differentiate various strains and to study the evolutionary relationships between them. The three widely used genotyping tools to differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), spacer oligotyping (Spoligotyping), and mycobacterial interspersed repeat units - variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR). A new prospect towards ME was introduced with the development of whole genome sequencing (WGS) and the next generation sequencing (NGS) methods, where the entire genome is sequenced that not only helps in pointing out minute differences between the various sequences but also saves time and the cost. NGS is also found to be useful in identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), comparative genomics and also various aspects about transmission dynamics. These techniques enable the identification of mycobacterial strains and also facilitate the study of their phylogenetic and evolutionary traits.
  2,599 850 4
EDITORIAL
Integrating yoga in mental health services
BN Gangadhar, S Varambally
June 2015, 141(6):747-748
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.160685  PMID:26205015
  1,835 1,551 3
COMMENTARIES
Yoga- a potential solution for diabetes & metabolic syndrome
Dukhabandhu Naik, Nihal Thomas
June 2015, 141(6):753-756
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.160689  PMID:26205017
  2,133 646 4
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Interleukin-6, vitamin D & diabetes risk-factors modified by a short-term yoga-based lifestyle intervention in overweight/obese individuals
Ritesh Netam, Raj Kumar Yadav, Rajesh Khadgawat, Kumar Sarvottam, Rashmi Yadav
June 2015, 141(6):775-782
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.160698  PMID:26205020
Background & objectives: Several diabetes prevention programmes have demonstrated a reduction in incidence of diabetes in individuals with prediabetes through weight loss. Short-term yoga-based lifestyle intervention programmes have also been shown to be efficacious in weight loss. This study was undertaken to investigate if interleukin (IL)-6, vitamin D, neopterin, vaspin, and diabetes risk factors can be modified by a short-term yoga-based lifestyle intervention in overweight/obese subjects. Methods: In this pilot study, 34 overweight/obese [body mass index (BMI) ≥23 to <35 kg/m [2] per Asian cut-off values] individuals were enrolled, and received directly supervised intervention for 10 days. Thereafter, they were advised to follow this yoga-based lifestyle at home for one month, and were reassessed for study variables at day 30. Results: There was a reduction from baseline to day 10 in weight ( p0 <0.001), BMI ( P <0.001), waist/hip-ratio ( P <0.05), blood glucose ( P <0.01), and a significant improvement in lipid profile. There was a decrease in median fasting insulin ( P <0.05), homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance ( P <0.01), and IL-6 ( Pp <0.05). A non-significant increase in 25-OH-vitamin D, and a decrease in neopterin and vaspin were observed. Twenty subjects returned for follow up assessments. At day 30, weight loss was sustained while systolic blood pressure also showed reduction ( P <0.05). Changes in vitamin D levels were significantly and negatively correlated with changes in weight, BMI and fasting blood glucose, and positively with change in high density lipoprotein. Changes in body weight and BMI significantly and positively correlated with insulin. Changes in IL-6 levels positively and significantly correlated with change in neopterin levels. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings showed that IL-6, vitamin D, and diabetes risk factors were favourably modified by a short-term yoga-based lifestyle intervention in obesity. This study also highlighted the challenges in compliance associated with the follow up of subjects following an aggressive supervised intervention of 10 days.
  2,105 627 12
Socio-demographic factors associated with domestic violence in urban slums, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
Shahina Begum, Balaiah Donta, Saritha Nair, CP Prakasam
June 2015, 141(6):783-788
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.160701  PMID:26205021
Background & objectives: Domestic violence is identified as a public heath problem. It is associated with adverse maternal health. This study examined the prevalence and determinants of domestic violence among women in urban slums of Mumbai, India. Methods: A community based cross-sectional household survey was carried out among eligible women for the study during September 2012 to January 2013. A total of 1137 currently married women aged 18-39 yr with unmet need for family planning and having at least one child were selected using cluster systematic random sampling from two urban slums. Information on socio-demographic, reproductive and domestic violence was collected through face-to-face interview using a pretested structured questionnaire after obtaining informed written consent. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to find the socio-demographic factors associated with ever experienced domestic violence among women. Results: The prevalence of women ever experiencing domestic violence in the community was 21.2 per cent. Women whose husband consumed alcohol [RR: 2.17, (95% CI: 1.58-2.98)] were significantly at an increased risk of ever experiencing domestic violence than their counterparts. Risk of domestic violence was twice [RR: 2.00, (95% CI: 1.35-2.96)] for women who justified wife beating than women who did not justify wife beating. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings showed that domestic violence was prevalent in urban slums. Factors like early marriage, working status, justified wife beating and husbands use of alcohol were significantly associated with domestic violence.
  1,934 560 12
EDITORIAL
Repeat voluntary non-remunerated blood donor is the best quality indicator for blood safety
SC Nair, JJ Mammen
June 2015, 141(6):749-752
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.160687  PMID:26205016
  1,181 1,255 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Treatment of vitamin D deficiency is an effective method in the elimination of asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis: A placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial
Mahshid Taheri, Azam Baheiraei, Abbas Rahimi Foroushani, Bahram Nikmanesh, Maryam Modarres
June 2015, 141(6):799-806
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.160707  PMID:26205023
Background & objectives: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most prevalent vaginal infection in women of reproductive age group which has been found to be associated with vitamin D deficiency. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the administration of 2000 IU/day edible vitamin D for 15 wk to eliminate asymptomatic BV among reproductive age women with vitamin D deficiency. Methods: A total of 208 women with asymptomatic BV, who were found to be eligible after interviews and laboratory tests, were randomly assigned to a control group (n=106) or an intervention group (n=105). They used vitamin D drops daily for 105 days. Vaginal and blood samples were taken before and after the second intervention using identical methods (Nugent score for BV diagnosis, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D for vitamin D determination). Results: The cure rate of asymptomatic BV was 63.5 per cent in the intervention and 19.2 per cent in the control group (P <0.001). The results showed that being unmarried (P=0.02), being passive smoker (P<0.001), and being in the luteal phase of a menstrual cycle during sampling (P=0.01) were significantly associated with post-intervention BV positive results. After these elements were controlled, the odds of BV positive results in the control group was 10.8 times more than in the intervention group (P<0.001). Interpretation & conclusions: Among women in reproductive age group with vitamin D deficiency, the administration of 2000 IU/day edible vitamin D was effective in eliminating asymptomatic BV. This treatment could be useful in preventing the symptoms and side effects of BV.
  1,743 529 6
COMMENTARIES
Intimate partner violence against women in slums in India
Bushra Sabri, Jacquelyn C Campbell
June 2015, 141(6):757-760
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.160693  PMID:26205018
  1,520 375 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Curcuma oil ameliorates insulin resistance & associated thrombotic complications in hamster & rat
Vishal Singh, Manish Jain, Ankita Misra, Vivek Khanna, Prem Prakash, Richa Malasoni, Anil Kumar Dwivedi, Madhu Dikshit, Manoj Kumar Barthwal
June 2015, 141(6):823-832
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.160719  PMID:26205026
Background & objectives: Curcuma oil (C. oil) isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) has been shown to have neuro-protective, anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidaemic effects in experimental animal models. However, its effect in insulin resistant animals remains unclear. The present study was carried out to investigate the disease modifying potential and underlying mechanisms of the C. oil in animal models of diet induced insulin resistance and associated thrombotic complications. Methods: Male Golden Syrian hamsters on high fructose diet (HFr) for 12 wk were treated orally with vehicle, fenofibrate (30 mg/kg) or C. oil (300 mg/kg) in the last four weeks. Wistar rats fed HFr for 12 wk were treated orally with C. oil (300 mg/kg) in the last two weeks. To examine the protective effect of C. oil, blood glucose, serum insulin, platelet aggregation, thrombosis and inflammatory markers were assessed in these animals. Results: Animals fed with HFr diet for 12 wk demonstrated hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, alteration in insulin sensitivity indices, increased lipid peroxidation, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet free radical generation, tyrosine phosphorylation, aggregation, adhesion and intravascular thrombosis. Curcuma oil treatment for the last four weeks in hamsters ameliorated HFr-induced hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, and thrombosis. In HFr fed hamsters, the effect of C. oil at 300 mg/kg [ ] was comparable with the standard drug fenofibrate. Curcuma oil treatment in the last two weeks in rats ameliorated HFr-induced hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia by modulating hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator 1 (PGC-1)α and PGC-1β genes known to be involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. Interpretation & conclusions: High fructose feeding to rats and hamsters led to the development of insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress. C. oil prevented development of thrombotic complications associated with insulin resistance perhaps by modulating genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. Further studies are required to confirm these findings.
  1,383 397 5
Widespread inequalities in smoking & smokeless tobacco consumption across wealth quintiles in States of India: Need for targeted interventions
JS Thakur, Shankar Prinja, Nidhi Bhatnagar, Saroj Kumar Rana, Dhirendra Narain Sinha, Poonam Khetarpal Singh
June 2015, 141(6):789-798
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.160704  PMID:26205022
Background & objectives: India is a large country with each State having distinct social, cultural and economic characteristics. Tobacco epidemic is not uniform across the country. There are wide variations in tobacco consumption across age, sex, regions and socio-economic classes. This study was conducted to understand the wide inequalities in patterns of smoking and smokeless tobacco consumption across various States of India. Methods: Analysis was conducted on Global Adult Tobacco Survey, India (2009-2010) data. Prevalence of both forms of tobacco use and its association with socio-economic determinants was assessed across States and Union Territories of India. Wealth indices were calculated using socio-economic data of the survey. Concentration index of inequality and one way ANOVA assessed economic inequality in tobacco consumption and variation of tobacco consumption across quintiles. Multiple logistic regression was done for tobacco consumption and wealth index adjusting for age, sex, area, education and occupation. Results: Overall prevalence of smoking and smokeless tobacco consumption was 13.9 per cent (14.6, 13.3) and 25.8 per cent (26.6, 25.0), respectively. Prevalence of current smoking varied from 1.6 per cent (richest quintile in Odisha) to 42.2 per cent (poorest quintile in Meghalaya). Prevalence of current smokeless tobacco consumption varied from 1.7 per cent (richest quintile in Jammu and Kashmir) to 59.4 per cent (poorest quintile in Mizoram). Decreasing odds of tobacco consumption with increasing wealth was observed in most of the States. Reverse trend of tobacco consumption was observed in Nagaland. Significant difference in odds of smoking and smokeless tobacco consumption with wealth quintiles was observed. Concentration index of inequality was significant for smoking tobacco -0.7 (-0.62 to-0.78) and not significant for smokeless tobacco consumption -0.15 (0.01to-0.33) Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of our analysis indicate that tobacco control policy and public health interventions need to consider widespread socio-economic inequities in tobacco consumption across the States in India.
  1,337 331 6
CORRESPONDENCES
Performance of tests for identification of Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Sangeeta Kulkarni, Manju Bala, Arun Risbud
June 2015, 141(6):833-835
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.160721  PMID:26205027
  1,122 280 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Role of ATP-dependent K channels in the effects of erythropoietin in renal ischaemia injury
Tonguç Utku Yilmaz, Nuray Yazihan, Aydın Dalgic, Ezgi Ermis Kaya, Bulent Salman, Mehtap Kocak, Ethem Akcil
June 2015, 141(6):807-815
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.160713  PMID:26205024
Background & objectives: Erythropoietin (EPO) has cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic effects in pathological conditions, including hypoxia and ischaemia-reperfusion injury. One of the targets to protect against injury is ATP-dependent potassium (KATP ) channels. These channels could be involved in EPO induced ischaemic preconditoning like a protective effect. We evaluated the cell cytoprotective effects of EPO in relation to KATP channel activation in the renal tubular cell culture model under hypoxic/normoxic conditions. Methods: Dose and time dependent effects of EPO, KATP channel blocker glibenclamide and KATP channel opener diazoxide on cellular proliferation were evaluated by colorimetric assay MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide] under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in human renal proximal tubular cell line (CRL-2830). Evaluation of the dose and time dependent effects of EPO, glibenclamide and diazoxide on apoptosis was done by caspase-3 activity levels. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 α) mRNA levels were measured by semi-quantative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT)-PCR. Kir 6.1 protein expresion was evalutaed by w0 estern blot. Results: Glibenclamide treatment decreased the number of living cells in a time and dose dependent manner, whereas EPO and diazoxide treatments increased. Glibenclamide (100 μM) treatment significantly blocked the anti-apoptotic effects of EPO (10 IU/ml) under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. EPO (10 IU/ml) and diazoxide (100 μM) treatments significantly increased (p0 <0.01) whereas glibenclamide decreased ( p0<0.05) HIF-1 α mRNA expression. Glibenclamide significantly ( p0<0.01) decreased EPO induced HIF-1 α mRNA expression when compared with the EPO alone group. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the cell proliferative, cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic effects of EPO were associated with KATP channels in the renal tubular cell culture model under hypoxic/normal conditions.
  968 319 -
Emergence of integron borne PER-1 mediated extended spectrum cephalosporin resistance among nosocomial isolates of Gram-negative bacilli
Anand Prakash Maurya, Debarati Choudhury, Anupam Das Talukdar, Debadatta Dhar(Chanda), Atanu Chakravarty, Amitabha Bhattacharjee
June 2015, 141(6):816-822
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.160718  PMID:26205025
Background & objectives: Pseudomonas extended resistant (PER) enzymes are rare type of extended-spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs) that confer third generation cephalosporin resistance. These are often integron borne and laterally transmitted. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emergence of integron borne cephalosporin resistant PER-1 gene in diverse incompatibility (Inc) group plasmids among Gram-negative bacteria. Methods: A total of 613 consecutive, non-duplicate, Gram-negative bacteria of Enterobacteriaceae family and non-fermenting Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from different clinical specimens during a period of 18 months. For amplification and detection of blaPER, multiplex PCR was done. For understanding the genetic environment of blaPER-1, integrase gene PCR and cassette PCR (59 be) was performed. Gene transferability experiment was carried out and PCR based replicon typing was performed for incompatibility group typing of plasmids using 18 pairs of primers. An inhibitor based method was used for phenotypic detection of intrinsic resistance. Results: Multiplex PCR and sequencing confirmed that 45 isolates were harbouring blaPER-1. Both class 1 and class 2 integrons were observed among them. Integrase and cassette PCR (59 be) PCR results confirmed that the resistant determinant was located within class 1 integron. Transformation and conjugation experiments revealed that PER-1 was laterally transferable and disseminated through diverse Inc plasmid type. Efflux pump mediated carbapenem resistance was observed in all isolates. All isolates belonged to heterogenous groups. Interpretation & conclusions: This study demonstrates the dissemination of cephalosporins resistant, integron borne blaPER-1 in hospital setting in this part of the country and emphasizes on the rational use of third generation cephalosporins to slow down the expansion of this rare type of ESBL gene.
  731 266 1
CORRESPONDENCES & AUTHORS RESPONSES
Role of genetic variants of vitamin D immunomodulation genes in clinical response to treatment of tuberculosis
Soumyadeep Bhaumik, Nandita Hazra
June 2015, 141(6):840-841
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.160726  PMID:26205031
  732 231 -
CORRESPONDENCES
Mutations in gyrA & parC genes of Shigella flexneri 2a determining the fluoroquinolone resistance
MP Divya, P Deepa Mathew, R Jyothi, Ramani Bai, Sabu Thomas
June 2015, 141(6):836-838
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.160722  PMID:26205028
  687 226 -
CLINICAL IMAGES
Lumbar hernia of Grynfeltt's triangle
Shiue-Wei Lai, Kuan-Yu Chen,
June 2015, 141(6):844-844
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.160734  PMID:26205033
  614 211 1
CORRESPONDENCES & AUTHORS RESPONSES
Evaluation of vitamin D levels in Indian children with intrathoracic tuberculosis
Ayse Tugba Kartal, Ömer Kartal
June 2015, 141(6):841-842
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.160727  PMID:26205032
  570 211 -
Association between vitamin D deficiency & paediatric tuberculosis
Eda Demir Onal, Dilek Berker, Serdar Guler
June 2015, 141(6):839-840
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.160725  PMID:26205030
  519 208 -
BOOK REVIEWS
Manifestations of stroke
Jeyaraj Durai Pandian,
June 2015, 141(6):849-850
  431 244 -
CLINICAL IMAGES
Trephine biopsy in an elderly man revealed double pathology
Prakas Kumar Mandal, Tuphan Kanti Dolai
June 2015, 141(6):845-846
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.160736  PMID:26205034
  501 173 1
CORRESPONDENCES & AUTHORS RESPONSES
Conducting placebo controlled randomized trials
Sunil Kumar Raina
June 2015, 141(6):839-839
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.160724  PMID:26205029
  478 179 -
Authors' responses
D Khandelwal, N Gupta, A Mukherjee, R Lodha, V Singh, HM Grewal, S Bhatnagar, S Singh, SK Kabra, Delhi Pediatric TB Study Group
June 2015, 141(6):842-843
  446 151 -
BOOK REVIEWS
Controversies in pediatric and adolescent hematology
Neelam Varma, Prashant Sharma
June 2015, 141(6):848-849
  423 166 -
The cerebellum: Learning movement, language, and social skills
Padma Srivastava
June 2015, 141(6):847-848
  388 178 -
ERRATUM
Erratum

June 2015, 141(6):850-850
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916. 160748  PMID:26205035
  332 179 -
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