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   2015| January  | Volume 141 | Issue 1  
    Online since April 2, 2015

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Mitochondrial disorders: Challenges in diagnosis & treatment
Nahid Akhtar Khan, Periyasamy Govindaraj, Angamuthu Kannan Meena, Kumarasamy Thangaraj
January 2015, 141(1):13-26
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154489  PMID:25857492
Mitochondrial dysfunctions are known to be responsible for a number of heterogenous clinical presentations with multi-systemic involvement. Impaired oxidative phosphorylation leading to a decrease in cellular energy (ATP) production is the most important cause underlying these disorders. Despite significant progress made in the field of mitochondrial medicine during the last two decades, the molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders are not fully understood. Since the identification of first mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation in 1988, there has been an exponential rise in the identification of mtDNA and nuclear DNA mutations that are responsible for mitochondrial dysfunction and disease. Genetic complexity together with ever widening clinical spectrum associated with mitochondrial dysfunction poses a major challenge in diagnosis and treatment. Effective therapy has remained elusive till date and is mostly efficient in relieving symptoms. In this review, we discuss the important clinical and genetic features of mitochondrials disorders with special emphasis on diagnosis and treatment.
  4,329 835 14
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Efficacy & safety evaluation of Ayurvedic treatment (Ashwagandha powder & Sidh Makardhwaj) in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a pilot prospective study.
Gajendra Kumar, Amita Srivastava, Surinder Kumar Sharma, T Divakara Rao, Yogendra Kumar Gupta
January 2015, 141(1):100-106
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154510  PMID:25857501
Background & objectives: In the traditional system of medicine in India Ashwagandha powder and Sidh Makardhwaj have been used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. However, safety and efficacy of this treatment have not been evaluated. Therefore, the present study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Ayurvedic treatment (Ashwagandha powder and Sidh Makardhwaj) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: One hundred and twenty five patients with joint pain were screened at an Ayurvedic hospital in New Delhi, India. Eighty six patients satisfied inclusion criteria and were included in the study. Detailed medical history and physical examination were recorded. Patients took 5g of Ashwagandha powder twice a day for three weeks with lukewarm water or milk. Sidh Makardhwaj (100 mg) with honey was administered daily for the next four weeks. The follow up of patients was carried out every two weeks. The primary efficacy end point was based on American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20 response. Secondary end points were ACR50, ACR70 responses, change from baseline in disease activity score (DAS) 28 score and ACR parameters. Safety assessments were hepatic function [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin and ß2 microglobulin], renal function (urea and creatinine and NGAL) tests and urine mercury level. Results: The study was completed by 90.7 per cent (78/86) patients. Patients with moderate and high disease activity were 57.7 per cent (45/78) and 42.3 per cent (33/78), respectively. All patients were tested positive for rheumatoid factor and increased ESR level. Ashwagandha and Sidh Makardhwaj treatment decreased RA factor. A significant change in post-treatment scores of tender joint counts, swollen joint counts, physician global assessment score, patient global assessment score, pain assessment score, patient self assessed disability index score and ESR level were observed as compared to baseline scores. ACR20 response was observed in 56.4 per cent (44/78) patients (American College of Rheumatology criteria) and moderate response in 39.74 per cent (31/78) patients [European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria]. Ayurvedic treatment for seven weeks in rheumatoid arthritis patients showed normal kidney and liver function tests. However, increased urinary mercury levels were observed after treatment. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest that this Ayurvedic treatment (Ashwagandha powder and Sidh Makardhwaj) has a potential to be used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. However, due to small sample size, short duration, non randomization and lack of a control group as study limitations, further studies need to be done to confirm these findings.
  2,800 651 6
EDITORIAL
World Leprosy Day 2015: Renewing commitment for a leprosy free world!
Bhushan Kumar
January 2015, 141(1):1-4
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154476  PMID:25857488
  2,032 615 7
Lung cancer: Prevalent trends & emerging concepts
Prabhat Singh Malik, Vinod Raina
January 2015, 141(1):5-7
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154479  PMID:25857489
  2,105 459 22
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparative proteomic analysis of sequential isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a patient with pulmonary tuberculosis turning from drug sensitive to multidrug resistant
Amit Singh, Krishnamoorthy Gopinath, Prashant Sharma, Deepa Bisht, Pawan Sharma, Niti Singh, Sarman Singh
January 2015, 141(1):27-45
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154492  PMID:25857493
Background & objectives: Tuberculosis is a major health problem in India, and the emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has further complicated the situation. Though several studies characterizing drug sensitive and drug resistant strains are available in literature, almost all studies are done on unrelated strains. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the proteomic data of four sequential isolates of Mtb from a single patient who developed MDR-TB during the course of anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT). Methods: In this study, using two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, we compared and analyzed the cell lysate proteins of Mtb sequential clinical isolates from a patient undergoing anti-TB treatment. The mRNA expression levels of selected identified proteins were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results: The genotypes of all four isolates remained homologous, indicating no re-infection. The initial isolate (before treatment) was sensitive to all first-line drugs, but the consecutive isolates were found to be resistant to isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RIF) and developed mutations in the katG, inhA and rpoB. the intensities of 27 protein spots were found to be consistently overexpressed in INH and RIF resistant isolates. The most prominent and overexpressed proteins found during the development of drug resistance were GarA (Rv1827), wag31 (Rv2145c), Rv1437 and Rv2970c. Interpretation & conclusions: This preliminary proteomic study provides an insight about the proteins that are upregulated during drug resistance development. These upregulated proteins, identified here, could prove useful as immunodiagnostic and possibly drug resistant markers in future. However, more studies are required to confirm these findings.
  1,914 573 18
Sudarshan Kriya yoga improves quality of life in healthy people living with HIV (PLHIV): results from an open label randomized clinical trial
N Mawar, T Katendra, R Bagul, S Bembalkar, A Vedamurthachar, S Tripathy, K Srinivas, K Mandar, N Kumar, N Gupte, RS Paranjape
January 2015, 141(1):90-99
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154509  PMID:25857500
Background & objectives: Improving quality of life (QOL) of healthy people living with HIV (PLHIV) is critical needing home-based, long-term strategy. Sudarshan Kriya yoga (SKY) intervention is acknowledged for its positive impact on health. It is hypothesised that SKY would improve PLHIV's QOL, justifying an evaluation. Methods: In this open label randomized controlled pilot trial, 61 adult PLHIV with CD4 count more than 400 cells/µl and Karnofsky scale score above 70 were enrolled. Those with cardiac disease, jaundice, tuberculosis, or on antiretroviral therapy/yoga intervention were excluded. All were given standard care, randomized to SKY intervention (31: I-SKY) and only standard of care in control (30: O-SOC) arms. The I-SKY participants were trained for six days to prepare for daily practice of SKY at home for 30 min. A validated 31-item WHOQOL-HIVBREF questionnaire was used to document effect in both arms from baseline to three visits at 4 wk interval. Results: Baseline QOL scores, hypertension and CD4 count were similar in both arms. An overall 6 per cent improvement of QOL scores was observed in I-SKY group as compared to O-SOC group, after controlling for baseline variables like age, gender, education and occupation ( p0 =0.016); 12 per cent for physical ( p0 =0.004), 11 per cent psychological ( p0 =0.023) and 9 per cent level of independence ( p0 =0.001) domains. Improvement in I-SKY observed at post-training and in the SKY adherence group showed increase in these two domains. Conclusions: A significant improvement in QOL scores was observed for the three health related QOL domains in SKY intervention arm. This low cost strategy improved physical and psychological state of PLHIV calling for upscaling with effective monitoring for sustainability of quality of life.
  1,935 433 8
Health & nutritional status of HIV infected children in Hyderabad, India
G Krishna Swetha, R Hemalatha, UV Prasad, Vasudev Murali, K Damayanti, V Bhaskar
January 2015, 141(1):46-54
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154494  PMID:25857494
Background & objectives: Information on nutritional status of HIV infected children from India is lacking and is required before taking up nutritional supplementation trials. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the growth and morbidity status of HIV infected children over a period of one year in a city in southern India. m0 ethods: This was an observational study carried out between July 2009 and February 2011, at two orphanages in Hyderabad, India. Seventy seven HIV-positive children aged between 1 and half and 15 years, both on and not on antiretroviral therapy (ART) were included. Nutritional status was assessed longitudinally for one year by weight gain, linear growth and body composition. Serum samples were analyzed for haemoglobin, micronutrients, CD4 and CD8 counts. Dietary intakes were assessed by institutional diet survey and morbidity data were recorded every day for 12 months. Results: Mean energy intakes were less than recommended dietary allowance (RDA) in all age groups. Iron and folate intakes were less than 50 per cent of RDA; 46 (59.7%) children were stunted, 36 (46.8%) were underweight and 15 (19.5%) had low BMI for age. Anaemia was observed in 35 (45.5%) children. Micronutrient deficiencies such as vitamin D (40/77; 51.9%), vitamin A (11/77; 14.3%), folate (37/77; 48.1%), iron (38/77; 49.3%) were widely prevalent. HIV viral load was higher in children not on ART and those with morbidity. Respiratory (36.6%) and dermatological illnesses (18.8%) were the commonest presentations. Interpretation &conclusions: Acute, chronic malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies were common in HIV infected children, especially in those not on ART and having morbidity. With severe malnutrition being an alarming consequence of HIV, prophylactic nutritive care should be considered for integration into HIV care strategies besides initiation of ART to improve the nutritional status and quality of life of these children.
  1,688 478 3
STUDENT IJMR
Unmet need for contraception among married women in an urban area of Puducherry, India
Bahiya Sulthana, Hemant Deepak Shewade, Bhuvaneswary Sunderamurthy, Keerthana Manoharan, Manimozhi Subramanian
January 2015, 141(1):115-118
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154513  PMID:25857503
Background & objectives: Unmet need for contraception remains a national problem. The study was conducted in an urban area of Puducherry, India, among the eligible couples to assess the unmet need for contraception and to determine the awareness and pattern of use of contraceptives along with the socio-demographic factors associated with the unmet needs for contraception. Methods: This cross-sectional study included eligible couples with married women in age group of 15-45 yr as the study population (n=267). Probability proportional to size sampling followed by systematic random sampling was used. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to collect data from the respondents. Double data entry and validation of data was done. Results: Unmet need for contraception was 27.3 per cent (95% CI: 22.3-33); unmet need for spacing and limiting was 4.9 and 22.5 per cent, respectively. Among those with unmet need (n=73), 50 per cent reported client related factors (lack of knowledge, shyness, etc.); and 37 per cent reported contraception related factors (availability, accessibility, affordability, side effects) as a cause for unmet need. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed a high unmet need for contraception in the study area indicating towards a necessity to address user perspective to meet the contraception needs.
  973 368 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Serum lipoprotein ratios as markers of insulin resistance: A study among non-diabetic acute coronary syndrome patients with impaired fasting glucose
S Ray, A Talukdar, N Sonthalia, M Saha, S Kundu, D Khanra, S Guha, AK Basu, A Mukherjee, D Ray, S Ganguly
January 2015, 141(1):62-67
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154504  PMID:25857496
Background & objectives: Recent data suggest that insulin resistance can predict cardiovascular disease independently of the other risk factors, such as hypertension, visceral obesity or dyslipidaemia. However, the majority of available methods to evaluate insulin resistance are complicated to operate, expensive, and time consuming. This study was undertaken to assess whether serum lipoprotein ratios could predict insulin resistance in non-diabetic acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. Methods: Ninety non-diabetic patients with impaired fasting glucose admitted with a diagnosis of ACS were included in the study. At the time of admission fasting glucose and insulin concentrations were measured. The homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was used for insulin resistance. The fasting serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were checked, and then TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios were calculated. The areas under the curves (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the power of these serum lipoprotein ratios as markers. Results: Lipoprotein ratios were significantly higher in patients with HOMA-IR index > 2.5 as compared to patients with index <2.5 (P < 0.05). Both TG/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratios were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR (P<0.05). The area under the ROC curve of the TG/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratio for predicting insulin resistance was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.67 to 0.93), 0.78 (95% CI, 0.65 to 0.91), respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of this study demonstrate that serum lipoprotein ratios can provide a simple means of identifying insulin resistance and can be used as markers of insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases risk in adult non-diabetic patients.
  948 357 2
COMMENTARIES
Proteomics of multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates: A peep show on mechanism of drug resistance & perhaps more
Kishore Parsa, Seyed E Hasnain
January 2015, 141(1):8-9
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154485  PMID:25857490
  933 363 2
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Quantitation of ethyl glucuronide in serum & urine by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry
Priyamvada Sharma, Venkatesh Bharat, Pratima Murthy
January 2015, 141(1):75-80
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154507  PMID:25857498
Background & objectives: Alcohol misuse has now become a serious public health problem and early intervention is important in minimizing the harm. Biochemical markers of recent and high levels of alcohol consumption can play an important role in providing feedback regarding the health consequences of alcohol misuse. Existing markers are not sensitive to recent consumption and in detecting early relapse. Ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a phase-II metabolite of ethanol is a promising marker of recent alcohol use and can be detected in body fluids. In this study an analytical technique for quantitation of EtG in body fluids using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography (GC) with mass spectrometric detection (MS) was developed and validated. Methods: De-proteinization of serum and urine samples was done with perchloric acid and hydrochloric acid, respectively. Serum samples were passed through phospholipids removal cartridges for further clean up. EtG was isolated using amino propyl solid phase extraction columns. Chromatographic separation was achieved by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. Results: Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 50 and 150 ng/ml for urine and 80 and 210 ng/ml for serum, respectively. Signal to noise ratio was 3:1, mean absolute recovery was 80-85 per cent. Significant correlation was obtained between breath alcohol and serum EtG levels (r=0.853) and urine EtG and time since last abuse (r = -0.903) in clinical samples. Interpretation & conclusions: In the absence of other standardized techniques to quantitate EtG in biological samples, this gc0 - ms0 method was found to have high throughput and was sensitive and specific.
  919 294 2
Use of plasma triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio to identify increased cardio-metabolic risk in young, healthy South Asians
Elena Flowers, César Molina, Ashish Mathur, Gerald M Reaven
January 2015, 141(1):68-74
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154506  PMID:25857497
Background & objectives: Prevalence of insulin resistance and associated dyslipidaemia [high triglyceride (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations] are increased in South Asian individuals; likely contributing to their increased risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The plasma concentration ratio of TG/HDL-C has been proposed as a simple way to identify apparently healthy individuals at high cardio-metabolic risk. This study was carried out to compare the cardio-metabolic risk profiles of high-risk South Asian individuals identified by an elevated TG/HDL-C ratio versus those with a diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. Methods: Body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose, insulin, TG, and HDL-C concentrations were determined in apparently healthy men (n=498) and women (n=526). The cardio-metabolic risk profile of "high risk" individuals identified by TG/HDL-C ratios in men (≥ 3.5) and women (≥2.5) was compared to those identified by a diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. Results: More concentrations of all cardio-metabolic risk factors were significantly higher in "high risk" groups, identified by either the TG/HDL-C ratio or a diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. TG, HDL-C, and insulin concentrations were not significantly different in "high risk" groups identified by either criterion, whereas plasma glucose and blood pressure were higher in those with the metabolic syndrome. Interpretation & conclusions: Apparently healthy South Asian individuals at high cardio-metabolic risk can be identified using either the TG/HDL-C ratio or the metabolic syndrome criteria. The TG/HDL-C ratio may be used as a simple marker to identify such individuals.
  821 375 5
Enhanced resistance to fluoroquinolones in laboratory-grown mutants & clinical isolates of Shigella due to synergism between efflux pump expression & mutations in quinolone resistance determining region
Neelam Taneja, Arti Mishra, Ajay Kumar, Garima Verma, Meera Sharma
January 2015, 141(1):81-89
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154508  PMID:25857499
Background & objectives: There is a worldwide emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in Shigella species. To understand the molecular mechanisms associated with fluoroquinolone resistance, naturally occurring fluoroquinolone-resistant strains and laboratory-induced spontaneous mutants of Shigella spp. were used and the relative contributions of acrAB-tolC efflux pumps, gyrase and topoisomerase target gene mutations towards fluoroquinolone resistance were determined. Methods: Eight Shigella flexneri and six S. dysenteriae clinical isolates were studied. Three consecutive mutants resistant to ciprofloxacin for S. flexneri SFM1 (≥0.25 µg/ml), SFM2 (≥4 µg/ml) and SFM3 (≥32 µg/ml) were selected in 15 steps from susceptible isolates by serial exposure to increasing concentrations of nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin. Similarly, two mutants for S. dysenteriae SDM1 (≥0.25 µg/ml) and SDM2 (≥4 µg/ml) were selected in eight steps. After PCR amplification sequence analyses of gyrase and topoisomerase target genes were performed. Expression of efflux genes acrA, acrB, acrR and tolC was measured using real-time PCR. Results: Mutations were observed in gyrA Ser [83]→Leu, Asp [87]→Asn/Gly, Val [196]→Ala and in parC Phe [93]→Val, Ser [80]→Ile, Asp [101]→Glu and Asp [110]→Glu. Overall, acrA and acrB overexpression was associated with fluoroquinolone resistance ( p0 <0.05); while tolC and acrR expression levels did not. Interpretation & conclusions: Fluoroquinolone resistance in Shigella spp. is the end product of either a single or a combination of mutations in QRDRs and/ or efflux activity. Novel polymorphisms were observed at Val [196]→Ala in gyrA in clinical isolates and Phe [93]→Val, Asp [101]→Glu, Asp [110]→Glu and in parC in majority of laboratory-grown mutants.
  883 307 5
Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A2 activity & its correlation with oxidized LDL & glycaemic status in early stages of type-2 diabetes mellitus
Seema Garg, SV Madhu, Shilpa Suneja
January 2015, 141(1):107-114
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154512  PMID:25857502
Background & objectives: Lipoprotein associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA 2 ) is an important risk predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD). This study was aimed to evaluate Lp-PLA 2 activity and oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in newly diagnosed patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus and to determine the correlation of Lp-PLA 2 activity with oxLDL and plasma glucose levels. Methods: Blood samples were collected in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (n=40) before any treatment was started and healthy controls (n=40). These were processed for estimating plasma glucose: fasting and post prandial, ox LDL, and Lp-PLA2 activity. The parameters in the two groups were compared. Correlation between different parameters was calculated by Pearson correlation analysis in both groups. Results: Lp-PLA 2 activity (24.48 ± 4.91 vs 18.63 ± 5.29 nmol/min/ml, P<0.001) and oxLDL levels (52.46 ± 40.19 vs 33.26 ± 12.54 μmol/l, P<0.01) were significantly higher in patients as compared to those in controls. Lp-PLA 2 activity correlated positively with oxLDL in both controls (r=0.414, P<0.01), as well in patients (r=0.542, P<0.01). A positive correlation between Lp-PLA 2 activity and fasting plasma glucose levels was observed only in patients (r=0.348, P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: Result of this study implies that higher risk of CAD in patients with diabetes may be due to increase in Lp-PLA 2 activity during the early course of the disease. A positive correlation between enzyme activity and fasting plasma glucose indicates an association between hyperglycaemia and increased activity of Lp-PLA2. This may explain a higher occurrence of CAD in patients with diabetes. A positive correlation between oxLDL and Lp-PLA2 activity suggests that Lp-PLA2 activity may be affected by oxLDL also.
  817 355 8
COMMENTARIES
Health & nutritional status of HIV infected children
Rakesh Lodha, SK Kabra
January 2015, 141(1):10-12
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154486  PMID:25857491
  849 262 1
CORRESPONDENCES
Knowledge, attitude & factors affecting potential use of emergency contraception in college students in Puducherry, south India
Gowri Dorairajan, Palanivel Chinnakali, Bharathi Mohan
January 2015, 141(1):122-124
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154515  PMID:25857505
  777 273 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Application of IS1311 locus 2 PCR-REA assay for the specific detection of 'Bison type' Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis isolates of Indian origin
Ajay Vir Singh, Devendra Singh Chauhan, Abhinendra Singh, Pravin Kumar Singh, Jagdip Singh Sohal, Shoor Vir Singh
January 2015, 141(1):55-61
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154497  PMID:25857495
Background & objectives: Of the three major genotypes of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), 'Bison type' is most prevalent genotype in the domestic livestock species of the country, and has also been recovered from patients suffering from Crohn's disease. Recently, a new assay based on IS1311 locus 2 PCR- restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) was designed to distinguish between 'Indian Bison type' and non-Indian genotypes. The present study investigated discriminatory potential of this new assay while screening of a panel of MAP isolates of diverse genotypes and from different geographical regions. Methods: A total of 53 mycobacterial isolates (41 MAP and 12 mycobacterium other than MAP), three MAP genomic DNA and 36 MAP positive faecal DNA samples from different livestock species (cattle, buffaloes, goat, sheep and bison) and geographical regions (India, Canada, USA, Spain and Portugal) were included in the study. The extracted DNA samples (n=92) were analyzed for the presence of MAP specific sequences (IS900, ISMav 2 and HspX) using PCR. DNA samples were further subjected to genotype differentiation using IS1311 PCR-REA and IS1311 L2 PCR-REA methods. Results: All the DNA samples (except DNA from non-MAP mycobacterial isolates) were positive for all the three MAP specific sequences based PCRs. IS1311 PCR-REA showed that MAP DNA samples of Indian origin belonged to 'Bison type'. Whereas, of the total 19 non-Indian MAP DNA samples, 2, 15 and 2 were genotyped as 'Bison type', 'Cattle type' and 'Sheep type', respectively. IS1311 L2 PCR-REA method showed different restriction profiles of 'Bison type' genotype as compared to non-Indian DNA samples. Interpretation & conclusions: IS1311 L2 PCR-REA method successfully discriminated 'Indian Bison type' from other non-Indian genotypes and showed potential to be future epidemiological tool and for genotyping of MAP isolates.
  741 245 4
CORRESPONDENCES
Unexpected diagnostic findings in some HIV positive individuals in Bangladesh
SM Rashed U Islam, Saif U Munshi, Shahina Tabassum
January 2015, 141(1):119-121
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154514  PMID:25857504
  680 188 -
CLINICAL IMAGES
Infectious purpura fulminans
J Harikrishna, Alladi Mohan
January 2015, 141(1):130-131
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154523  PMID:25857509
  622 243 2
BOOK REVIEWS
The importance of immunonutrition
Rakesh Lodha
January 2015, 141(1):136-137
  552 265 -
CLINICAL IMAGES
Testicular seminoma with early carcinomatous differentiation
Ali Murat Gokce, Selahattin Caliskan
January 2015, 141(1):134-135
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154525  PMID:25857511
  465 269 -
Lichenoid skin lesions & mucosal erosions as a paraneoplastic syndrome
Keshavamurthy Vinay, Amrinder J Kanwar
January 2015, 141(1):132-133
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154524  PMID:25857510
  444 173 -
Left hepatic lobe herniation through an incisional anterior abdominal wall hernia
HJ Gayathri Devi, Deepti Naik
January 2015, 141(1):129-129
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154521  PMID:25857508
  432 155 -
CORRESPONDENCES
Antibody response to hepatitis B vaccination in isolated anti-HBc positive subjects
Hasan Tahsin Gozdas
January 2015, 141(1):125-126
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154516  PMID:25857506
  401 179 -
Establishing association
Sunil Kumar Raina
January 2015, 141(1):127-127
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154519  PMID:25857507
  384 159 -
Authors' response
AL Khandare, JJ Babu, M Ankulu, N Aparna, Amol Shirfule, GS Rao
January 2015, 141(1):128-128
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154520  
  393 133 -
BOOK REVIEWS
Proton pump inhibitors: A balanced view
UC Ghoshal
January 2015, 141(1):136-136
  339 170 -
CORRESPONDENCES
Authors' response
AP Sugunan, Haimanti Bhattacharya, Debdutta Bhattacharya, A Mandal, SR Ghosal, RC Rao, AK Mandal
January 2015, 141(1):125-126
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.154518  
  371 133 -
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