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   2014| February  | Volume 139 | Issue 2  
    Online since April 9, 2014

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Effect of public-private partnership in treatment of sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India
Suresh Babu Kokku, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Saroj Tucker, Niranjan Saggurti, Parimi Prabhakar
February 2014, 139(2):285-293
Background & objectives: Providing sexually transmitted infection (STI) services to female sex workers (FSWs) in rural and resource constrained settings is a challenge. This paper describes an approach to address this challenge through a partnership with government health facilities, and examines the effect of this partnership on the utilization of STI services by FSWs in Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods: Partnerships were formed with 46 government clinics located in rural areas for providing STI treatment to FSWs in 2007. Government health facilities were supported by local and State level non-government organizations (NGOs) through provision of medicines, training of medical staff, outreach in the communities, and other coordination activities. Data from programme monitoring and behaviour tracking survey were used to examine the accessibility and acceptability in utilization of STI services from partnership clinics. Results: The number of FSWs accessing services at the partnership clinics increased from 1627 in 2007 to over 15,000 in 2010. The average number of annual visits by FSWs to these clinics in 2010 was 3.4. In opinion surveys, the majority of FSWs accessing services at the partnership clinics expressed confidence that they would continue to receive effective services from the government facilities even if the programme terminates. The overall attitude of FSWs to visit government clinics was more positive among FSWs from partnership clinic areas compared to those from non-partnership clinic areas. Interpretation & conclusions: The partnership mechanism between the NGO-supported HIV prevention programme and government clinic facilities appeared to be a promising opportunity to provide timely and accessible STI services for FSWs living in rural and remote areas.
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In vitro evaluation of antibiotics for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from north India
Abhishek Mewara, Vikas Gautam, Harsimran Kaur, Pallab Ray
February 2014, 139(2):319-322
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Breast cancer pain management - A review of current & novel therapies
Aanchal Satija, Syed Mehmood Ahmed, Rahul Gupta, Arif Ahmed, Shiv Pratap Singh Rana, Suraj Pal Singh, Seema Mishra, Sushma Bhatnagar
February 2014, 139(2):216-225
Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers amongst women in the world. Unfortunately, even after adequate treatment, some patients experience severe pain either due to disease progression or due to treatment related side effects. The persistent pain causes a negative physical and psychosocial impact on patients' lives. Current rational pain management is patient-centred and requires a thorough psychological assessment. Usually adequate analgesia is achieved by adopting the WHO's three step analgesic ladder. As the disease progresses, the pain experienced by the patient also increases. This necessitates the administration of opioids and adjuvant analgesics to the breast cancer patients experiencing severe pain. However, opioid use is associated with intolerable side effects like constipation, nausea, vomiting, fear of dependence, and tolerance. Concomitant medications are required to combat these unacceptable side effects. Adjuvant analgesics need to be added to provide adequate and satisfactory analgesia. These factors worsen the psychological state of patients and deteriorate their quality of life. Hence, there is a need to develop therapeutic modalities to provide adequate analgesia with minimum side effects. This review article focuses on the current treatments available for cancer pain management, their limitations, and novel targets and non-pharmacological measures under investigation which have the potential to produce a radical change in pain management measures for the breast cancer patients.
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Opportunistic invasive fungal infections: diagnosis & clinical management
Parisa Badiee, Zahra Hashemizadeh
February 2014, 139(2):195-204
Invasive fungal infections are a significant health problem in immunocompromised patients. The clinical manifestations vary and can range from colonization in allergic bronchopulmonary disease to active infection in local aetiologic agents. Many factors influence the virulence and pathogenic capacity of the microorganisms, such as enzymes including extracellular phospholipases, lipases and proteinases, dimorphic growth in some Candida species, melanin production, mannitol secretion, superoxide dismutase, rapid growth and affinity to the blood stream, heat tolerance and toxin production. Infection is confirmed when histopathologic examination with special stains demonstrates fungal tissue involvement or when the aetiologic agent is isolated from sterile clinical specimens by culture. Both acquired and congenital immunodeficiency may be associated with increased susceptibility to systemic infections. Fungal infection is difficult to treat because antifungal therapy for Candida infections is still controversial and based on clinical grounds, and for molds, the clinician must assume that the species isolated from the culture medium is the pathogen. Timely initiation of antifungal treatment is a critical component affecting the outcome. Disseminated infection requires the use of systemic agents with or without surgical debridement, and in some cases immunotherapy is also advisable. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown an association between drug dose and treatment outcome. Drug dose monitoring is necessary to ensure that therapeutic levels are achieved for optimal clinical efficacy. The objectives of this review are to discuss opportunistic fungal infections, diagnostic methods and the management of these infections.
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Knowledge & attitudes of mental health professionals regarding psychiatric research
NN Mishra, Triptish Bhatia, Nandini Kumar, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar, Lisa S Parker, Smita N Deshpande
February 2014, 139(2):246-251
Background & objectives: Mental health professionals have varied attitudes and views regarding informed consent and confidentiality protections in psychiatric research and clinical care. The present study was designed to understand the knowledge and views of mental health professionals (MHPs) regarding informed consent and confidentiality protection practices. Methods: Mental health professionals (n=121) who were members of the Delhi Psychiatric Society, were invited to participate in this questionnaire-based study of their knowledge and attitudes regarding informed consent and confidentiality. Half of them expressed willingness to discuss participation and gave initial oral consent (n=62); of these, 31 gave written informed consent to participate and completed the questionnaires. The questionnaires included both forced choice (yes / no / do not know) and open-ended questions. Questionnaires content reflected prominent guidelines on informed consent and confidentiality protection. Results: Attitudes of the majority of the participants towards informed consent and confidentiality were in line with ethical principles and guidelines. All expressed the opinion that confidentiality should generally be respected and that if confidentiality was breached, there could be mistrust of the professional by the patient/participant. The mean knowledge scores regarding informed consent and confidentiality were 8.55 ± 1.46 and 8.16 ± 1.29, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: The participating mental health professionals appeared to have adequate knowledge of basic ethical guidelines concerning informed consent and confidentiality. Most respondents were aware of ethical issues in research. Given the small sample size and low response rate, the significance of the quantitative analysis must be regarded with modesty, and qualitative analysis of open-ended questions may be more valuable for development of future research. Increased efforts to involve mental health professionals in research on ethical concerns pertinent to their work must be made, and the actual practices of these professionals with regard to ethical guidelines need to be studied.
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Role of 72 kDa protein of Leptospira interrogans as a diagnostic marker in acute leptospirosis
M Riazi, FZ Zainul, AR Bahaman, F Amran, A Khalilpour
February 2014, 139(2):308-313
Background & objectives: Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic disease and a public health problem, particularly in tropical and subtropical countries. Varied clinical manifestations of the disease frequently lead to misdiagnosis resulting in life-threatening multi-organ complications. Therefore, early laboratory investigation using an appropriate diagnostic approach is crucial. In the present study, a potential protein marker was identified and evaluated for its usefulness in the serodiagnosis of acute leptospirosis. Methods: Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae (L44), which represents a commonly prevalent serovar in Malaysia, was cultivated for preparation of sequential protein extract (SEQ). SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting were performed with a serum panel comprising confirmed cases of leptospirosis and controls (n=42 each). Identification and characterization of the highest scoring protein from the antigenic band was performed. Subsequently based on the nucleotide coding sequence of the protein, the corresponding recombinant protein was custom-produced. It was then evaluated for sensitivity and specificity by testing against 20 serum samples from leptospirosis patients and 32 from controls. Results: Among the antigenic components, a 72kDa protein band demonstrated significant sensitivity (83.3%) and specificity (95.2%) for the detection of specific anti-leptospiral IgM antibodies. The protein was identified by mass-spectrometry analysis as heat shock protein DnaK of L. interrogans. Recombinant form of the protein (r72SEQ) showed 85 per cent sensitivity and 81 per cent specificity for the detection of specific anti-leptospiral IgM antibodies. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of our study indicate that a protein (72kDa) of L. interrogans has the potential utility of being used for the diagnosis of acute leptospirosis. Further studies need to be done to confirm these findings.
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Antimalarial drug policy in India: Past, present & future
Anupkumar R Anvikar, Usha Arora, GS Sonal, Neelima Mishra, Bharatendu Shahi, Deepali Savargaonkar, Navin Kumar, Naman K Shah, Neena Valecha
February 2014, 139(2):205-215
The use of antimalarial drugs in India has evolved since the introduction of quinine in the 17 th century. Since the formal establishment of a malaria control programme in 1953, shortly after independence, treatments provided by the public sector ranged from chloroquine, the mainstay drug for many decades, to the newer, recently introduced artemisinin based combination therapy. The complexity of considerations in antimalarial treatment led to the formulation of a National Antimalarial Drug Policy to guide procurement as well as communicate best practices to both public and private healthcare providers. Challenges addressed in the policy include the use of presumptive treatment, the introduction of alternate treatments for drug-resistant malaria, the duration of primaquine therapy to prevent relapses of vivax malaria, the treatment of malaria in pregnancy, and the choice of drugs for chemoprophylaxis. While data on antimalarial drug resistance and both public and private sector treatment practices have been recently reviewed, the policy process of setting national standards has not. In this perspective on antimalarial drug policy, this review highlights its relevant history, analyzes the current policy, and examines future directions.
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Lymph nodes cytology in HIV seropositive cases with haematological alterations
Neelima Tirumalasetti, P Prema Latha
February 2014, 139(2):301-307
Background & objectives: Lymphadenopathy and haematological alterations are the earliest manifestations with other associated opportunistic infections and malignancies. Hence, there is a need for simple investigations like fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for evaluation of HIV lymphadenopathy and a haemogram to interpret the haematological alterations. This study was undertaken to analyze the cytological patterns of lymph node lesions in HIV/AIDS patients, to compare with available clinico-pathological and haematological parameters to segregate lymphadenopathy cases for further evaluation. Methods: In the present study, 129 HIV seropositive patients were included. Lymph node aspirates were stained routinely with hematoxylin and eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N) stains. Special stains and cultures were done in selected patients. Peripheral smears were taken from all the patients and CD4 counts were recorded. Tuberculous lymphadenitis was further categorized. Acid fast bacilli (AFB) grading was done on Z-N positive smears. Each lesion was compared with CD4 counts, WHO clinical staging and haematological picture. Results: Cytological diagnosis in 129 patients included tuberculous (n=54, 41.9%), reactive lymphadenopathy (n=46, 35.6%), suppurative (n=16, 12.4%) lymphadenitis, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=4, 3.1%), and Hodgkin's lymphoma, secondary deposits, other granulomatous lesions, and cryptoccocal lymphadenitis in one patient each. The predominant cytomorphological pattern in tuberculous lymphadenitis was caseous necrosis + epithelioid granuloma formation (51.85%). Grade 2+ Z-N grading was noted in 62.96 per cent of AFB positive smears. CD4 counts showed a descending pattern with progression of WHO clinical staging. Cytopenia was more common in WHO clinical stage IV disease. Interpretation & conclusions: Lymph node cytology was found to be a useful tool for segregating lymphadenopathy cases for further evaluation and for identification of opportunistic infections, neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. Comparison of lymph node lesions with CD4 counts, WHO clinical staging, haematological alterations and AFB grading reflects immunity, stage of disease and disease activity aiding better treatment.
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ICMR programme on Antibiotic Stewardship, Prevention of Infection & Control (ASPIC)
Sujith J Chandy, Joy Sarojini Michael, Balaji Veeraraghavan, OC Abraham, Sagar S Bachhav, Nilima A Kshirsagar
February 2014, 139(2):226-230
Antimicrobial resistance and hospital infections have increased alarmingly in India. Antibiotic stewardship and hospital infection control are two broad strategies which have been employed globally to contain the problems of resistance and infections. For this to succeed, it is important to bring on board the various stakeholders in hospitals, especially the clinical pharmacologists. The discipline of clinical pharmacology needs to be involved in themes such as antimicrobial resistance and hospital infection which truly impact patient care. Clinical pharmacologists need to collaborate with faculty in other disciplines such as microbiology to achieve good outcomes for optimal patient care in the hospital setting. The ASPIC programme was initiated by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in response to the above need and was designed to bring together faculty from clinical pharmacology, microbiology and other disciplines to collaborate on initiating and improving antibiotic stewardship and concurrently curbing hospital infections through feasible infection control practices. This programme involves the participation of 20 centres per year throughout the country which come together for a training workshop. Topics pertaining to the above areas are discussed in addition to planning a project which helps to improve antibiotic stewardship and infection control practices in the various centres. It is hoped that this programme would empower hospitals and institutions throughout the country to improve antibiotic stewardship and infection control and ultimately contain antimicrobial resistance.
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Debunk the myths: Oncologic misconceptions
Jaydip Biswas
February 2014, 139(2):185-187
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Early evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging guided focused ultrasound sonication in the treatment of uterine fibroids
Y Himabindu, M Sriharibabu, Vinay Nyapathy, Anindita Mishra
February 2014, 139(2):267-272
Background & objectives: Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are common cause of morbidity in women of reproductive age group. High intensity focused ultrasound with the imaging guidance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) known as magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound sonication (MRgFUS) is now available. However, there are no available studies with this non invasive modality of treatment in Indian subjects. The objective of this study was to determine the safety and clinical efficacy of MRgFUS in the treatment of uterine fibroids. Methods: This prospective study included 32 consecutive women with clinically symptomatic uterine fibroids who were treated with MRgFUS from February 2011 to October 2011. Pre and post treatment symptom severity scores (SSS) were assessed at the time of enrolment and at one, three and six months follow up using a validated uterine fibroid symptom - quality of life questionnaire (UFS-QOL). Pre and post treatment fibroid volumes were compared immediately after treatment and at six months follow up using contrast enhanced MRI scan. Non perfused volume (NPV) ratios were calculated and correlated with fibroid volume reductions immediately after the treatment and at the end of six months follow up. Results: This procedure was well tolerated by the patients and procedure related adverse effects were non significant. Significant reductions in SSS were seen at one, three and six month intervals after the treatment (P<0.01). Significant reductions were noticed in fibroid volumes at six months follow up compared to pretreatment fibroid volumes (P<0.01). Significant positive correlations were observed between NPV ratios and reduction in fibroid volumes at six months follow-up (r=0.659, P<0.01). Interpretation & conclusions: MRgFUS is relatively a safe and effective non invasive treatment modality for treating uterine fibroids in selected patients. Its long term efficacy is yet to be tested and compared with other available minimally invasive treatment options.
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A single hospital study on portal vein thrombosis in cirrhotic patients - clinical characteristics & risk factors
Huisong Chen, Goolab Trilok, Fei Wang, Xiaolong Qi, Junjie Xiao, Changqing Yang
February 2014, 139(2):260-266
Background & objectives: Discrepancies exist in the reported prevalence of portal vein thrombosis (PVT), and its clinical characteristics and sites of occurrence need to be elucidated. The risk factors for PVT are also poorly understood. This single centre study was undertaken to determine the clinical characteristics, sites of occurrence, and risk factors associated with PVT in patients with liver cirrhosis. Methods: Hospitalized cirrhotic patients (N = 162) were segregated into the PVT and non-PVT groups. Indices possibly associated with PVT were measured and PVT was detected by both Doppler ultrasonography and computed tomography portal angiography. The portal vein diameter and flow velocity and splenic thickness were measured by ultrasonography. Results: PVT was found in 40 patients (24.7%); in 34 PVT patients (85%), the liver cirrhosis resulted from hepatitis B virus infections. Most (90%) patients were Child-Pugh classes B and C, with similar distribution between the groups. PVT was seen in 20 patients in the portal and superior mesenteric veins; ascites, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, and jaundice were common findings in PVT patients. Haemoglobin levels and blood platelet counts (BPCs) were significantly lower and splenic thickness was greater in PVT than in non-PVT patients (P<0.01). There was a significant positive correlation between BPCs and platelet aggregation rates (R = 0.533, P<0.01). Interpretation & conclusions: The occurrence of PVT was 24.7 per cent, primarily in post-hepatitis B liver cirrhosis patients. PVT occurred mainly in the portal vein trunk and superior mesenteric vein. Different PVT sites may account for the differing clinical presentations. The lower levels of haemoglobin and BPCs as well as splenic thickening were associated with PVT. Splenic thickening may be a risk factor for PVT.
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Enhanced care by community health workers in improving treatment adherence to antidepressant medication in rural women with major depression
Johnson Pradeep, Anton Isaacs, Deepthi Shanbag, Sumithra Selvan, Krishnamachari Srinivasan
February 2014, 139(2):236-245
Background & objectives: Depression remains largely undiagnosed in women residing in rural India and consequently many do not seek help. Moreover, among those who are diagnosed, many do not complete treatment due to high rates of attrition. This study was aimed to compare the effectiveness of enhanced care with usual care in improving treatment seeking and adherence to antidepressant medication in women with depression living in rural India. Methods: Six villages from rural Bangalore were randomized to either community health worker supported enhanced care or usual care. A total of 260 adult depressed women formed the final participants for the analysis. The outcome measures were number of women who sought and completed treatment, number of clinic visits, duration of treatment with antidepressant, changes in severity of depression (HDRS) and changes in quality of life [WHO-QOL (Brev) scale]. Results: A significantly greater number of women from the treatment intervention (TI) group completed the treatment and were on treatment for a longer duration compared to the treatment as usual (TAU) group. However, there were no significant differences in the severity of depression or quality of life between the TI and the TAU groups or between treatment completers and treatment dropouts at six months. Interpretation & conclusions: Enhanced care provided by the trained community health workers to rural women with major depression living in the community resulted in greater number of women seeking help and adhering to treatment with antidepressants. However, despite enhanced care a significant number of rural women diagnosed with depression either did not seek help or discontinued treatment prematurely. These findings have significant public health implications, as untreated depression is associated with considerable disability.
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High prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indians: A community survey - Chandigarh Urban Diabetes Study (CUDS)
Rama Walia, Anil Bhansali, Muthuswamy Ravikiran, Padala Ravikumar, Sanjay K Bhadada, G Shanmugasundar, Pinaki Dutta, Naresh Sachdeva
February 2014, 139(2):252-259
Background & objectives: Studies conducted to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors among different regions of the country show variation in risk factors in different age groups and urban and rural population. We undertook this study to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among urban adults in a north Indian city. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, 2227 subjects aged ≥ 20 yr were studied from April 2008 to June 2009 in Urban Chandigarh, a north Indian city. Demographic history, anthropometry and blood pressure were assessed. Fasting, and 2 h capillary plasma glucose after 75 g glucose load, HDL-C and triglycerides were estimated. Results: The most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors in the age group of 20-29 yr was sedentary lifestyle (63%), while from fourth decade and onwards, it was overweight/obesity (59-85%). The second most common prevalent cardiovascular risk factor in the age group of 20-29 yr was overweight/obesity, in 30-49 yr sedentary lifestyle, in 50-69 yr hypertension and in subjects ≥70 yr, it was hypertriglyceridaemia. The prevalence of overweight/obesity, hypertension, dysglycaemia and smoking was almost double in subjects in the fourth decade of life, as compared to those in the third decade of life. The prevalence of CV risk factors significantly increased with age irrespective of gender and prevalence of low HDL-C was significantly more common in women as compared to men. Interpretation & conclusions: Sedentary lifestyle, obesity and low HDL-C are the most prevalent CV risk factors in subjects in the third and fourth decade of life in this north Indian population and clustering of these cardiovascular risk factors increases with advancing age. Strategies need to be formulated to target this population to prevent the epidemic of cardiovascular disease.
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α-Adducin gene G614T polymorphisms in essential hypertension patients with high low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels
Lifang Wang, Bin Zheng, Hongguang Zhao, Peng Du, Aihua Sun, Kouzhen Hua, Yuyu Gao
February 2014, 139(2):273-278
Background & objectives: The association between α-adducin gene G614T polymorphism and essential hypertension (EH) is not clear. The present study was carried out to examine a possible association between α-adducin gene G614T mutation and essential hypertension in Chinese population. Methods: A total of 170 patients with essential hypertension (EH group) and 154 normotensive subjects (Control group) were genotyped for the cytoskeletal protein single nucleotide polymorphism G614T of the α-adducin gene by PCR-RFLP technique. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), left atrial diameter (LA DIA), left ventricular diameter (LV DIA) and other parameters were recorded in EH group. Results: There was significant association between EH and α-adducin genotypes (P<0.05). GT and TT genotypes in EH group had higher LDL levels as compared to GG carriers (P<0.05). The LDL concentration was significantly elevated in patients with GT and TT genotypes. The LDL levels also differed significantly in male patients with all the three genotypes. Interpretation & conclusions: A significant association was found between ADD1 gene G614T polymorphism and EH in Chinese patients. Further studies need to be done to confirm these findings in a large sample.
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Depression in primary care: challenges & controversies
Ajit Avasthi, Abhishek Ghosh
February 2014, 139(2):188-190
  749 285 -
Need to revisit vitamin A supplementation programme in India
JK Raman, Deepika Nayar Chaudhery
February 2014, 139(2):323-324
  762 240 -
Effect of gender, biochemical parameters & parathyroid surgery on gastrointestinal manifestations of symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism
Viral N Shah, Sanjay Kumar Bhadada, Anil Bhansali, A Behera, Anish Bhattacharya, Uma Nahar, Deepak Bhasin, Bhavin Vadera
February 2014, 139(2):279-284
Background & objectives: Information on gastrointestinal manifestations and then response after curative parathyroid surgery is scarce in symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). This study was carried out to analyse gastrointestinal manifestations in patients with PHPT and their associations with biochemical parameters. Methods: This retrospective study included 153 patients with symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). The signs and symptoms pertaining to gastrointestinal system were analyzed. The difference of symptoms between men and women and difference in biochemical parameters in presence of different symptoms were evaluated. The relationship between serum calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels with presence of gallstone and pancreatitis was also studied. Result: Of the 153 patients, 46 (30%) were men. The mean age was 39.2 ± 13.9 yr. Nearly 80 per cent of PHPT patients had at least one symptom/ sign related to gastrointestinal system. The most common gastrointestinal manifestations were abdominal pain 66 (43%), constipation 55 (36%), and nausea/or vomiting 46 (30%). Nearly one-fourth 34 (22%) of patients had a history of either gallstone disease or cholecystectomy or both. The prevalence of gallstone disease was higher in women (P<0.05). Imaging and biochemical evidence of pancreatitis was found in 27 (18%) patients. Pancreatitis was more common in men compared to women (P<0.05) despite the higher prevalence of gallstones in women. Serum calcium, phosphate or PTH levels were not associated with high risk for gallstone disease, however, serum calcium (P<0.05) was associated with 1.3 times higher risk of developing pancreatitis. In majority of patients, gastrointestinal manifestations resolved within three months of curative parathyroidectomy. Except two patients, none had recurrence of pancreatitis. Interpretation & conclusions: The study revealed that the gastrointestinal symptoms were common in patients with symptomatic PHPT. There was not much gender difference in gastrointestinal symptoms except higher occurrence of gallstones in women and pancreatitis in men. There was no difference in biochemical profile between those who had and did not have gastrointestinal symptoms.
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Exogenous ochronosis
Avninder Singh, V Ramesh
February 2014, 139(2):327-327
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High frequency of young age rectal cancer in a tertiary care centre of southern Assam, North East India
Ruhina Shirin Laskar, Fazlur Rahman Talukdar, Rosy Mondal, Ravi Kannan, Sankar Kumar Ghosh
February 2014, 139(2):314-318
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Response of malaria vectors to conventional insecticides in the southern districts of Odisha State, India
SS Sahu, K Gunasekaran, HK Raju, P Vanamail, MM Pradhan, P Jambulingam
February 2014, 139(2):294-300
Background & objectives: Updating information on response (susceptible / resistant status) of vectors to the insecticides in use is essential to formulate and introduce appropriate resistance management strategy. Therefore, a study was undertaken in the 10 southern districts of Odisha State, which are endemic for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, to determine the insecticide susceptibility/ resistance status of Anopheles fluviatilis and An. culicifacies, the vectors of malaria. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected during September 2010 - February 2012 from 60 randomly selected villages in the 10 districts and blood-fed females were exposed to the diagnostic dosage of DDT (4.0%), malathion (5.0%) and deltamethrin (0.05%) for one hour. Mortality was recorded at 24 h after the exposure. The test mortality was corrected to the control mortality. Results: An. fluviatilis was susceptible to the three insecticides tested while, An. culicifacies was resistant to DDT and malathion in all the 10 districts except in two, where its response against malathion was under 'verification required' category. Against deltamethrin, An. culicifacies was susceptible in two districts; while in the other eight districts its response was under 'verification required' category. Interpretation & conclusions: Since An. fluviatilis the vector species primarily associated with transmission of malaria, was still susceptible to DDT, indoor residual spraying with DDT could be continued in the 10 districts. Also, in view of the large scale implementation of long lasting insecticidal nets and the signs of development of resistance in An. culicifacies to deltamethrin, response of the vectors to synthetic pyrethroids needs to be periodically monitored.
  660 268 -
Ethical challenges & dilemmas for medical health professionals doing psychiatric research
Manjulika Vaz, K Srinivasan
February 2014, 139(2):191-193
  628 247 -
WHO Study Group on Tobacco Product Regulation
Rajani Bhisey
February 2014, 139(2):328-329
  658 176 -
WHO Expert Committee on Leprosy
P.S.S. Rao
February 2014, 139(2):329-331
  612 214 -
Perceptions of State Government stakeholders & researchers regarding public health research priorities in India: An exploratory survey
Prabhdeep Kaur, Grace A Chitra, Sanjay M Mehendale, Vishwa M Katoch
February 2014, 139(2):231-235
Public health research has several stakeholders that should be involved in identifying public health research agenda. A survey was conducted prior to a national consultation organized by the Department of Health Research with the objective to identify the key public health research priorities as perceived by the State health officials and public health researchers. A cross-sectional survey was done for the State health officials involved in public health programmes and public health researchers in various States of India. A self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Overall, 35 State officials from 15 States and 17 public health researchers participated in the study. Five leading public health research priorities identified in the open ended query were maternal and child health (24%), non-communicable diseases (22%), vector borne diseases (6%), tuberculosis (6%) and HIV/AIDS/STI (5%). Maternal and child health research was the leading priority; however, researchers also gave emphasis on the need for research in the emerging public health challenges such as non-communicable diseases. Structured initiatives are needed to promote interactions between policymakers and researchers at all stages of research starting from defining problems to the use of research to achieve the health goals as envisaged in the 12 th Plan over next five years.
  567 257 -
A rare type of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return in late diagnosed patients
Ali Kemal Sivrioglu, Güner Sönmez
February 2014, 139(2):326-326
  403 194 -
Some Forthcoming Scientific Event

February 2014, 139(2):331-331
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Authors' response
H.P.S. Sachdev, Umesh Kapil
February 2014, 139(2):324-325
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