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   2013| July  | Volume 138 | Issue 1  
    Online since August 6, 2013

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Biomarkers for the management of pre-eclampsia in pregnant women
Lakshmi Tanuja Petla, Rosy Chikkala, KS Ratnakar, Vijayalakshmi Kodati, V Sritharan
July 2013, 138(1):60-67
PMID:24056556
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy related disorder characterized by hypertension and proteinuria noticeable after 20 wk of gestation. It is a leading cause of maternal and foetal mortality and morbidity worldwide. The aetiology of the disease is unknown, but recent studies have revealed that this disorder appears to originate in placenta and is characterized by widespread maternal endothelial dysfunction. Till date, delivery of placenta is the only cure for the disease. So, there is a need for the identification of highly specific and sensitive biochemical markers that would allow early identification of patients at risk and thus help in providing proper prenatal care. Several promising biomarkers have been proposed, alone or in combination, that may help in predicting women who are likely to develop PE. Maternal serum concentrations of these biomarkers either increase or decrease in PE during gestation. This review focuses on the various biomarkers available and their utility in predicting pre-eclampsia.
  8,321 1,429 -
New approaches & technologies of venomics to meet the challenge of human envenoming by snakebites in India
David A Warrell, José María Gutiérrez, Juan J Calvete, David Williams
July 2013, 138(1):38-59
PMID:24056555
The direct estimate of 46,000 snakebite deaths in India in 2005 (1 for every 2 HIV/AIDS deaths), based on verbal autopsies, renders unrealistic the total of only 47,000 snakebite deaths in the whole world in 2010, obtained indirectly as part of the "Global Burden of Disease 2010" study. Persistent underestimation of its true morbidity and mortality has made snakebite the most neglected of all the WHO's "neglected tropical diseases", downgrading its public health importance. Strategies to address this neglect should include the improvement of antivenom, the only specific antidote to envenoming. To accommodate increased understanding of geographical intraspecific variation in venom composition and the range of snake species that are medically important in India, the design of antivenoms (choice of venom sources and species coverage) should be reconsidered. Methods of preclinical and clinical testing should be improved. The relatively new science of venomics involves techniques and strategies for assessing the toxin composition of snake venoms directly through proteomics-centred approaches or indirectly via high-throughput venom gland transcriptomics and bioinformatic analysis. Antivenomics is translational venomics: a proteomics-based protocol to quantify the extent of cross-reactivity of antivenoms against homologous and heterologous venoms. These approaches could revolutionize the preclinical assessment of antivenom efficacy, leading to a new generation of antivenoms that are clinically more effective.
  8,070 732 -
CENTENARY REVIEW ARTICLES
Emerging & re-emerging infections in India: An overview
T Dikid, SK Jain, A Sharma, A Kumar, JP Narain
July 2013, 138(1):19-31
PMID:24056553
The incidence of emerging infectious diseases in humans has increased within the recent past or threatens to increase in the near future. Over 30 new infectious agents have been detected worldwide in the last three decades; 60 per cent of these are of zoonotic origin. Developing countries such as India suffer disproportionately from the burden of infectious diseases given the confluence of existing environmental, socio-economic, and demographic factors. In the recent past, India has seen outbreaks of eight organisms of emerging and re-emerging diseases in various parts of the country, six of these are of zoonotic origin. Prevention and control of emerging infectious diseases will increasingly require the application of sophisticated epidemiologic and molecular biologic technologies, changes in human behaviour, a national policy on early detection of and rapid response to emerging infections and a plan of action. WHO has made several recommendations for national response mechanisms. Many of these are in various stages of implementation in India. However, for a country of size and population of India, the emerging infections remain a real and present danger. A meaningful response must approach the problem at the systems level. A comprehensive national strategy on infectious diseases cutting across all relevant sectors with emphasis on strengthened surveillance, rapid response, partnership building and research to guide public policy is needed.
  4,419 902 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Intravenous iron sucrose therapy for moderate to severe anaemia in pregnancy
Alka Kriplani, Reeta Mahey, Biswa Bhusan Dash, Vidushi Kulshreshta, Nutan Agarwal, Neerja Bhatla
July 2013, 138(1):78-82
PMID:24056559
Background & objectives: Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common nutritional deficiency in pregnancy. Prophylactic oral iron is recommended during pregnancy to meet the increased requirement. In India, women become pregnant with low baseline haemoglobin level resulting in high incidence of moderate to severe anaemia in pregnancy where oral iron therapy cannot meet the requirement. Pregnant women with moderate anaemia are to be treated with parentral iron therapy. This study was undertaken to evaluate the response and effect of intravenous iron sucrose complex (ISC) given to pregnant women with IDA. Methods: A prospective study was conducted (June 2009 to June 2011) in the department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. One hundred pregnant women with haemoglobin between 5-9 g% with diagnosed iron deficiency attending antenatal clinic were given intravenous iron sucrose complex in a dose of 200 mg twice weekly schedule after calculating the dose requirement. Results: The mean haemoglobin raised from 7.63 ± 0.61 to 11.20 ± 0.73 g% (P<0.001) after eight wk of therapy. There was significant rise in serum ferritin levels (from 11.2 ± 4.7 to 69 ± 23.1 μg/l) (P<0.001). Reticulocyte count increased significantly after two wk of starting therapy (from 1.5 ± 0.6 to 4.6±0.8%).Other parameters including serum iron levels and red cell indices were also improved significantly. Only one woman was lost to follow up. No major side effects or anaphylactic reactions were noted during study period. Interpretation & conclusions: Parentral iron therapy was effective in increasing haemoglobin, serum ferritin and other haematological parameters in pregnant women with moderate anaemia. Intravenous iron sucrose can be used in hospital settings and tertiary urban hospitals where it can replace intramuscular therapy due to injection related side effects. Further, long-term comparative studies are required to recommend its use at peripheral level.
  2,309 561 -
Prevalence of specific developmental disorder of scholastic skill in school students in Chandigarh, India
Priti Arun, Bir Singh Chavan, Rachna Bhargava, Archna Sharma, Jaspreet Kaur
July 2013, 138(1):89-98
PMID:24056561
Background & objectives: Several studies have been conducted in India to determine the prevalence of learning disabilities in school children which has been reported to be 3-10 per cent among students population. The present study was conducted to find out prevalence of specific developmental disorder of scholastic skills in students of classes VII to XII and to find out feasibility of screening tool in Chandigarh, India. Methods: A cross-sectional study on school students was carried out in two phases. The students were drawn from classes VII to XII from 10 schools of Chandigarh, India. Details of academic performance of all the students was taken, subjectively from class teachers and objectively from the marks obtained in the last academic session. In phase I, 2402 students were assessed. In phase II, 108 students were randomly selected for evaluation for assessing sensitivity and specificity of screening proforma for teachers. A total of 124 students from phase I and all students in phase II were assessed in detail. Tests of intelligence (Malin's Intelligence Scale for Indian Children and Standard Progressive Matrices), and NIMHANS Index for specific learning disability (SLD) battery were administered. Results: A total of 38 students were found to be having specific developmental disorder of scholastic skills in phase I, that gave a prevalence of 1.58 per cent. Majority had mixed type of errors on SLD battery. There were more boys diagnosed with specific learning disability. Teacher's screening instrument had high sensitivity (90.385) and specificity (94.68). Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of our study conducted in community, showed that specific learning disability was not identified even till later age. The screening instrument thus could be used by teachers to suspect students with specific learning disability.
  1,394 373 -
EDITORIALS
Journal publishing: the changing landscape
K Satyanarayana
July 2013, 138(1):4-7
PMID:24056548
  1,393 352 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Red cell alloimmunization among antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital in south India
Jophy Varghese, Mary P Chacko, Molly Rajaiah, Dolly Daniel
July 2013, 138(1):68-71
PMID:24056557
Background & objectives: Detection of maternal alloimmunization against red cell antigens is vital in the management of haemolytic disease of the foetus and newborn (HDFN). This study was conducted to measure the presence of allosensitization to blood group antibodies in the antenatal women attending a tertiary care hospital and to observe the proportion of minor blood group antibodies to assess the benefit of screening for the same. Methods: All antenatal women registered in the hospital between January 2008 and January 2009, were screened for irregular antibodies using a commercial 3-cell antibody screening panel. Antibody identification was performed on samples found positive using a commercial 11 cell-panel. Results: Screening was performed on 5347 women, 339 (6.34%) of whom were Rh negative. Allosensitization was found in 79 women (1.48%; confidence interval 1.17 -1.84). In 29 of these 79 (37%) women the allo-antibodies could not be identified. In the remaining 50 women, 54 antibodies were characterized. A total of 40 clinically significant antibody specificities were identified among 36 women, of whom four were Rh(D) positive. Allosensitization with clinically significant antibodies was found in 9.43 per cent (confidence interval 6.55-13.06) Rh(D) negative and in 0.08 per cent (confidence interval .02-0.2) Rh(D) positive women. Anti D was the most frequent antibody found in 8.85 per cent Rh(D) negative women. The remaining clinically significant antibodies identified included anti-C, c, E, Jk a , Jk b , M and S. In Rh(D) negative women, anti-D and antibodies of the Rh system contributed 83.3 and 94.4 per cent of clinically significant antibodies. However, in Rh(D) positive women, non-Rh antibodies comprised three out of four clinically significant antibodies. Interpretation & conclusions: The presence of alloimmunization in our study corroborated with data reported from India. The most frequent antibody was anti-D. However, a significant fraction was non-D. Alloimmunization among Rh(D) positive women though low as compared to Rh(D) negative women, included clinically significant antibodies, and most of these were non Rh.
  1,352 351 -
COMMENTARIES
Use of intravenous iron sucrose for treatment of anaemia in pregnancy
K Kalaivani
July 2013, 138(1):16-17
PMID:24056552
  1,256 362 -
CENTENARY REVIEW ARTICLES
Lessons from neurolathyrism: A disease of the past & the future of Lathyrus sativus (Khesari dal)
Surya S Singh, S.L.N. Rao
July 2013, 138(1):32-37
PMID:24056554
Neurolathyrism is past history in India since Lathyrus sativus (khesari dal) is no longer used as a staple. A consensus has evolved that khesari dal is harmless as part of a normal diet. L-ODAP (β-N-oxalyl-l-α-diamino propionic acid) the neurotoxic amino acid, from this pulse, is detoxified in humans but not in animals but still no laboratory animal is susceptible to it under acceptable feeding regimens. L-ODAP is an activator of protein kinase C and consequential crucial downstream effects such as stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) could be extremely conducive to humans under a variety of situations. ODAP is gradually finding a place in several patents for this reason. Homoarginine the second amino acid from L. sativus can be a better substrate for endogenous generation of nitric oxide, a crucial signaling molecule associated with the cardiovasculature and control of hypertension. These features could make L. sativus a prized commodity as a functional food for the general cardiovasculature and overcome hypoxic events and is set to change the entire perception of this pulse and neurolathyrism.
  1,253 364 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using non-commercial probes in the diagnosis of clinically suspected microdeletion syndromes
Ashutosh Halder, Manish Jain, Isha Chaudhary, Neerja Gupta, Madhulika Kabra
July 2013, 138(1):135-142
PMID:24056568
Background & objectives: Microdeletion syndromes are characterized by small (<5 Mb) chromosomal deletions in which one or more genes are involved. These are frequently associated with multiple congenital anomalies. The phenotype is the result of haploinsufficiency of genes in the critical interval. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique is commonly used for precise genetic diagnosis of microdeletion syndromes. This study was conducted to assess the role of FISH in the diagnosis of suspected microdeletion syndrome. Methods: FISH was carried out on 301 clinically suspected microdeletion syndrome cases for the confirmation of clinical diagnosis using non-commercial probes. Of these, 177 cases were referred for 22q11.2 microdeletion, 42 cases were referred for William syndrome, 38 cases were referred for Prader Willi/Angelman and 44 cases were referred for other suspected microdeletion syndromes. Results: FISH was confirmatory in 23 cases only (7.6%). There were 17 cases of 22q11.2 microdeletion, four cases of Prader Willi syndrome and two cases of William syndrome. Interpretation & conclusion: We conclude that FISH should not be the method of choice for clinically suspected microdeletion syndromes. We propose to follow strict clinical criteria for FISH testing or preferably to follow better methods (genotype first approach). Whole genome screening may be used as first line of test and FISH may be used for confirmation of screening result, screening of family members and prenatal diagnosis.
  1,296 316 -
A sensitive & specific multiplex PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia pseudomallei & Brucella species
Sai Arun Batra, S Krupanidhi, Urmil Tuteja
July 2013, 138(1):111-116
PMID:24056564
Background & objectives: Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia pseudomallei and Brucella species are potential biowarfare agents. Classical bacteriological methods for their identification are cumbersome, time consuming and of potential risk to the handler. Methods: We describe a sensitive and specific multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) assay involving novel primers sets for the simultaneous detection of B. anthracis, Y. pestis, B. pseudomallei and Brucella species. An additional non-competitive internal amplification control (IAC) was also included. Results: The mPCR was found to be specific when tested against closely related organisms. The sensitivity of the assay in spiked blood samples was 50 colony forming units (cfus)/25 μl reaction, for the detection of B. anthracis, Y. pestis and Brucella species; and 150 cfus/25 μl reaction, for B. pseudomallei. The assay proved useful in correctly and promptly identifing the clinical isolates of the targeted agents recovered from patients, compared to the gold standard culture methods. Interpretation & conclusion: The assay described in this study showed promise to be useful in application as a routine detection cum diagnostic method for these pathogens.
  1,147 378 -
ARTICLE
Preliminary study on antirheumatic activity of curcumin (diferuloyl methane)
SD Deodhar, R Sethi, RC Srimal
July 2013, 138(1):170-172
Full text not available  [PDF]
  908 593 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Development & evaluation of biotinylated DNA probe for clinical diagnosis of chikungunya infection in patients' acute phase serum & CSF samples
Jyoti S Kumar, Manmohan Parida, PV Lakshmana Rao
July 2013, 138(1):117-124
PMID:24056565
Background & objectives: The resurgence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in the Indian Ocean Islands and India has drawn worldwide attention due to its explosive nature, high morbidity and complex clinico-pathological manifestations. The early confirmatory diagnosis of CHIKV is essential for management as well as control of unprecedented epidemics. The present study describes the development and evaluation of a highly sensitive and specific E1 structural gene specific biotinylated DNA probe for detection of chikungunya virus in clinical samples using a dot blot format. Methods: The complementary DNA (cDNA) of CHIKV was spotted on to nylon membrane. The membrane was subjected to prehybridization and hybridization and developed using a colour development solution containing DAB chromogen. Results: The CHIKV E1 specific DNA probe was highly sensitive detecting picogram levels of target nucleic acid. The comparative evaluation with SYBR Green I based real-time RT-PCR revealed 99 per cent accordance with a sensitivity and specificity of 99 and 98 per cent, respectively. The specificity of this assay was further confirmed through cross-reaction studies with confirmed dengue and Japanese encephalitis (JE) patient serum samples along with infected culture supernatant of Ross River and Saint Louis encephalitis and plasmid DNA of O'Nyong Nyong, Semlinki forest and Sindbis viruses. Interpretation & conclusion: The DNA probe reported in this study may be useful for specific, sensitive and confirmatory clinical diagnosis of chikungunya infection in acute phase human patient serum and CSF samples. This assay can also be used in the laboratory for quantification of viral antigen in cell culture supernatant for research purpose.
  1,132 336 -
Larvicidal & ovicidal efficacy of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Fabaceae) against Anopheles stephensi Liston & Aedes aegypti Linn. (Diptera: Culicidae)
M Govindarajan, M Rajeswary, R Sivakumar
July 2013, 138(1):129-134
PMID:24056567
Background & objectives: In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal and ovicidal potential of the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts from the medicinal plant Pithecellobium dulce against the mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activity of P. dulce plant extracts was studied in the range of 60 to 450 mg/l against early third instar larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti in the laboratory. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. The ovicidal activity was determined against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti to various concentrations ranging from 100 to 750 mg/l under the laboratory conditions. Mean per cent hatchability of the eggs were observed after 48 h post treatment. Results: All leaf and seed extracts showed moderate larvicidal and ovicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in methanol extract of leaf of P. dulce against the larvae of An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti with the LC 50 and LC 90 values 145.43, 155.78 mg/l and 251.23, 279.73 mg/l, respectively. The per cent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. Zero hatchability was observed at 400 mg/l for leaf methanol extract and 625 mg/l for seed methanol extract of P. dulce against An. stephensi and Ae. aegypti, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seed extracts have low potency against the two mosquitoes. Interpretation & conclusions: The present results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts of P. dulce have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.
  1,013 323 -
Maternal serum median levels of alpha-foetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin & unconjugated estriol in second trimester in pregnant women from north-west India
Gurjit Kaur, Jyoti Srivastav, Suresh Sharma, Anju Huria, Poonam Goel, Bir Singh Chavan
July 2013, 138(1):83-88
PMID:24056560
Background & objectives: Triple test as prenatal screening procedure does not form a part of routine health care of pregnant women in India. Hence, median values of triple test biomarkers are lacking for Indian population. This study was undertaken to establish population-specific medians for biomarkers viz. alpha-foetoprotien (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCGβ), and unconjugated estriol (uE3) for detection of Down's syndrome, Edward's syndrome and neural tube defects (NTDs) in pregnant women in north-west India. Methods: Serum biomarker values were derived from 5420 pregnant women between 15-20 wk of gestation who were enrolled for triple test investigations at Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, India, between January, 2007 to December, 2009. Median values were calculated for rounded weeks using database comprising pregnancies with normal outcomes only. Simple statistical analysis and log-linear regression were used for median estimation of the biomarker values. Results: The levels of the three biomarkers were found to be ranging from 1.38 to 187.00 IU/ml for AFP, 1.06 to 315 ng/ml for hCGβ, and 0.25 to 28.5 nmol/l for uE3. The age of women ranged from 18 to 47 yr and mean weight was 57.9 ± 9.8 kg. Data revealed that AFP, hCGβ and uE3 medians in our study population were not significantly different from those reported from other countries or when compared ethnically. Interpretation & conclusion: The population-specific median values for the three biomarkers (AFP, hCGβ, uE3) may be used as reference values during prenatal screening in Indian pregnant women.
  1,025 286 -
EDITORIALS
This is hepatitis: Know it, confront it
Subrat Kumar Acharya
July 2013, 138(1):8-10
PMID:24056549
  904 370 -
CORRESPONDENCE
Presence of virulence determinants amongst Staphylococcus aureus isolates from nasal colonization, superficial & invasive infections
Minny Bhatty, Pallab Ray, Rachna Singh, Sanjay Jain, Meera Sharma
July 2013, 138(1):143-146
PMID:24056569
  945 258 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of growth factors (BMP-4/7 & bFGF) on proliferation & osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells
Shaohui Yuan, Qi Pan, Chun Jiang Fu, Zhenggang Bi
July 2013, 138(1):104-110
PMID:24056563
Background & objectives: BMP (bone morphogenetic protein)-4/7 and bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor) significantly promote the osteogenic activity and the proliferation of rabbit BMSCs (bone marrow stromal cells), respectively. However, their synergistic effects on the proliferation and the differentiation of BMSCs remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of bFGF and BMP-4/7 were investigated on the proliferation and the differentiation of rat BMSCs in vitro. Methods: BMSCs were isolated from New Zealand white rabbits and cultured to the third passage. The samples were divided into five groups according to the material implanted: (A) 80 ng/ml BMP-4/7; (B) 80 ng/ml bFGF; (C) 30 ng/ml BMP-4/7 and 30 ng/ml bFGF; (D) 50 ng/ml BMP-4/7 and 50 ng/ml bFGF; and (E) 80 ng/ml BMP-4/7 and 80 ng/ml bFGF. Cell proliferation was analyzed using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin (OC) dynamics were also measured. Results: BMP-4/7 alone significantly (P<0.05) promoted the proliferation of BMSCs. At the same time, it also promoted or inhibited the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. The synergistic effects of BMP-4/7 and bFGF significantly promoted both the proliferation and the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. The treatment of the synergistic effects was dose and time dependent. Interpretation & conclusions: A rational combination of BMP-4/7 and bFGF can promote the proliferation and the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. In addition, the synergistic functions are effective.
  787 324 -
Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy in HIV/AIDS: Observational study from a tertiary care centre in northern India
SK Sharma, M Soneja, S Ranjan, S Miglani, S Hari, S Sinha, N Wig
July 2013, 138(1):72-77
PMID:24056558
Background & objectives: Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML) is seen mostly in advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Little is known about the epidemiology and disease course of these patients from India. This study was aimed to determine the frequency of PML in patients with HIV/AIDS, and the clinical features and survival of these patients. Methods: The charts of HIV/AIDS patients with PML seen over a period of five years (2006-2011) at the Antiretroviral treatment (ART) centre at a tertiary care centre in New Delhi, India, were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of 1465 patients with HIV/AIDS, 18 (1.2%) were diagnosed with PML; four were laboratory confirmed and 14 had consistent clinical and radiological features. PML was the initial presentation of HIV infection in 10 (56%) patients, and 16 (89%) patients had CD4 count less than 200/μl. Insidious onset focal limb weakness (78%) and visual disturbance (28%) were common symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed characteristic white matter lesions in all the patients. The estimated median survival was 7.6 months (95% CI, 0-20 months). Interpretation & conclusions: Our results show that the patients present late to access treatment with advanced immunosuppression at presentation. PML is associated with high morbidity and mortality despite institution of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). There is a need to address the lacuna in diagnostic and management services for these patients in India.
  798 288 -
Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, effect on blood pressure & gastric tolerability of antidepressants
Preeta Kaur Chugh, Bhupinder Singh Kalra, Nitin Kaushik, Uma Tekur
July 2013, 138(1):99-103
PMID:24056562
Background & objectives: Antidepressants are being used as analgesics for various pain related disorders like neuropathic and non neuropathic pain. Although their analgesic activity is well recognized but anti-inflammatory potential of antidepressants is still inconclusive. Since the antidepressants are used for longer duration, it becomes important to elucidate effect of anti-depressants on blood pressure and gastric mucosa. This study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of various antidepressant drugs as well as their effect on blood pressure and gastric tolerability on chronic administration in rats. Methods: Rat paw oedema model was used for studying anti-inflammatory activity, single dose of test drug (venlafaxine 20 and 40 mg/kg, amitryptline 25 mg/kg, fluoxetine 20 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally 45 min prior to administration of 0.1 ml of 1 per cent carrageenan in sub-planter region. Oedema induced in test group was compared with normal saline treated control group. For studying effect on blood pressure and gastric tolerability, test drugs were administered for 14 days. Blood pressure was recorded on days 0, 7 and 14 using tail cuff method. On day 14, 4 h after drug administration, rats were sacrificed and stomach mucosa was examined for ulcerations. Results: Pretreatment of rats with venlafaxine (40 mg/kg) resulted in a significant decrease in paw oedema as compared to control (2.4 ± 0.15 to 1.1 ± 0.16 ml, P<0.01). Similarly, in the group pretreated with fluoxetine, significant decrease in paw oedema was observed in comparison to control (P<0.05). Significant change in mean blood pressure was seen in rats pretreated with venlafaxine 40 mg/kg (126.7 ± 4.2 to 155.2 ± 9.7, P<0.05) and fluoxetine (143.5 ± 2.6 to 158.3 ± 1.2, P<0.05) on day 7. No significant difference with regard to gastric tolerability was observed among groups. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant anti-inflammatory activity of venlafaxine (40 mg/kg) and fluoxetine but these drugs were also associated with an increase in blood pressure. No significant change in mean ulcer index was observed among groups.
  801 272 -
EDITORIALS
Ushering in the new century
VM Katoch, Anju Sharma, Team IJMR
July 2013, 138(1):1-3
PMID:24056547
  770 301 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibodies among blood donors of north India
RN Makroo, Rimpreet Singh Walia, Mohit Chowdhry, Aakanksha Bhatia, Vikas Hegde, NL Rosamma
July 2013, 138(1):125-128
PMID:24056566
Background & objectives: Transfusion of blood and blood products although considered as a life saving treatment modality, but may lead to certain infectious and non-infectious complications in the recipients. The purpose of this analysis was to monitor the seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibody in the blood donor population in a hospital based blood bank in north India, to evaluate the trends over the years (2001-2011). Methods: Relevant information of all the blood donors who donated whole blood at the department of Transfusion Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi from the January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2011 was retrieved from the departmental records. The number of donors who were found reactive for anti-HCV anatibodies was calculated. Results: Of the 2,06,022 blood donors, 1,93,661 were males and 12,361 were females. The percentage of whole blood donors found seroreactive for anti-HCV antibodies was 0.39 per cent (n=795). The seroprevalence of anti-HCV in male blood donors was 0.38 per cent (n=750) and the respective seroprevalence in female blood donors was 0.36 per cent (n=45). No significant change in the trend of HCV seroprevalence was observed over the period under consideration. Maximum seroprevalence of anti-HCV was observed in the age group of 18 to 30 yr (0.41%) and the minimum in the age group of 51 to 60 yr (0.26%). Interpretation & conclusion: HCV seroprevalence in our study was 0.39 per cent and a decreasing trend with age was observed. No significant change in the trend of anti-HCV seroprevalence was seen over a decade. Since, no vaccine is presently available for immunization against HCV infection, transfusion transmitted HCV infection remains a potential threat to the safety of the blood supply.
  775 274 -
CLINICAL IMAGES
Varicella pneumonia in an adult
Gonçalo Marto, Sofia Nunes
July 2013, 138(1):149-149
PMID:24056571
  753 267 -
COMMENTARIES
Management of haemolytic disease of the foetus & newborn:Steps to improve the outcomes
Sebastián E Illanes
July 2013, 138(1):11-12
PMID:24056550
  686 266 -
CORRESPONDENCE
Should pyrazinamide be preferred in tuberculosis treatment during pregnancy?
Oguz Karabay, Hasan Tahsin Gozdas
July 2013, 138(1):147-147
PMID:24056570
  553 255 -
BOOK REVIEWS
Recent human anatomy: Regional and clinical, vol. II, Thorax, abdomen, pelvis and perineum
TS Roy
July 2013, 138(1):154-155
  509 214 -
OBITUARY
Dr Sharad Vishwanath Apte (1930-2013)
Ajit C Gorakshakar
July 2013, 138(1):152-152
  515 182 -
BOOK REVIEWS
Old and new entities with Rett or Angelman syndrome - like intellectual disability
Madhuri Kulkarni
July 2013, 138(1):153-154
  456 179 -
CLINICAL IMAGES
Unusual localization of parathyroid carcinoma in anterior chest wall
CV Harinarayan, GR Prashant
July 2013, 138(1):150-151
PMID:24056572
  423 205 -
CORRESPONDENCE
Authors' response
Kranti Garg, Prasanta Raghab Mohapatra
July 2013, 138(1):147-148
  336 157 -
MOST CITED ARTICLES
Most Cited Article

July 2013, 138(1):168-169
Full text not available  [PDF]
  166 293 -
COMMENTARIES
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, a rare but devastating disease in AIDS patients
Vicenç Falcó
July 2013, 138(1):13-15
PMID:24056551
  298 80 -
SOME FORTHCOMING SCIENTIFIC EVENTS
Some Forthcoming Scientific Events

July 2013, 138(1):156-156
Full text not available  [PDF]
  125 229 -
IJMR CLASSIC
Clinical grading of lingual lesions in vitamin B-complex deficiency
K Prema, SG Srikantia
July 2013, 138(1):157-167
Full text not available  [PDF]
  126 195 -
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