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   2011| December  | Volume 134 | Issue 6  
    Online since February 6, 2012

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Parasitic infections in HIV infected individuals: Diagnostic & therapeutic challenges
Veeranoot Nissapatorn, Nongyao Sawangjaroen
December 2011, 134(6):878-897
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92633  PMID:22310820
After 30 years of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, parasites have been one of the most common opportunistic infections (OIs) and one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-infected patients. Due to severe immunosuppression, enteric parasitic pathogens in general are emerging and are OIs capable of causing diarrhoeal disease associated with HIV. Of these, Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli are the two most common intestinal protozoan parasites and pose a public health problem in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. These are the only two enteric protozoan parasites that remain in the case definition of AIDS till today. Leismaniasis, strongyloidiasis and toxoplasmosis are the three main opportunistic causes of systemic involvements reported in HIV-infected patients. Of these, toxoplasmosis is the most important parasitic infection associated with the central nervous system. Due to its complexity in nature, toxoplasmosis is the only parasitic disease capable of not only causing focal but also disseminated forms and it has been included in AIDS-defining illnesses (ADI) ever since. With the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), cryptosporidiosis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, and toxoplasmosis are among parasitic diseases reported in association with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This review addresses various aspects of parasitic infections in term of clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic challenges associated with HIV-infection.
  19,610 2,532 25
Current practices in laboratory monitoring of HIV infection
Madhu Vajpayee, Teena Mohan
December 2011, 134(6):801-822
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92627  PMID:22310815
After a diagnosis of HIV infection is made, the patient needs to be monitored using both clinical assessment and laboratory markers. HIV/AIDS monitoring is essential in guiding when to recommend initiation of therapy. Clinical monitoring will include staging of the HIV/AIDS disease using either the presence or absence of HIV-related signs and symptoms using the WHO staging system. Various laboratory methods can be used to monitor the disease progression and to guide whether the patient will need antiretroviral therapy or not. Laboratory monitoring for patients who are not on drugs is done to provide information about the stage of illness; to enable the clinician to make decisions on treatment and to give information on prognosis of the patient. Patients on drugs are monitored to assess their response to treatment with antiretroviral drugs and to detect any possible toxicity and improvement associated with the antiretroviral drugs.
  9,318 915 10
Diagnosis & treatment of tuberculosis in HIV co-infected patients
C Padmapriyadarsini, G Narendran, Soumya Swaminathan
December 2011, 134(6):850-865
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92630  PMID:22310818
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global public health challenge, with an estimated 1.4 million patients worldwide. Co-infection with HIV leads to challenges in both the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis. Further, there has been an increase in rates of drug resistant tuberculosis, including multi-drug (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistant TB (XDRTB), which are difficult to treat and contribute to increased mortality. Because of the poor performance of sputum smear microscopy in HIV-infected patients, newer diagnostic tests are urgently required that are not only sensitive and specific but easy to use in remote and resource-constrained settings. The treatment of co-infected patients requires antituberculosis and antiretroviral drugs to be administered concomitantly; challenges include pill burden and patient compliance, drug interactions, overlapping toxic effects, and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Also important questions about the duration and schedule of anti-TB drug regimens and timing of antiretroviral therapy remain unanswered. From a programmatic point of view, screening of all HIV-infected persons for TB and vice-versa requires good co-ordination and communication between the TB and AIDS control programmes. Linkage of co-infected patients to antiretroviral treatment centres is critical if early mortality is to be prevented. We present here an overview of existing diagnostic strategies, new tests in the pipeline and recommendations for treatment of patients with HIV-TB dual infection.
  7,284 1,519 50
Microbicides: A new hope for HIV prevention
Nutan , Satish K Gupta
December 2011, 134(6):939-949
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92639  PMID:22310826
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is a global health concern. To control its transmission, safe sex has been proposed as one of the strategies. Microbicides- intravaginal/intrarectal topical formulations of anti-HIV agents have also been proposed to prevent HIV transmission. Microbicides would provide protection by directly inactivating HIV or preventing the attachment, entry or replication of HIV in susceptible target cells as well as their dissemination from target cells present in semen or the host cells lining the vaginal/rectal wall to other migratory cells. Microbicides must be safe, effective following vaginal or rectal administration, and should cause minimal or no genital symptoms or inflammations following long-term repeated usage. However, a safe and efficacious anti-HIV microbicide is not yet available despite the fact that more than 60 candidate agents have been identified to have in vitro activity against HIV, several of which have advanced to clinical testing. Nonetheless, proof-of-concept of microbicides has been established based on the results of recent CAPRISA 004 clinical trials. In this article, the trends and challenges in the development of effective and safe microbicides to combat HIV transmission are reviewed.
  7,250 630 10
HIV & immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS)
Surendra K Sharma, Manish Soneja
December 2011, 134(6):866-877
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92632  PMID:22310819
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in HIV-infected patients leads to recovery of CD4+T cell numbers and restoration of protective immune responses against a wide variety of pathogens, resulting in reduction in the frequency of opportunistic infections and prolonged survival. However, in a subset of patients, dysregulated immune response after initiation of ART leads to the phenomenon of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). The hallmark of the syndrome is paradoxical worsening of an existing infection or disease process or appearance of a new infection/disease process soon after initiation of therapy. The overall incidence of IRIS is unknown, but is dependent on the population studied and the burden of underlying opportunistic infections. The immunopathogenesis of the syndrome is unclear and appears to be result of unbalanced reconstitution of effector and regulatory T-cells, leading to exuberant inflammatory response in patients receiving ART. Biomarkers, including interferon-γ (INF-γ), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP) and inter leukin (IL)-2, 6 and 7, are subject of intense investigation at present. The commonest forms of IRIS are associated with mycobacterial infections, fungi and herpes viruses. Majority of patients with IRIS have a self-limiting disease course. ART is usually continued and treatment for the associated condition optimized. The overall mortality associated with IRIS is low; however, patients with central nervous system involvement with raised intracranial pressures in cryptococcal and tubercular meningitis, and respiratory failure due to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have poor prognosis and require aggressive management including corticosteroids. Paradigm shifts in management of HIV with earlier initiation of ART is expected to decrease the burden of IRIS in developed countries; however, with enhanced rollout of ART in recent years and the enormous burden of opportunistic infections in developing countries like India, IRIS is likely to remain an area of major concern.
  5,980 1,720 39
Optimizing adherence to antiretroviral therapy
Seema Sahay, K Srikanth Reddy, Sampada Dhayarkar
December 2011, 134(6):835-849
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92629  PMID:22310817
HIV has now become a manageable chronic disease. However, the treatment outcomes may get hampered by suboptimal adherence to ART. Adherence optimization is a concrete reality in the wake of 'universal access' and it is imperative to learn lessons from various studies and programmes. This review examines current literature on ART scale up, treatment outcomes of the large scale programmes and the role of adherence therein. Social, behavioural, biological and programme related factors arise in the context of ART adherence optimization. While emphasis is laid on adherence, retention of patients under the care umbrella emerges as a major challenge. An in-depth understanding of patients' health seeking behaviour and health care delivery system may be useful in improving adherence and retention of patients in care continuum and programme. A theoretical framework to address the barriers and facilitators has been articulated to identify problematic areas in order to intervene with specific strategies. Empirically tested objective adherence measurement tools and approaches to assess adherence in clinical/ programme settings are required. Strengthening of ART programmes would include appropriate policies for manpower and task sharing, integrating traditional health sector, innovations in counselling and community support. Implications for the use of theoretical model to guide research, clinical practice, community involvement and policy as part of a human rights approach to HIV disease is suggested.
  4,460 715 27
Genetic correlates influencing immunopathogenesis of HIV infection
Gaurav Sharma, Gurvinder Kaur, Narinder Mehra
December 2011, 134(6):749-768
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92623  PMID:22310811
Variability to HIV infection, its progression as well as responsiveness to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is observed among individuals including viraemia controllers or exposed uninfected, rapid versus slow progressors and ART responders compared to non responders. This differential responsiveness/vulnerability to HIV-1 is governed by multiple host genetic factors that include HLA, cytokines, chemokines, their receptors and others. This review highlights the influence of these genetic factors on HIV/AIDS outcome; however, in India, the information in this area is very limited and most of these genetic studies have been conducted in Caucasian and South African populations. Considering, the population specific differences in the frequencies of protective or susceptibility favouring alleles and their influence on the disease outcome, it is of utmost importance to strengthen ongoing efforts towards defining largely unknown genetic propensity in Indian population, particularly by recruitment of large cohorts of well categorized exposed uninfected individuals, rapid, long term non progressors and elite viraemic controllers. Multi-parametric analysis of these potentially interactive immunogenetic variables in these cohorts may help to define potential targets for diagnostics and therapy in a population specific manner.
  3,899 746 5
Human immunodeficiency virus & cardiovascular risk
Giuseppe Barbaro, Giorgio Barbarini
December 2011, 134(6):898-903
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92634  PMID:22310821
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) significantly changed the prevalence of the cardiovascular manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS. In developed countries, a 30 per cent reduction in the prevalence of cardiomyopathy and pericardial effusion was observed, possibly related to a reduction of opportunistic infections and myocarditis. In developing countries, however, where the availablity of HAART is limited, and the pathogenic impact of nutritional factors is significant, a 32 per cent increase was seen in the prevalence of cardiomyopathy and related high mortality rate from congestive heart failure. Also, some HAART regimens in developed countries, especially those including protease inhibitors, may cause, in a high proportion of HIV-infected patients, a lipodystrophy syndrome that is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events related to a process of accelerated atherosclerosis. Careful cardiac screening is warranted for patients who are being evaluated for, or who are receiving HAART regimens, particularly for those with known underlying cardiovascular risk factors, according to the most recent clinical guidelines.
  3,839 702 10
HIV in Indian MSM: Reasons for a concentrated epidemic & strategies for prevention
Beena Thomas, Matthew J Mimiaga, Senthil Kumar, Soumya Swaminathan, Steven A Safren, Kenneth H Mayer
December 2011, 134(6):920-929
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92637  PMID:22310824
Men who have sex with men (MSM) in India are disproportionately likely to be HIV-infected, and face distinct psychosocial challenges. Understanding the unique socio-cultural issues of MSM in India and how they relate to HIV risk could maximize the utility of future prevention efforts. This review discusses: (i) the importance of addressing co-occurring mental health issues, such as depression, which may interfere with MSM's ability to benefit from traditional risk reduction counselling, (ii) reducing HIV-related stigma among health providers, policymakers and the lay public, and (iii) the role for non-governmental organizations that work with the community to play in providing culturally relevant HIV prevention programmes for MSM.
  3,573 587 41
Paediatric HIV - trends & challenges
SN Mothi, S Karpagam, V.H.T. Swamy, M Lala Mamatha, SM Sarvode
December 2011, 134(6):912-919
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92636  PMID:22310823
With the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infection, which was once considered a progressively fatal illness, has now become a chronic treatable condition in children, as in adults. However, the challenges these children are forced to face are far more daunting. The most significant shortcoming in the response to paediatric HIV remains the woefully inadequate prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), allowing a large number of children to be born with HIV in the first place, in spite of it being largely preventable. In the west, mother-to-child transmission has been virtually eliminated; however, in resource-limited settings where >95 per cent of all vertical transmissions take place, still an infected infants continue to be born. There are several barriers to efficient management: delayed infant diagnosis, lack of appropriate paediatric formulations, lack of skilled health personnel, etc. Poorly developed immunity allows greater dissemination throughout various organs. There is an increased frequency of malnutrition and infections that may be more persistent, severe and less responsive to treatment. In addition, these growing children are left with inescapable challenges of facing not only lifelong adherence with complex treatment regimens, but also enormous psychosocial, mental and neuro-cognitive issues. These unique challenges must be recognized and understood in order to provide appropriate holistic management enabling them to become productive citizens of tomorrow. To address these multi-factorial issues, there is an urgent need for a concerted, sustainable and multi-pronged national and global response.
  3,350 574 8
HIV testing in developing countries: What is required?
George Alemnji, John N Nkengasong, Bharat S Parekh
December 2011, 134(6):779-786
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92625  PMID:22310813
HIV diagnostic and follow up testing are usually done in laboratory settings. However, in developing countries there is a need to decentralize testing as the majority of the population lives in rural settings. In developing countries stringent quality assurance (QA) practices, which include appropriate training, development of standard operating procedures, maintenance of operator proficiency, routine use of quality control (QC) specimens, standardized data management, equipment calibration and maintenance, and biohazard safety with proper disinfection/disposal procedures are not routinely followed to ensure reliability of results and a safe work environment. The introduction of point-of-care testing technologies involving the use of non-laboratorians in routine testing has further increased the complexity of QA. Therefore, a careful approach towards improvement of laboratories that encourages best practices, coupled with incentives, and review of government policies in point-of-care testing is needed to improve quality of testing as decentralization takes place. Development of a functional laboratory tiered network that facilitates communication, referral, training and problem solving could further enhance confidence in laboratory testing. There is also a need for special considerations in implementing a step-wise approach towards quality improvement, strengthening of the supply chain management, human capacity development, infrastructure upgrade, and strong public private partnerships to ensure long term sustainability of these efforts.
  2,622 484 22
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Loss of CD127 & increased immunosenescence of T cell subsets in HIV infected individuals
Kamalika Mojumdar, Madhu Vajpayee, Neeraj Kumar Chauhan, Alpana Singh, Ravinder Singh, Sravya Kurapati
December 2011, 134(6):972-981
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92645  PMID:22310831
Background & objectives: HIV infection is characterized by a perturbation in T cell homeostasis, leading to alteration in T cell subsets. In addition to alteration in differentiation, HIV infection also leads to change in T cell survival and regenerative capacity, as suggested by differential expression of CD127 and CD57. We evaluated the expression patterns of CD127 and CD57 on CD4 and CD8 effector, memory and naïve T cell subsets in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. Methods: We characterized T cell subsets based on expression of these markers, and compared their expression pattern in HIV infected subjects and uninfected controls. We further assessed therapy generated changes in these subsets and expression of CD127 and CD57 on them. Results: There was a generalized decrease in naïve CD4 and CD8 T cells in HIV infected subjects. These changes in T cell subset distribution were related to antigen load. CD127 expression was significantly reduced in T cells from HIV infected subject. In association to this, HIV infected subjects had higher percentage of T cell subsets expressing CD57. Increased CD57 and reduced CD127 expression correlated with plasma viraemia and CD8 T cell activation state. Incomplete restoration of T cell subset proportions was observed, despite suppression of viral replication and increase in CD4 T cell counts. Further, the improvement was more pronounced in CD127 expression. Interpretation & conclusions: HIV infected subjects have reduced T cell regenerative capacity along with increased senescence, highlighting decreased proliferation and effector activities.
  2,633 423 13
REVIEW ARTICLES
Low-cost assays for monitoring HIV infected individuals in resource-limited settings
Pachamuthu Balakrishnan, Hussain Syed Iqbal, Saravanan Shanmugham, Janardhanan Mohanakrishnan, Sunil S Solomon, Kenneth H Mayer, Suniti Solomon
December 2011, 134(6):823-834
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92628  PMID:22310816
Use of a combination of CD4 counts and HIV viral load testing in the management of antiretroviral therapy (ART) provides higher prognostic estimation of the risk of disease progression than does the use of either test alone. The standard methods to monitor HIV infection are flow cytometry based for CD4+ T cell count and molecular assays to quantify plasma viral load of HIV. Commercial assays have been routinely used in developed countries to monitor ART. However, these assays require expensive equipment and reagents, well trained operators, and established laboratory infrastructure. These requirements restrict their use in resource-limited settings where people are most afflicted with the HIV-1 epidemic. With the advent of low-cost and/or low-tech alternatives, the possibility of implementing CD4 count and viral load testing in the management of ART in resource-limited settings is increasing. However, an appropriate validation should have been done before putting them to use for patient testing.
  2,528 420 10
Antiretroviral therapy in Indian setting: When & what to start with, when & what to switch to?
N Kumarasamy, Atul Patel, Sanjay Pujari
December 2011, 134(6):787-800
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92626  PMID:22310814
With the rapid scale up of antiretroviral therapy, there is a dramatic decline in HIV related morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Several new safe antiretroviral, and newer class of drugs and monitoring assays are developed recently. As a result the treatment guideline for the management of HIV disease continue to change. This review focuses on evolving science on Indian policy - antiretroviral therapy initiation, which drugs to start with, when to change the initial regimen and what to change.
  2,472 448 11
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Barriers to ART adherence & follow ups among patients attending ART centres in Maharashtra, India
N Joglekar, R Paranjape, R Jain, G Rahane, R Potdar, KS Reddy, S Sahay
December 2011, 134(6):954-959
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92642  PMID:22310828
Background & objectives: Adherence to ART is a patient specific issue influenced by a variety of situations that a patient may encounter, especially in resource-limited settings. A study was conducted to understand factors and influencers of adherence to ART and their follow ups among patients attending ART centres in Maharashtra, India. Methods: Between January and March 2009, barriers to ART adherence among 32 patients at three selected ART centres functioning under national ART roll-out programme in Maharashtra, India, were studied using qualitative methods. Consenting patients were interviewed to assess barriers to ART adherence. Constant comparison method was used to identify grounded codes. Results: Patients reported multiple barriers to ART adherence and follow up as (i) Financial barriers where the contributing factors were unemployment, economic dependency, and debt, (ii) social norm of attending family rituals, and fulfilling social obligations emerged as socio-cultural barriers, (iii) patients' belief, attitude and behaviour towards medication and self-perceived stigma were the reasons for sub-optimal adherence, and (iv) long waiting period, doctor-patient relationship and less time devoted in counselling at the center contributed to missed visits. Interpretation & conclusions: Mainstreaming ART can facilitate access and address 'missed doses' due to travel and migration. A 'morning' and 'evening' ART centre/s hours may reduce work absenteeism and help in time management. Proactive 'adherence probing' and probing on internalized stigma might optimize adherence. Adherence probing to prevent transitioning to suboptimal adherence among patients stable on ART is recommended.
  2,208 434 15
REVIEW ARTICLES
Genetic architecture of HIV-1 genes circulating in north India & their functional implications
Ujjwal Neogi, Vikas Sood, Larence Ronsard, Jyotsna Singh, Sneh Lata, VG Ramachandran, S Das, Ajay Wanchu, Akhil C Banerjea
December 2011, 134(6):769-778
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92624  PMID:22310812
This review presents data on genetic and functional analysis of some of the HIV-1 genes derived from HIV-1 infected individuals from north India (Delhi, Punjab and Chandigarh). We found evidence of novel B/C recombinants in HIV-1 LTR region showing relatedness to China/Mynmar with 3 copies of Nfκb sites; B/C/D mosaic genomes for HIV-1 Vpr and novel B/C Tat. We reported appearance of a complex recombinant form CRF_02AG of HIV-1 envelope sequences which is predominantly found in Central/Western Africa. Also one Indian HIV-1 envelope subtype C sequence suggested exclusive CXCR4 co-receptor usage. This extensive recombination, which is observed in about 10 per cent HIV-1 infected individuals in the Vpr genes, resulted in remarkably altered functions when compared with prototype subtype B Vpr. The Vpu C was found to be more potent in causing apoptosis when compared with Vpu B when analyzed for subG1 DNA content. The functional implications of these changes as well as in other genes of HIV-1 are discussed in detail with possible implications for subtype-specific pathogenesis highlighted.
  2,126 396 10
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Genital mycoplasma & Chlamydia trachomatis infections in treatment naïve HIV-1 infected adults
Arnab Ghosh, Benu Dhawan, Rama Chaudhry, Madhu Vajpayee, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas
December 2011, 134(6):960-966
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92643  PMID:22310829
Background & objectives: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) enhance the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Thus, screening for STIs is a routine component of primary HIV care. There are limited data for selective screening guidelines for genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis in HIV-infected adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of genital infections with Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma hominis, M. genitalium and C. trachomatis in treatment naïve asymptomatic HIV-1 - infected adults and study their association with CD4+ T-cell count. Methods: First-void urine samples were collected from 100 treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected adults and 50 healthy volunteers. C. trachomatis and M. genitalium were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis were detected by both culture and PCR. Circulating CD4+ cell counts of HIV-1-infected patients were determined from peripheral blood by flow-cytometry. Results: C. trachomatis was detected in 7 per cent of HIV-1-infected adults compared to none in control population. Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis showed infection rates of 6 and 1 per cent in the HIV group and 2 and 0 per cent in the control group, respectively. None of the individuals from the patient and control groups was tested positive for M. genitalium. A significant association was found between CD4 cell count and detection of C. trachomatis in HIV-infected adults (P = 0.01). Interpretation & conclusions: Screening of HIV-infected individuals for C. trachomatis infection could be recommended as a routine component of HIV care. The role of mycoplasmas as co-pathogens of the genitourinary tract in HIV-1 infected patients seems to be unlikely. Further longitudinal studies need to be done to confirm these findings.
  2,074 327 3
EDITORIALS
The evolving Indian AIDS epidemic: Hope & challenges of the fourth decade
Kenneth Mayer
December 2011, 134(6):739-741
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92618  PMID:22310809
  1,123 1,240 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prevalence of HIV among blood donors in a tertiary care centre of north India
RN Makroo, Mohit Chowdhry, Aakanksha Bhatia, Bhavna Arora, NL Rosamma
December 2011, 134(6):950-953
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92640  PMID:22310827
Background & objectives: India has the second highest HIV population in the world with about 2.5-3.0 million cases. HIV-2 cases among general and blood donor population have also been reported mostly from west and south India. This single centre study was carried out to observe the HIV-1 and HIV-2 prevalence among blood donors from north India. Methods: A total of 2,04,677 people were screened for the presence of HIV infection over the 11 year period (1999 to 2009). Till 2004, a third generation ELISA kit was used. From 2005 till January 2009 all tests were done using the fourth generation ELISA kit which detected the presence of HIV-1 P24 antigen and anti-HIV antibodies. From February 2009 onwards, the kits used were Genscreen ULTRA HIV Ag-Ab Assay. Results: A total of 506 (0.247%) donors were found to be repeat reactive for HIV. Of these, 486 (96%) donors tested using the Western blot were found positive for HIV-1 infection. Twenty (4%) donors showed a negative Western blot result, none of the donors were found reactive for HIV-2 infection. Interpretation & conclusions: The prevalence of HIV was 0.249 per cent among blood donors of north India. No HIV-2 case was found among the studied blood donor population indicating that it is not a threat currently.
  1,897 325 6
EDITORIALS
'Getting to Zero': A steep path ahead
K Satyanarayana
December 2011, 134(6):742-745
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92621  PMID:22310810
  1,069 1,076 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Microbicides for HIV prevention
Gita Ramjee
December 2011, 134(6):930-938
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92638  PMID:22310825
Although the HIV incidence rate has slowed in some countries, HIV remains a serious health challenge, particularly in the developing world. The epidemic is increasingly feminised, with young women at high risk of acquiring the virus. There is thus a clear requirement for acceptable woman-initiated methods of HIV prevention. Foremost among these are vaginally-applied substances known as microbicides; early research into potential microbicides focussed on non-HIV-specific compounds such as surfactants and polyanionic entry inhibitors. However, proof of the microbicide concept as a viable prevention strategy was not provided until the CAPRISA 004 trial of a microbicide containing the HIV-specific antiretroviral tenofovir was completed in mid-2010. Confirmation of the proof of concept provided by CAPRISA 004 by at least two major trials will hopefully lead to licensure of the product by 2018. Parallel studies are planned to ascertain the feasibility of implementation of these products in the public sector with subsequent research focussed on appropriate and acceptable methods of delivery of the active ingredient, and to increase adherence through other delivery systems such as vaginal rings.
  1,661 370 1
HIV serodiscordant relationships in India: Translating science to practice
Sunil Suhas Solomon, Suniti Solomon
December 2011, 134(6):904-911
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92635  PMID:22310822
Over the past 30 years, several interventions have been identified to prevent HIV transmission from HIV-infected persons to uninfected persons in discordant relationships. Yet, transmissions continue to occur. Interventions such as voluntary counselling and testing, condom promotion and risk reduction counselling are very effective in preventing transmission among serodiscordant couples but are underutilized in India despite their widespread availability. New interventions such as pre-risk exposure prophylaxis and universal antiretroviral therapy (irrespective of CD4 count) have been newly identified but face several challenges that impede their widespread implementation in India. Discordant couples in India also face certain unique socio-cultural issues such as marital and fertility pressure. We briefly review the various interventions (existing and novel) available for persons in discordant relationships in India and socio-cultural issues faced by these individuals and make recommendations to maximize their implementation.
  1,619 308 4
CORRESPONDENCE
Performance of microscopy for detection of microsporidial spores from stool samples of HIV infected individuals with diarrhoea
Sangeeta Kulkarni, Sudhir Patsute, Madhuri Chandane, Arun Risbud
December 2011, 134(6):982-984
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92646  PMID:22310832
  1,211 264 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Dietary adequacy of HIV infected individuals in north India - A cross-sectional analysis
Ravinder Kaur Sachdeva, Aman Sharma, Ajay Wanchu, Vandana Dogra, Surjit Singh, Subhash Varma
December 2011, 134(6):967-971
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92644  PMID:22310830
Background & objectives: Dietary inadequacy is common in developing countries and so is in immune-deficient HIV infected individuals. Hence, an assessment of dietary patterns was done among a group of HIV infected individuals and compared with recommended dietary allowances. Methods: One hundred consecutive HIV infected individuals were interviewed from the Immunodeficiency Clinic of a tertiary care center at Chandigarh. Dietary intake was assessed by 24 h recall method. Mean carbohydrate, protein and fat intakes were evaluated. Mean difference in the calorie intake from recommended dietary intake was then calculated. Mean absolute CD4 cell count was calculated and correlated with BMI and mean calorie intake. Results: Mean weight and BMI of the individuals participated in the study was 58.6 ± 11.7 (range, 34 - 94) kg and 21.5 ± 3.7 (range, 13.6 - 36.7) kg/m [2] , respectively. Mean total calories intake was 1713 ± 292.8 (860 - 2525) calories/day and mean difference in the calories taken from the standard values was 249.5 ± 190.7 (10.6 - 967.5) calories/day. There was no significant correlation between CD4 cell count and total calories taken. Interpretation & conclusions: In HIV-infected individuals the energy intake was significantly lower than the recommended average intake. Hence, efforts should be taken to ensure that HIV-infected individuals have access to high-quality, nutritious food choices that promote optimal dietary patterns.
  1,179 226 4
COMMENTARY
Towards zero transmission of HIV through blood transfusion
T Jacob John
December 2011, 134(6):746-748
PMID:22408842
  857 225 -
SOME FORTHCOMING SCIENTIFIC EVENTS
Some Forthcoming Scientific Events

December 2011, 134(6):985-985
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  617 172 -
ANNOUNCEMENT
Announcements

December 2011, 134(6):986-986
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  251 131 -
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