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   2006| September  | Volume 124 | Issue 3  
    Online since May 20, 2011

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The burden of cardiovascular disease in the Indian subcontinent
A Goyal, S Yusuf
September 2006, 124(3):235-244
Ischaemic heart disease and stroke are among the most common causes of death and disability in the world. The Indian subcontinent (including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal) has among the highest rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) globally. Previous reports have highlighted the high CVD rates among South Asian immigrants living in Western countries, but the enormous CVD burden within the Indian subcontinent itself has been underemphasized. In this review, we discuss the existing data on the prevalence of CVD and its risk factors in the Indian subcontinent. We also review recent evidence indicating that the burden of coronary heart disease in the Indian subcontinent is largely explained on the basis of traditional risk factors, which challenges the common thinking that South Asian ethnicity per se is a strong independent risk factor for coronary heart disease. Finally, we suggest measures to implement in policy, capacity building, and research to address the CVD epidemic in the Indian subcontinent.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  230 277 -
Effect of tobacco smoking on renal function
Ross G Cooper
September 2006, 124(3):261-268
Nicotine is one of many substances that may be acquired through active and passive smoking of tobacco. In man, nicotine is commonly consumed via smoking cigarettes, cigars or pipes. The addictive liability and pharmacological effects of smoking are primarily mediated by the major tobacco alkaloid nicotine. High stress jobs favour repeated smoking and further reinforce addictive behaviours. There are elevated serum cadmium and lead levels in smokers resulting in glomerular dysfunction. Nephropathies are accelerated by nicotine with an increased incidence of microalbuminuria progressing to proteinuria, followed by type-1 diabetes mellitus induced renal failure. Cigarette smoke-induced renal damage is due, at least in part, to activation of the sympathetic nervous system resulting in an elevation in blood pressure. Ethanol, nicotine, or concurrent intake significantly increases lipid peroxidation in liver, and decreased superoxide dismutase activity and increased catalase activity in the kidney. This review describes the effects of nicotine, smoking, smoke extracts and other tobacco constituents on renal and cardiovascular functions, and associated effects on the nervous system. Both active and passive smoking is toxic to renal function.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  303 153 -
Validation of the modified Berlin questionnaire to identify patients at risk for the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome
SK Sharma, C Vasudev, S Sinha, A Banga, RM Pandey, KK Handa
September 2006, 124(3):281-290
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  178 196 -
Adjuvant therapy in cerebral malaria
S Mohanty, DK Patel, SS Pati, SK Mishra
September 2006, 124(3):245-260
Cerebral malaria is the most common cause of non-traumatic encephalopathy in the world. The mainstay of therapy is either quinine or artemisinin, both of which are effective antimalarials. The clinical picture of cerebral malaria may persist or even become worse in spite of the clearance of parasites from blood. The death rate is unacceptably high even with effective antimalarials in tertiary care hospitals. The mortality increases in presence of multi organ failure (renal failure, jaundice, respiratory distress, severe anaemia, lactic acidosis, etc.). The pathogenesis of cerebral malaria is multifactorial and includes clogging, sequestration, rosette formation, release of cytokines, cerebral oedema, increased intracranial hypertension, etc. Attempts are made to use adjuvant therapy which will act through alternate mechanisms and address one or more of the pathogenetic processes. In this review, we have discussed the role of corticosteroids, pentoxifylline, desferrioxamine, mannitol and newer agents in the treatment of cerebral malaria. Though the literature on adjuvant therapy in cerebral malaria is large enough, there are a number of shortcomings in the clinical trials, many being open and non randomized or of very small sample size. Further research is of utmost importance through large multicentric, double-blind controlled trials to show the efficacy of any of these drugs.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  253 118 -
ICMR-DBT guidelines for stem cell research and therapy

September 2006, 124(3):370-370
Full text not available  [PDF]
  149 110 -
Expression of nestin--a stem cell associated intermediate filament in human CNS tumours
Sandhya B Rani, A Mahadevan, Shobha Rani Anilkumar, TR Raju, SK Shankar
September 2006, 124(3):269-280
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  112 92 -
Nocardia pyopneumothorax in an immunocompetent patient
E Gupta, B Dhawan, MM Thabah, Bimal K Das, S Sood, A Kapil
September 2006, 124(3):363-364
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  100 94 -
Frequency of major affective disorders in first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
D Pravin, S Malhotra, S Chakrabarti, RJ Dash
September 2006, 124(3):291-298
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  104 86 -
Fertility transition in south India

September 2006, 124(3):368-368
Full text not available  [PDF]
  77 112 -
Awakening India to obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome
R Mehra
September 2006, 124(3):231-234
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  88 89 -
HLA alleles in pre-menopausal breast cancer patients from western India
L Gopalkrishnan, S Patil, S Chhaya, R Badwe, N Joshi
September 2006, 124(3):305-312
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  86 90 -
Regulating stem cell research & therapy
SS Agarwal
September 2006, 124(3):225-228
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  83 90 -
Kindling & mossy fibre sprouting in the rat hippocampus following hot water induced hyperthermic seizures
Gautam R Ullal, P Satishchandra, D Kalladka, K Rajashekar, K Archana, A Mahadevan, SK Shankar
September 2006, 124(3):331-342
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  78 92 -
Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) preconditioning on nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) activation & proinflammatory cytokines induced by myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion
X Liu, J Shen, Y Jin, M Duan, J Xu
September 2006, 124(3):343-354
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  85 85 -
Concise International Chemical Assessment Document (CICAD) 63, Manganese and its Compounds: Environmental Aspects
S.S.A. Zaidi
September 2006, 124(3):365-366
Full text not available  [PDF]
  75 94 -
Editorial 'autonomy ' in learned journals : lessons from the CMAJ episode
K Satyanarayana
September 2006, 124(3):221-224
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  67 99 -
Hormonal abnormalities in azoospermic men in Kano, Northern Nigeria
MA Emokpae, PO Uadia, AZ Mohammed, A Omale-Itodo
September 2006, 124(3):299-304
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  72 94 -
CD4/CD8 lymphocyte counts in healthy, HIV-positive individuals & AIDS patients
K Ray, SM Gupta, M Bala, S Muralidhar, J Kumar
September 2006, 124(3):319-330
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  65 89 -
Development of an immunodetection test for a botulinum-like neurotoxin produced by Clostridium sp. RKD
A Dixit, SI Alam, RK Dhaked, L Singh
September 2006, 124(3):355-362
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  65 86 -
Nestin immunoexpression in CNS tumours
F Rotondo
September 2006, 124(3):229-230
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  63 87 -
Intestinal enzymes during malnutrition & infection in rabbits
S Islam, Amal K Mitra, Ashish K Chowdhury, Nur Haque Alam
September 2006, 124(3):313-318
Full text not available  [PDF]  [PubMed]
  69 81 -

September 2006, 124(3):369-369
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  55 88 -
Basic methods of medical research
P.S.S. Sundar Rao
September 2006, 124(3):366-367
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  45 88 -

September 2006, 124(3):369-369
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Some forthcoming scientific events

September 2006, 124(3):368-368
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