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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Healthcare workers & SARS-CoV-2 infection in India: A case-control investigation in the time of COVID-19
Pranab Chatterjee, Tanu Anand, Kh Jitenkumar Singh, Reeta Rasaily, Ravinder Singh, Santasabuj Das, Harpreet Singh, Ira Praharaj, Raman R Gangakhedkar, Balram Bhargava, Samiran Panda
May 2020, 151(5):459-467
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2234_20  PMID:32611916
Background & objectives: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at an elevated risk of contracting COVID-19. While intense occupational exposure associated with aerosol-generating procedures underlines the necessity of using personal protective equipment (PPE) by HCWs, high-transmission efficiency of the causative agent [severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)] could also lead to infections beyond such settings. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), a repurposed antimalarial drug, was empirically recommended as prophylaxis by the National COVID-19 Task Force in India to cover such added risk. Against this background, the current investigation was carried out to identify the factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs in the country. Methods: A case-control design was adopted and participants were randomly drawn from the countrywide COVID-19 testing data portal maintained by the ICMR. The test results and contact details of HCWs, diagnosed as positive (cases) or negative (controls) for SARS-CoV-2 using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), were available from this database. A 20-item brief-questionnaire elicited information on place of work, procedures conducted and use of PPE. Results: Compared to controls, cases were slightly older (34.7 vs. 33.5 yr) and had more males (58 vs. 50%). In multivariate analyses, HCWs performing endotracheal intubation had higher odds of being SARS-CoV-2 infected [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 4.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16-16.07]. Consumption of four or more maintenance doses of HCQ was associated with a significant decline in the odds of getting infected (AOR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.22-0.88); a dose-response relationship existed between frequency of exposure to HCQ and such reductions (χ[2] for trend=48.88; P <0.001). In addition, the use of PPE was independently associated with the reduction in odds of getting infected with SARS-CoV-2. Interpretations & conclusions: Until results of clinical trials for HCQ prophylaxis become available, this study provides actionable information for policymakers to protect HCWs at the forefront of COVID-19 response. The public health message of sustained intake of HCQ prophylaxis as well as appropriate PPE use need to be considered in conjunction with risk homoeostasis operating at individual levels.
  63,704 3,108 6
SPECIAL SECTION - TB DIAGNOSTICS - REVIEW ARTICLES
Challenges in the diagnosis & treatment of miliary tuberculosis
Surendra K Sharma, Alladi Mohan, Abhishek Sharma
May 2012, 135(5):703-730
Miliary tuberculosis (TB) is a potentially lethal disease if not diagnosed and treated early. Diagnosing miliary TB can be a challenge that can perplex even the most experienced clinicians. Clinical manifestations are nonspecific, typical chest radiograph findings may not be evident till late in the disease, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) shows randomly distributed miliary nodules and is relatively more sensitive. Ultrasonography, CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful in discerning the extent of organ involvement by lesions of miliary TB in extra-pulmonary locations. Fundus examination for choroid tubercles, histopathological examination of tissue biopsy specimens, conventional and rapid culture methods for isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, drug-susceptibility testing, along with use of molecular biology tools in sputum, body fluids, other body tissues are useful in confirming the diagnosis. Although several prognostic markers have been described which predict mortality, yet untreated miliary TB has a fatal outcome within one year. A high index of clinical suspicion and early diagnosis and timely institution of anti-tuberculosis treatment can be life-saving. Response to first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs is good but drug-induced hepatotoxicity and drug-drug interactions in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients pose significant problems during treatment. However, sparse data are available from randomized controlled trials to define the optimum regimen and duration of treatment in patients with drug-sensitive as well as drug-resistant miliary TB, including those with HIV/AIDS.
  26,734 2,496 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic: A review of the current evidence
Pranab Chatterjee, Nazia Nagi, Anup Agarwal, Bhabatosh Das, Sayantan Banerjee, Swarup Sarkar, Nivedita Gupta, Raman R Gangakhedkar
February & March 2020, 151(2):147-159
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_519_20  PMID:32362642
A novel coronavirus (nCoV) spillover event, with its epicenter in Wuhan, People's Republic of China, has emerged as a public health emergency of international concern. This began as an outbreak in December 2019, and till February 28, 2020, there have been 83,704 confirmed cases of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) globally, with 2,859 deaths, resulting in an overall case fatality rate of 3.41 per cent (95% confidence interval 3.29-3.54%). By this time (February 28, 2020) 58 countries or territories and one international conveyance (Diamond Princess Cruise Ship) were affected. As a part of the global response to manage and contain the pandemic, major emphasis was placed on generating research intelligence to guide evidence-based responses to contain the virus, which was named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), owing to its genetic similarities with the SARS virus. This review summarizes the emerging evidence which can help guide the public health response, particularly in India. Key areas have been identified in which research needs to be conducted to generate critical intelligence for advising prevention and control efforts. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has once again exposed the weaknesses of global health systems preparedness, ability to respond to an infectious threat, the rapidity of transmission of infections across international borders and the ineffectiveness of knee-jerk policy responses to emerging/re-emerging infectious disease threats. The review concludes with the key learning points from the ongoing efforts to prevent and contain COVID-19 and identifies the need to invest in health systems, community-led response mechanisms and the need for preparedness and global health security.
  21,776 4,039 8
Hand hygiene: Back to the basics of infection control
Purva Mathur
November 2011, 134(5):611-620
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.90985  PMID:22199099
Health care associated infections are drawing increasing attention from patients, insurers, governments and regulatory bodies. This is not only because of the magnitude of the problem in terms of the associated morbidity, mortality and cost of treatment, but also due to the growing recognition that most of these are preventable. The medical community is witnessing in tandem unprecedented advancements in the understanding of pathophysiology of infectious diseases and the global spread of multi-drug resistant infections in health care set-ups. These factors, compounded by the paucity of availability of new antimicrobials have necessitated a re-look into the role of basic practices of infection prevention in modern day health care. There is now undisputed evidence that strict adherence to hand hygiene reduces the risk of cross-transmission of infections. With "Clean Care is Safer Care" as a prime agenda of the global initiative of WHO on patient safety programmes, it is time for developing countries to formulate the much-needed policies for implementation of basic infection prevention practices in health care set-ups. This review focuses on one of the simplest, low cost but least accepted from infection prevention: hand hygiene.
  21,536 3,112 79
Parasitic infections in HIV infected individuals: Diagnostic & therapeutic challenges
Veeranoot Nissapatorn, Nongyao Sawangjaroen
December 2011, 134(6):878-897
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92633  PMID:22310820
After 30 years of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, parasites have been one of the most common opportunistic infections (OIs) and one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-infected patients. Due to severe immunosuppression, enteric parasitic pathogens in general are emerging and are OIs capable of causing diarrhoeal disease associated with HIV. Of these, Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli are the two most common intestinal protozoan parasites and pose a public health problem in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. These are the only two enteric protozoan parasites that remain in the case definition of AIDS till today. Leismaniasis, strongyloidiasis and toxoplasmosis are the three main opportunistic causes of systemic involvements reported in HIV-infected patients. Of these, toxoplasmosis is the most important parasitic infection associated with the central nervous system. Due to its complexity in nature, toxoplasmosis is the only parasitic disease capable of not only causing focal but also disseminated forms and it has been included in AIDS-defining illnesses (ADI) ever since. With the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), cryptosporidiosis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, and toxoplasmosis are among parasitic diseases reported in association with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This review addresses various aspects of parasitic infections in term of clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic challenges associated with HIV-infection.
  19,757 2,549 25
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Full-genome sequences of the first two SARS-CoV-2 viruses from India
Pragya D Yadav, Varsha A Potdar, Manohar Lal Choudhary, Dimpal A Nyayanit, Megha Agrawal, Santosh M Jadhav, Triparna D Majumdar, Anita Shete-Aich, Atanu Basu, Priya Abraham, Sarah S Cherian
February & March 2020, 151(2):200-209
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_663_20  PMID:32242873
Background & objectives: Since December 2019, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has globally affected 195 countries. In India, suspected cases were screened for SARS-CoV-2 as per the advisory of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. The objective of this study was to characterize SARS-CoV-2 sequences from three identified positive cases as on February 29, 2020. Methods: Throat swab/nasal swab specimens for a total of 881 suspected cases were screened by E gene and confirmed by RdRp (1), RdRp (2) and N gene real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions and next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis, molecular characterization and prediction of B- and T-cell epitopes for Indian SARS-CoV-2 sequences were undertaken. Results: Three cases with a travel history from Wuhan, China, were confirmed positive for SARS-CoV-2. Almost complete (29,851 nucleotides) genomes of case 1, case 3 and a fragmented genome for case 2 were obtained. The sequences of Indian SARS-CoV-2 though not identical showed high (~99.98%) identity with Wuhan seafood market pneumonia virus (accession number: NC 045512). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Indian sequences belonged to different clusters. Predicted linear B-cell epitopes were found to be concentrated in the S1 domain of spike protein, and a conformational epitope was identified in the receptor-binding domain. The predicted T-cell epitopes showed broad human leucocyte antigen allele coverage of A and B supertypes predominant in the Indian population. Interpretation & conclusions: The two SARS-CoV-2 sequences obtained from India represent two different introductions into the country. The genetic heterogeneity is as noted globally. The identified B- and T-cell epitopes may be considered suitable for future experiments towards the design of vaccines and diagnostics. Continuous monitoring and analysis of the sequences of new cases from India and the other affected countries would be vital to understand the genetic evolution and rates of substitution of the SARS-CoV-2.
  13,885 4,352 7
REVIEW ARTICLES
Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia in the intensive care unit: A review of the clinically relevant recent advancements
Holly Keyt, Paola Faverio, Marcos I Restrepo
June 2014, 139(6):814-821
PMID:25109715
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most commonly encountered hospital-acquired infections in intensive care units and is associated with significant morbidity and high costs of care. The pathophysiology, epidemiology, treatment and prevention of VAP have been extensively studied for decades, but a clear prevention strategy has not yet emerged. In this article we will review recent literature pertaining to evidence-based VAP-prevention strategies that have resulted in clinically relevant outcomes. A multidisciplinary strategy for prevention of VAP is recommended. Those interventions that have been shown to have a clinical impact include the following: (i) Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for able patients, especially in immunocompromised patients, with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or pulmonary oedema, (ii) Sedation and weaning protocols for those patients who do require mechanical ventilation, (iii) Mechanical ventilation protocols including head of bed elevation above 30 degrees and oral care, and (iv) Removal of subglottic secretions. Other interventions, such as selective digestive tract decontamination, selective oropharyngeal decontamination and antimicrobial-coated endotracheal tubes, have been tested in different studies. However, the evidence for the efficacy of these measures to reduce VAP rates is not strong enough to recommend their use in clinical practice. In numerous studies, the implementation of VAP prevention bundles to clinical practice was associated with a significant reduction in VAP rates. Future research that considers clinical outcomes as primary endpoints will hopefully result in more detailed prevention strategies.
  14,753 2,052 -
Emerging/re-emerging viral diseases & new viruses on the Indian horizon
Devendra T Mourya, Pragya D Yadav, PT Ullas, Sumit D Bhardwaj, Rima R Sahay, Mandeep S Chadha, Anita M Shete, Santosh Jadhav, Nivedita Gupta, Raman R Gangakhedkar, Pradeep Khasnobis, Sujeet K Singh
April 2019, 149(4):447-467
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1239_18  PMID:31411169
Infectious diseases remain as the major causes of human and animal morbidity and mortality leading to significant healthcare expenditure in India. The country has experienced the outbreaks and epidemics of many infectious diseases. However, enormous successes have been obtained against the control of major epidemic diseases, such as malaria, plague, leprosy and cholera, in the past. The country's vast terrains of extreme geo-climatic differences and uneven population distribution present unique patterns of distribution of viral diseases. Dynamic interplays of biological, socio-cultural and ecological factors, together with novel aspects of human-animal interphase, pose additional challenges with respect to the emergence of infectious diseases. The important challenges faced in the control and prevention of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases range from understanding the impact of factors that are necessary for the emergence, to development of strengthened surveillance systems that can mitigate human suffering and death. In this article, the major emerging and re-emerging viral infections of public health importance have been reviewed that have already been included in the Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme.
  14,401 1,621 8
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of public-private partnership in treatment of sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India
Suresh Babu Kokku, Bidhubhusan Mahapatra, Saroj Tucker, Niranjan Saggurti, Parimi Prabhakar
February 2014, 139(2):285-293
PMID:24718405
Background & objectives: Providing sexually transmitted infection (STI) services to female sex workers (FSWs) in rural and resource constrained settings is a challenge. This paper describes an approach to address this challenge through a partnership with government health facilities, and examines the effect of this partnership on the utilization of STI services by FSWs in Andhra Pradesh, India. Methods: Partnerships were formed with 46 government clinics located in rural areas for providing STI treatment to FSWs in 2007. Government health facilities were supported by local and State level non-government organizations (NGOs) through provision of medicines, training of medical staff, outreach in the communities, and other coordination activities. Data from programme monitoring and behaviour tracking survey were used to examine the accessibility and acceptability in utilization of STI services from partnership clinics. Results: The number of FSWs accessing services at the partnership clinics increased from 1627 in 2007 to over 15,000 in 2010. The average number of annual visits by FSWs to these clinics in 2010 was 3.4. In opinion surveys, the majority of FSWs accessing services at the partnership clinics expressed confidence that they would continue to receive effective services from the government facilities even if the programme terminates. The overall attitude of FSWs to visit government clinics was more positive among FSWs from partnership clinic areas compared to those from non-partnership clinic areas. Interpretation & conclusions: The partnership mechanism between the NGO-supported HIV prevention programme and government clinic facilities appeared to be a promising opportunity to provide timely and accessible STI services for FSWs living in rural and remote areas.
  13,918 828 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Female genital tuberculosis: Revisited
Jai Bhagwan Sharma, Eshani Sharma, Sangeeta Sharma, Sona Dharmendra
December 2018, 148(7):71-83
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_648_18  PMID:30964083
Female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (rarely Mycobacterium bovis and/or atypical mycobacteria) being usually secondary to TB of the lungs or other organs with infection reaching through haematogenous, lymphatic route or direct spread from abdominal TB. In FGTB, fallopian tubes are affected in 90 per cent women, whereas uterine endometrium is affected in 70 per cent and ovaries in about 25 per cent women. It causes menstrual dysfunction and infertility through the damage of genital organs. Some cases may be asymptomatic. Diagnosis is often made from proper history taking, meticulous clinical examination and judicious use of investigations, especially endometrial aspirate (or biopsy) and endoscopy. Treatment is through multi-drug antitubercular treatment for adequate time period (rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol daily for 60 days followed by rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol daily for 120 days). Treatment is given for 18-24 months using the second-line drugs for drug-resistant (DR) cases. With the advent of increased access to rapid diagnostics and newer drugs, the management protocol is moving towards achieving universal drug sensitivity testing and treatment with injection-free regimens containing newer drugs, especially for new and previously treated DR cases.
  13,598 1,059 -
A brief history of vaccines & vaccination in India
Chandrakant Lahariya
April 2014, 139(4):491-511
PMID:24927336
The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19 th century efforts to replace variolation by vaccination, setting up of a few vaccine institutes, cholera vaccine trial and the discovery of plague vaccine. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of smallpox vaccination, typhoid vaccine trial in Indian army personnel, and setting up of vaccine institutes in almost each of the then Indian States. In the post-independence period, the BCG vaccine laboratory and other national institutes were established; a number of private vaccine manufacturers came up, besides the continuation of smallpox eradication effort till the country became smallpox free in 1977. The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) (1978) and then Universal Immunization Programme (UIP) (1985) were launched in India. The intervening events since UIP till India being declared non-endemic for poliomyelitis in 2012 have been described. Though the preventive efforts from diseases were practiced in India, the reluctance, opposition and a slow acceptance of vaccination have been the characteristic of vaccination history in the country. The operational challenges keep the coverage inequitable in the country. The lessons from the past events have been analysed and interpreted to guide immunization efforts.
  12,348 1,258 -
CENTENARY REVIEW ARTICLE
Tuberculosis: From an incurable scourge to a curable disease - journey over a millennium
Surendra K Sharma, Alladi Mohan
March 2013, 137(3):455-493
PMID:23640554
Globally, tuberculosis (TB) still remains a major public health problem. India is a high TB burden country contributing to 26 per cent of global TB burden. During 1944-1980, TB became treatable and short-course chemotherapy emerged as the standard of care. When TB elimination seemed possible in the early 1980s, global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic resulted in a resurgence of TB. Widespread occurrence of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant TB (M/XDR-TB) is threatening to destabilize TB control globally. Atypical clinical presentation still poses a challenge. Disseminated, miliary and cryptic TB are being increasingly recognized. Availability of newer imaging modalities has allowed more efficient localization of lesions and use of image guided procedures has facilitated definitive diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB. Introduction of liquid culture, rapid drug-susceptibility testing (DST), molecular diagnostic methods has helped in rapid detection, speciation and DST profiling of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. While treatment of TB and HIV-TB co-infection has become simpler, efforts are on to shorten the treatment duration. However, drug toxicities and drug-drug interactions still constitute a significant challenge. Recently, there has been better understanding of anti-TB drug-induced hepatotoxicity and its frequent confounding by viral hepatitis, especially, in resource-constrained settings; and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in HIV-TB. Quest for newer biomarkers for predicting a durable cure, relapse, discovery/repurposing of newer anti-TB drugs, development of newer vaccines continues to achieve the goal of eliminating TB altogether by 2050.
  11,575 1,516 -
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
VK Vijayan
February 2013, 137(2):251-269
PMID:23563369
The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) to FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure), hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity), bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death) and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease guidelines recommend influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations.
  9,761 3,324 -
REVIEW ARTICLES
Neurocysticercosis: Diagnostic problems & current therapeutic strategies
Vedantam Rajshekhar
September 2016, 144(3):319-326
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.198686  PMID:28139530
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most common single cause of seizures/epilepsy in India and several other endemic countries throughout the world. It is also the most common parasitic disease of the brain caused by the cestode Taenia solium or pork tapeworm. The diagnosis of NCC and the tapeworm carrier (taeniasis) can be relatively inaccessible and expensive for most of the patients. In spite of the introduction of several new immunological tests, neuroimaging remains the main diagnostic test for NCC. The treatment of NCC is also mired in controversy although, there is emerging evidence that albendazole (a cysticidal drug) may be beneficial for patients by reducing the number of seizures and hastening the resolution of live cysts. Currently, there are several diagnostic and management issues which remain unresolved. This review will highlight some of these issues.
  11,347 1,589 15
EDITORIAL
Combating the wrath of viral hepatitis in India
Sandeep Satsangi, Radha K Dhiman
July 2016, 144(1):1-5
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.193275  PMID:27834318
  11,764 679 1
REVIEW ARTICLES
Country-specific nutrient requirements & recommended dietary allowances for Indians: Current status & future directions
Krishna Pillay Madhavan Nair, Little Flower Augustine
November 2018, 148(5):522-530
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1762_18  PMID:30666979
Nutrient requirements and recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) are set and revised periodically by the Indian Council of Medical Research. These are meant to guide the population and provide policy directions regarding nutrient requirements corresponding to a healthy population. This review article provides an overview of the current recommendations (RDA, 2010) and the challenges faced by the committee to contextualize RDA to the Indian scenario which has a background of double burden of malnutrition, diverse dietary habits but predominantly home-based cereal-pulse vegetarian diet with low bioavailability of several nutrients and lower consumption of packaged fortified foods. The need for country-specific requirements and harmonization of methodologies related to nutrient requirements and RDA are also discussed. The recommendations fixed for iron have been provided in detail as an example. The measures to carry forward RDA revisions to ensure its sustainability have been emphasized.
  11,020 1,367 1
CENTENARY REVIEW ARTICLE
Eradicating poliomyelitis: India's journey from hyperendemic to polio-free status
T Jacob John, Vipin M Vashishtha
May 2013, 137(5):881-894
PMID:23760372
India's success in eliminating wild polioviruses (WPVs) has been acclaimed globally. Since the last case on January 13, 2011 success has been sustained for two years. By early 2014 India could be certified free of WPV transmission, if no indigenous transmission occurs, the chances of which is considered zero. Until early 1990s India was hyperendemic for polio, with an average of 500 to 1000 children getting paralysed daily. In spite of introducing trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) in the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1979, the burden of polio did not fall below that of the pre-EPI era for a decade. One of the main reasons was the low vaccine efficacy (VE) of tOPV against WPV types 1 and 3. The VE of tOPV was highest for type 2 and WPV type 2 was eliminated in 1999 itself as the average per-capita vaccine coverage reached 6. The VE against types 1 and 3 was the lowest in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, where the force of transmission of WPVs was maximum on account of the highest infant-population density. Transmission was finally interrupted with sustained and extraordinary efforts. During the years since 2004 annual pulse polio vaccination campaigns were conducted 10 times each year, virtually every child was tracked and vaccinated - including in all transit points and transport vehicles, monovalent OPV types 1 and 3 were licensed and applied in titrated campaigns according to WPV epidemiology and bivalent OPV (bOPV, with both types 1 and 3) was developed and judiciously deployed. Elimination of WPVs with OPV is only phase 1 of polio eradication. India is poised to progress to phase 2, with introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV), switch from tOPV to bOPV and final elimination of all vaccine-related and vaccine-derived polioviruses. True polio eradication demands zero incidence of poliovirus infection, wild and vaccine.
  11,185 836 2
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Incidence & prevalence of stroke in India: A systematic review
Sureshkumar Kamalakannan, Aashrai S. V. Gudlavalleti, Venkata S. Murthy Gudlavalleti, Shifalika Goenka, Hannah Kuper
August 2017, 146(2):175-185
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_516_15  PMID:29265018
Background & objectives: There has been more than 100 per cent increase in incidence of stroke in low- and middle-income countries including India from 1970-1979 to 2000-2008. Lack of reliable reporting mechanisms, heterogeneity in methodology, study population, and small sample size in existing epidemiological studies, make an accurate estimation of stroke burden in India challenging. We conducted a systematic review of epidemiologic studies on stroke conducted in India to document the magnitude of stroke. Methods: All population-based, cross-sectional studies and cohort studies from India which reported the stroke incidence rate or cumulative stroke incidence and/or the prevalence of stroke in participants from any age group were included. Electronic databases (Ovid, PubMed, Medline, Embase and IndMED) were searched and studies published during 1960 to 2015 were included. A total of 3079 independent titles were identified for screening, of which 10 population-based cross-sectional studies were considered eligible for inclusion. Given the heterogeneity of the studies, meta-analysis was not carried out. Results: The cumulative incidence of stroke ranged from 105 to 152/100,000 persons per year, and the crude prevalence of stroke ranged from 44.29 to 559/100,000 persons in different parts of the country during the past decade. These values were higher than those of high-income countries. Interpretation & conclusions: A paucity of good-quality epidemiological studies on stroke in India emphasizes the need for a coordinated effort at both the State and national level to study the burden of stroke in India. Future investment in the population-based epidemiological studies on stroke would lead to better preventive measures against stroke and better rehabilitation measures for stroke-related disabilities in the country.
  10,067 1,545 18
Epidemiology of childhood overweight & obesity in India: A systematic review
Harish Ranjani, TS Mehreen, Rajendra Pradeepa, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Renu Garg, Krishnan Anand, Viswanathan Mohan
February 2016, 143(2):160-174
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.180203  PMID:27121514
Background & objectives: Childhood obesity is a known precursor to obesity and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. However, the magnitude of the problem among children and adolescents in India is unclear due to paucity of well-conducted nationwide studies and lack of uniformity in the cut-points used to define childhood overweight and obesity. Hence an attempt was made to review the data on trends in childhood overweight and obesity reported from India during 1981 to 2013. Methods: Literature search was done in various scientific public domains from the last three decades using key words such as childhood and adolescent obesity, overweight, prevalence, trends, etc. Additional studies were also identified through cross-references and websites of official agencies. Results: Prevalence data from 52 studies conducted in 16 of the 28 States in India were included in analysis. The median value for the combined prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity showed that it was higher in north, compared to south India. The pooled data after 2010 estimated a combined prevalence of 19.3 per cent of childhood overweight and obesity which was a significant increase from the earlier prevalence of 16.3 per cent reported in 2001-2005. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that overweight and obesity rates in children and adolescents are increasing not just among the higher socio-economic groups but also in the lower income groups where underweight still remains a major concern.
  9,676 1,768 50
REVIEW ARTICLES
Current practices in laboratory monitoring of HIV infection
Madhu Vajpayee, Teena Mohan
December 2011, 134(6):801-822
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.92627  PMID:22310815
After a diagnosis of HIV infection is made, the patient needs to be monitored using both clinical assessment and laboratory markers. HIV/AIDS monitoring is essential in guiding when to recommend initiation of therapy. Clinical monitoring will include staging of the HIV/AIDS disease using either the presence or absence of HIV-related signs and symptoms using the WHO staging system. Various laboratory methods can be used to monitor the disease progression and to guide whether the patient will need antiretroviral therapy or not. Laboratory monitoring for patients who are not on drugs is done to provide information about the stage of illness; to enable the clinician to make decisions on treatment and to give information on prognosis of the patient. Patients on drugs are monitored to assess their response to treatment with antiretroviral drugs and to detect any possible toxicity and improvement associated with the antiretroviral drugs.
  9,520 924 10
STATUS REPORT
Rationalizing antibiotic use to limit antibiotic resistance in India +
Nirmal K Ganguly, NK Arora, Sujith J Chandy, Mohamed Nadeem Fairoze, J.P S Gill, Usha Gupta, Shah Hossain, Sadhna Joglekar, PC Joshi, Manish Kakkar, Anita Kotwani, Ashok Rattan, H Sudarshan, Kurien Thomas, Chand Wattal, Alice Easton, Ramanan Laxminarayan
September 2011, 134(3):281-294
PMID:21985810
Antibiotic resistance, a global concern, is particularly pressing in developing nations, including India, where the burden of infectious disease is high and healthcare spending is low. The Global Antibiotic Resistance Partnership (GARP) was established to develop actionable policy recommendations specifically relevant to low- and middle-income countries where suboptimal access to antibiotics - not a major concern in high-income countries - is possibly as severe a problem as is the spread of resistant organisms. This report summarizes the situation as it is known regarding antibiotic use and growing resistance in India and recommends short and long term actions. Recommendations aim at (i) reducing the need for antibiotics; (ii) lowering resistance-enhancing drug pressure through improved antibiotic targeting, and (iii) eliminating antibiotic use for growth promotion in agriculture. The highest priority needs to be given to (i) national surveillance of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic use - better information to underpin decisions on standard treatment guidelines, education and other actions, as well as to monitor changes over time; (ii) increasing the use of diagnostic tests, which necessitates behavioural changes and improvements in microbiology laboratory capacity; (iii) setting up and/or strengthening infection control committees in hospitals; and (iv) restricting the use of antibiotics for non-therapeutic uses in agriculture. These interventions should help to reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance, improve public health directly, benefit the populace and reduce pressure on the healthcare system. Finally, increasing the types and coverage of childhood vaccines offered by the government would reduce the disease burden enormously and spare antibiotics.
  8,772 1,671 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Current antibiotic use in the treatment of enteric fever in children
Sushila Dahiya, Rooma Malik, Priyanka Sharma, Archana Sashi, Rakesh Lodha, Sushil Kumar Kabra, Seema Sood, Bimal Kumar Das, Kamini Walia, VC Ohri, Arti Kapil
February 2019, 149(2):263-269
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_199_18  PMID:31219092
Background & objectives: Antimicrobial resistance is a major challenge in the treatment of typhoid fever with limited choices left to empirically treat these patients. The present study was undertaken to determine the current practices of antibiotic use in children attending a tertiary care hospital in north India. Methods: This was a descriptive observational study in children suffering from enteric fever as per the case definition including clinical and laboratory parameters. The antibiotic audit in hospitalized children was measured as days of therapy per 1000 patient days and in outpatient department (OPD) as antibiotic prescription on the treatment card. Results: A total of 128 children with enteric fever were included in the study, of whom, 30 were hospitalized and 98 were treated from OPD. The mean duration of fever was 9.5 days at the time of presentation. Of these, 45 per cent were culture positive with Salmonella Typhi being aetiological agent in 68 per cent followed by S. Paratyphi A in 32 per cent. During hospitalization, the average length of stay was 10 days with mean duration of defervescence 6.4 days. Based on antimicrobial susceptibility ceftriaxone was given to 28 patients with mean duration of treatment being six days. An additional antibiotic was needed in six patients due to clinical non-response. In OPD, 79 patients were prescribed cefixime and additional antibiotic was needed in five during follow up visit. Interpretation & conclusions: Based on our findings, ceftriaxone and cefixime seemed to be the first line of antibiotic treatment for typhoid fever. Despite susceptibility, clinical non-response was seen in around 10 per cent of the patients who needed combinations of antibiotics.
  9,651 752 2
SPECIAL SECTION - HAEMOGLOBINOPATHIES - REVIEW ARTICLES
Abnormal haemoglobins: Detection & characterization
Henri Wajcman, Kamran Moradkhani
October 2011, 134(4):538-546
PMID:22089618
Haemoglobin (Hb) abnormalities though quite frequent, are generally detected in populations during surveys and programmes run for prevention of Hb disorders. Several methods are now available for detection of Hb abnormalities. In this review, the following are discussed: (i) the methods used for characterization of haemoglobin disorders; (ii) the problems linked to diagnosis of thalassaemic trait; (iii) the strategy for detection of common Hb variants; and (iv) the difficulties in identification of rare variants. The differences between developing and industrialized countries for the strategies employed in the diagnosis of abnormal haemoglobins are considered. We mention the limits and pitfalls for each approach and the necessity to characterize the abnormalities using at least two different methods. The recommended strategy is to use a combination of cation-exchange high performance chromatography (CE-HPLC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and when possible isoelectric focusing (IEF). Difficult cases may demand further investigations requiring specialized protein and/or molecular biology techniques.
  8,742 1,594 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Sex worker-led structural interventions in India: A case study on addressing violence in HIV prevention through the Ashodaya Samithi collective in Mysore
Sushena Reza-Paul, Rob Lorway, Nadia O'Brien, Lisa Lazarus, Jinendra Jain, M Bhagya, P Fathima Mary, KT Venukumar, KN Raviprakash, James Baer, Richard Steen
January 2012, 135(1):98-106
DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.93431  PMID:22382190
Background & objectives: Structural interventions have the capacity to improve the outcomes of HIV/AIDS interventions by changing the social, economic, political or environmental factors that determine risk and vulnerability. Marginalized groups face disproportionate barriers to health, and sex workers are among those at highest risk of HIV in India. Evidence in India and globally has shown that sex workers face violence in many forms ranging from verbal, psychological and emotional abuse to economic extortion, physical and sexual violence and this is directly linked to lower levels of condom use and higher levels of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), the most critical determinants of HIV risk. We present here a case study of an intervention that mobilized sex workers to lead an HIV prevention response that addresses violence in their daily lives. Methods: This study draws on ethnographic research and project monitoring data from a community-led structural intervention in Mysore, India, implemented by Ashodaya Samithi. Qualitative and quantitative data were used to characterize baseline conditions, community responses and subsequent outcomes related to violence. Results: In 2004, the incidence of reported violence by sex workers was extremely high (> 8 incidents per sex worker, per year) but decreased by 84 per cent over 5 years. Violence by police and anti-social elements, initially most common, decreased substantially after a safe space was established for sex workers to meet and crisis management and advocacy were initiated with different stakeholders. Violence by clients, decreased after working with lodge owners to improve safety. However, initial increases in intimate partner violence were reported, and may be explained by two factors: (i) increased willingness to report such incidents; and (ii) increased violence as a reaction to sex workers' growing empowerment. Trafficking was addressed through the establishment of a self-regulatory board (SRB). The community's progressive response to violence was enabled by advancing community mobilization, ensuring community ownership of the intervention, and shifting structural vulnerabilities, whereby sex workers increasingly engaged key actors in support of a more enabling environment. Interpretation & conclusions: Ashodaya's community-led response to violence at multiple levels proved highly synergistic and effective in reducing structural violence.
  9,232 836 64
PERSPECTIVES
COVID-19: Impact on health of people & wealth of nations
Prakash N Tandon
February & March 2020, 151(2):121-123
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_664_20  PMID:32202260
  5,589 4,302 1
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