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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
November 2016
Volume 144 | Issue 5
Page Nos. 641-788

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EDITORIALS  

Childhood diabetes mellitus: Advances & challenges Highly accessed article p. 641
Ram K Menon, Inas H Thomas, Mark A Sperling
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1768_16  PMID:28361813
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Macronutrient intake, insulin secretion, oxidative stress & inflammation: Clinico-pathological implications p. 645
Paresh Dandona, Husam Ghanim, Ajay Chaudhuri, Priya Mohanty
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1807_16  PMID:28361814
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COMMENTARIES Top

Understanding of skeletal deformities in Parkinson's disease p. 650
Jong Sam Baik
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1166_16  PMID:28361815
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Need for power in genetic explorations of alcoholism in India p. 653
V Ashok Mysore
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1520_16  PMID:28361816
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Epilepsy: Is there hope? p. 657
Carlos A. M. Guerreiro
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1051_16  PMID:28361817
Epilepsy is a highly prevalent chronic neurologic disorder and leads to social, behavioural, health and economic consequences. 'Treatment gap' varies from 10 per cent in developed countries to 75 per cent in low-income countries. Stigma and discrimination related to epilepsy are prevalent worldwide. Electroencephalography (EEG) is considered the most important tool for evaluating the patient with epilepsy. Video-EEG monitoring is an important tool for confirming the seizure type and estimating the epileptogenic zone in the brain. Neuroimaging evaluation is important to determine the aetiology of the epilepsies. Genetic testing has increased the probability of identifying the causes of some types of epilepsies. Epilepsy can be treated in an affordable way with low-cost medications. Refractory epilepsies occur in approximately one-third of recently diagnosed patients with epilepsy. For this group of patients, there are options of surgical treatment, diets and neurostimulation to improve seizure control and quality of life. In poorly organized societies, there is a lack of prioritization of epilepsy in national health policies, limited resources for trained personnel and a shortage of basic antiepileptic medications. There is evidence of improvement in the understanding of epilepsy and a clear progress in the management of epileptic seizures in recent times.
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Current status of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in animals & humans in India: What needs to be done? p. 661
Ajay Vir Singh, Devendra Singh Chauhan, Shoor Vir Singh, Vijay Kumar, Abhinendra Singh, Anjali Yadav, Virendra Singh Yadav
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1401_14  PMID:28361818
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) has emerged as a major health problem for domestic livestock and human beings. Reduced per animal productivity of domestic livestock seriously impacts the economics of dairy farming globally. High to very high bioload of MAP in domestic livestock and also in the human population has been reported from north India. Presence of live MAP bacilli in commercial supplies of raw and pasteurized milk and milk products indicates its public health significance. MAP is not inactivated during pasteurization, therefore, entering into human food chain daily. Recovery of MAP from patients with inflammatory bowel disease or Crohn's disease and animal healthcare workers suffering with chronic gastrointestinal problems indicate a close association of MAP with a number of chronic and other diseases affecting human health. Higher bioload of MAP in the animals increases the risk of exposure to the human population with MAP. This review summarizes the current status of MAP infection in animals as well as in human beings and also highlights the prospects of effective management and control of disease in animals to reduce the risk of exposure to human population.
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SYSTEMATIC REVIEW Top

Pioglitazone utilization, efficacy & safety in Indian type 2 diabetic patients: A systematic review & comparison with European Medicines Agency Assessment Report p. 672
Sarayu A Pai, Nilima A Kshirsagar
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_650_15  PMID:28361819
Background & objectives: With pioglitazone ban and subsequent revoking in India along with varying regulatory decisions in other countries, it was decided to carry out a systematic review on its safety, efficacy and drug utilization in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in India and compare with the data from the European Medicines Agency Assessment Report (EMA-AR). Methods: Systematic review was performed as per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, searching Medline/PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct databases using 'pioglitazone AND India AND human' and 'pioglitazone AND India AND human AND patient' and compared with EMA-AR. Spontaneous reports in World Health Organization VigiBase from India were compared with VigiBase data from other countries. Results: Sixty six publications, 26 (efficacy), 32 (drug utilization) and eight (safety), were retrieved. In India, pioglitazone was used at 15-30 mg/day mostly with metformin and sulphonylurea, being prescribed to 26.7 and 8.4 per cent patients in north and south, respectively. The efficacy in clinical trials (CTs) was similar to those in EMA-AR. Incidence of bladder cancer in pioglitazone exposed and non-exposed patients was not significantly different in an Indian retrospective cohort study. There were two cases and a series of eight cases of bladder cancer published but none reported in VigiBase. Interpretation & conclusions: In India, probably due to lower dose, lower background incidence of bladder cancer and smaller sample size in epidemiological studies, association of bladder cancer with pioglitazone was not found to be significant. Reporting of CTs and adverse drug reactions to Clinical Trials Registry of India and Pharmacovigilance Programme of India, respectively, along with compliance studies with warning given in package insert and epidemiological studies with larger sample size are needed.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Assessment of striatal & postural deformities in patients with Parkinson's disease p. 682
Sanjay Pandey, Hitesh Kumar
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_502_15  PMID:28361820
Background & objectives: Though striatal and postural deformities are known to occur commonly in atypical Parkinsonism patients, these may also be seen in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). These are frequently misdiagnosed as joint or orthopaedic pathology leading to unnecessary investigations. This study was conducted to observe the various striatal and postural deformities among patients with PD in India. Methods: This study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching institute in north# India. Seventy consecutive patients with PD diagnosed as per the modified UK Brain Bank criteria were included. Various striatal (hand & foot) and postural (antecollis, camptocormia, scoliosis & Pisa syndrome) deformities and their relation with the duration of disease, severity [measured by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)] and levodopa intake were analyzed. Results: Of the 70 patients with PD, 34 (48.57%) had either striatal or postural deformities. Striatal foot was the most common deformity observed (25.71%). Camptocormia was the second most common deformity (20%). Striatal and postural deformities were seen in more advanced PD as suggested by significantly higher UPDRS and Hoehn and Yahr scale (P<0.001). Striatal deformities were more ipsilateral to PD symptom onset side (agreement 94.44%). Pisa and scoliosis concavity were more on contralateral side to PD symptoms onset side (66.67%). Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that striatal and postural deformities were common and present in about half of the patients with PD. These deformities we more common in patients with advanced stage of PD.
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Candidate genes for alcohol dependence: A genetic association study from India p. 689
Savita Malhotra, Debasish Basu, Madhu Khullar, Abhishek Ghosh, Neera Chugh
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1018_14  PMID:28361821
Background & objectives: Search for candidate genes for alcohol dependence (AD) has been inconsistent and inconclusive. Moreover, most of the research has been confined to a few specific ethnic groups. Hence, the aim of our study was to explore specific candidate genes for AD in north Indian male population. Methods: In this clinic-based genetic association study, 210 males with AD and 200 controls matched for age, gender and ethnicity were recruited from the clinic and the general population, respectively. Cases were diagnosed with Semi-structured Assessment for Genetics of Alcoholism-II (SSAGA-II). Single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping was done by real-time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using Taq Man assay (ABI 7500) fast real-time PCR system. Results: Both at the genotypic level and at allelic frequency, Met158 variant of catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) showed significant increase in cases as compared to controls. The frequency of heterozygous genotype (A/G) of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor A1 (GABRA1) was significantly lower in cases as compared to controls. Likewise, for GABRA2, the frequency of homozygous recessive genotype (G/G) was significantly higher in the control group. With respect to the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) transporter long promoter region (5HTTLPR), cholinergic receptor muscarinic (CHRM2) and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) genes, there was no significant difference between the cases and the controls. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) gene was found to be monomorphic in our study population. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study findings showed COMT polymorphism conferring risk and GABRA polymorphism as a protective genotype for Indian male with AD. Genes for alcohol metabolism, serotonin transporter and cholinergic receptor gene polymorphism were perhaps not contributory to AD for Indian population.
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Comparative study of clozapine versus risperidone in treatment-naive, first-episode schizophrenia: A pilot study p. 697
Sukhtej Sahni, BS Chavan, Ajeet Sidana, Priyanka Kalra, Gurjit Kaur
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_279_15  PMID:28361822
Background & objectives: Clozapine may be more useful in treatment-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia for better symptoms control and improving quality of life. The current study was carried out to compare the efficacy and tolerability of clozapine versus risperidone in treatment-naive, first-episode patients of schizophrenia. Methods: This was a comparative, open-label, six months prospective study of treatment-naive, first-episode patients with schizophrenia between the age group of 18 and 40 yr diagnosed as per the International Classification of Diseases-10 (ICD-10) criteria. A total of 63 patients were recruited and randomly assigned to clozapine group or risperidone group using computer-generated random number tables. Eight patients were lost to follow up. The dosages of the respective drugs were kept in therapeutic range of 200-600 mg/day and 4-8 mg/day orally for clozapine and risperidone, respectively. Results: On general psychopathology score, after six months of intervention, clozapine led to 60.32 per cent mean reduction in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for Schizophrenia total score while risperidone led to 56.35 per cent mean reduction in PANSS total score, which meant more improvement with clozapine. Clozapine group was found to have significant improvement in quality of life (P = 0.04339). On Glasgow Antipsychotic Side-effect Scale, clozapine was superior to risperidone. The most common side effects observed in clozapine group were oversedation (78.96%) and dizziness (55.23%), and in risperidone group, common side effects were rigidity (62.36%), sedation (38.69%), tremors (65.69%) and menstrual irregularities in 80.25 per cent of female patients. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of this preliminary study showed clozapine as a better choice than risperidone in terms of efficacy, tolerability and better quality of life in treatment-naive, first-episode schizophrenia. However, further studies need to be done on a larger group of patients to confirm the findings.
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Prevalence & correlates of tobacco use among adolescents in Kerala, India p. 704
TS Jaisoorya, KV Beena, M Beena, Dalia C Jose, K Ellangovan, K Thennarasu, Vivek Benegal
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1873_14  PMID:28361823
Background & objectives: Most tobacco users who initiate its use during adolescence are likely to continue the use into adulthood and contribute to the 90 per cent of premature deaths among tobacco users. In this context the prevalence, patterns and correlates of tobacco use were studied among adolescent school students in Kerala, India. Methods: Total 7560 students from classes 8, 10 and 12, within the age group of 12-19 yr, across 73 schools in Ernakulam district, Kerala, India, selected by cluster random sampling, completed a self-administered questionnaire incorporating standardized instruments. Results: Of the 7350 valid questionnaires, the overall lifetime prevalence of tobacco use was 6.9 per cent (12.5% males and 1.2% females). The prevalence of tobacco use increased from 3.1 per cent at 12-13 yr to 15.1 per cent at 18-19 yr. The mean age of onset of tobacco use was 14.0±2.2 yr. The prevalence was higher among students from urban backgrounds, lower socio-economic status and those with part-time jobs. Tobacco users had significantly higher rates of use of alcohol (67.8 vs. 11%) and illicit drugs (33 vs. 6.1%). They had poorer academic performance (24.7 vs. 9.1%), more severe psychological distress (10.8 vs. 4.5%), suicidal attempts (10.2 vs. 3.5%), higher scores of ratings of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (8.3 vs. 2.5%) and history of sexual abuse (12.5 vs. 3.8%). Interpretation & conclusions: The prevalence of tobacco use in adolescents reported in this study was relatively lower than those reported from other Indian States. However, it correlates with multiple negative outcomes suggesting a need to promote specific interventions to prevent adolescent tobacco use.
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Postprandial glycaemic response of foxtail millet dosa in comparison to a rice dosa in patients with type 2 diabetes p. 712
Janani Narayanan, Vimala Sanjeevi, U Rohini, Patricia Trueman, Vijay Viswanathan
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_551_15  PMID:28361824
Background & objectives: Millets are rich source of dietary fibre and non-starchy polysaccharides with low glycaemic index (GI), hence can be used as a therapeutic diet. This study was conducted to estimate the effects of a millet-based dosa (foxtail dosa) compared to a rice dosa for breakfast on postprandial glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: The GI of rice dosa and foxtail millet dosa was estimated. A total of 105 T2DM participants were randomly selected for the study. The participants were on oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA) and not on insulin. In this study, each individual served as their own control and experimental group. The postprandial increase in blood glucose was compared after a breakfast of rice dosa and millet dosa. Single and paired t test was used to note the change in blood glucose levels and the level of the significance. Results: The GI of foxtail millet dosa was 59.25 and rice dosa was 77.96. There was a significant reduction (P<0.001) in the postprandial glucose level of patients who consumed a millet-based dosa when compared to those who consumed a rice-based dosa. No significant reduction was observed in the fasting glucose levels. Interpretation & conclusions: The results suggested that replacing a rice-based breakfast item with a millet-based breakfast item lowers the postprandial blood glucose levels in T2DM patients. Thus, millets may have a protective role in the management of hyperglycaemia. Further studies need to be done in a systematic manner to confirm these findings.
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Evidence of apoptosis in right ventricular dysfunction in rheumatic mitral valve stenosis p. 718
Shantanu Pande, Prabhat Tewari, Surendra K Agarwal, Vikas Agarwal, Vinita Agrawal, Megha Chagtoo, Gauranga Majumdar, Satyendra Tewari
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_686_14  PMID:28361825
Background & objectives: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is one of the causes of morbidity and mortality in valvular heart disease. The phenomenon of apoptosis, though rare in cardiac muscle may contribute to loss of its function. Role of apoptosis in RV in patients with rheumatic valvular heart disease is investigated in this study. Methods: Patients with rheumatic mitral valve stenosis formed two groups based on RV systolic pressure (RVSP) as RVSP <40 mmHg (group I, n=9) and RVSP ≥40 mmHg (group II, n=30). Patients having atrial septal defect (ASD) with RVSP <40 mmHg served as control (group III, n=15). Myocardial performance index was assessed for RV function. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed on muscle biopsy procured from RV to assess expression of pro-apoptotic genes (Bax, cytochrome c, caspase 3 and Fas) and anti-apoptotic genes (Bcl-2). Apoptosis was confirmed by histopathology and terminal deoxynucleotide-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling. Results: Group II had significant RV dysfunction compared to group I (P=0.05) while caspase 3 (P=0.01) and cytochrome c (P=0.03) were expressed excessively in group I. When group I was compared to group III (control), though there was no difference in RV function, a highly significant expression of pro-apoptotic genes was observed in group I (Bax, P=0.02, cytochrome c=0.001 and caspase 3=0.01). There was a positive correlation between pro-apoptotic genes. Nuclear degeneration was present conforming to apoptosis in valve disease patients (groups I and II) while it was absent in patients with ASD. Interpretation & conclusion: Our findings showed evidence of apoptosis in RV of patients with valvular heart disease. Apoptosis was set early in the course of rheumatic valve disease even with lower RVSP, followed by RV dysfunction; however, expression of pro-apoptotic genes regressed.
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Preventive role of carvedilol in adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy p. 725
Rajesh Jhorawat, Savita Kumari, Subhash C Varma, Manoj K Rohit, Nidhi Narula, Vikas Suri, Pankaj Malhotra, Sanjay Jain
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1323_14  PMID:28361826
Background & objectives: Adriamycin though considered as an effective anticancer drug, leads to irreversible cardiomyopathy (CMP) and congestive heart failure (CHF). The aim of this study was to determine the protective effect of carvedilol in adriamycin (ADR)-induced cardiomyopathy (CMP) in cancer patients. Methods: Patients with lymphoreticular malignancy in whom ADR therapy was planned were randomized into two groups: carvedilol and control. Twenty seven patients each were enrolled in carvedilol and control groups. In the carvedilol group, 12.5 mg once daily oral carvedilol was given during six months. The patients were evaluated by echocardiography before and after chemotherapy. Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and systolic and diastolic diameters were calculated. Results: At six months of follow up, six patients in the carvedilol group and five in the control group had died. The mean EF (63.19 vs. 63.88%) and fraction shortening (FS) (34 vs. 34.6) of the carvedilol group were similar at follow up, but in the control group, the mean EF (67.27 vs. 60.82%, P =0.003) and FS (38.48 vs. 34.6, P<0.05) at control echocardiography were significantly lower. In carvedilol group, both systolic and diastolic diameters were not changed, but in control group, systolic diameters were significantly increased compared with basal measures (left ventricular end systolic diameter = 28.26±5.50 mm vs. 31.25± 6.50 mm; P< 0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: Prophylactic use of carvedilol in patients receiving anthracycline protected systolic functions of the left ventricle. Carvedilol can be a potential drug which can ameliorate ADR-induced CMP.
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Comparative antinociceptive effect of arachidonylcyclopropylamide, a cannabinoid 1 receptor agonist & lignocaine, a local anaesthetic agent, following direct intrawound administration in rats p. 730
Rahul Kumar, Pranav Prasoon, Mayank Gautam, Subrata Basu Ray
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1402_15  PMID:28361827
Background & objectives: Treatment of inflammatory pain with opioids is accompanied by unpleasant and, at times, life-threatening side effects.Cannabis produces antinociception as well as psychotropic effects. It was hypothesized that peripheral cannabinoid receptors outside the central nervous system could be selectively activated for relief of pain. This study was undertaken to measure the antinociceptive effect of type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1r) agonist arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA) in a rat model of inflammatory pain after intrawound administration and the effects were compared with lignocaine. Methods: Wounds were produced under controlled conditions by an incision in the right hind paw in rats. ACPA (10, 30 or 100 μg/10 μl) was administered directly into the wound. Antinociception was evaluated by guarding, allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. This was compared to lignocaine (30 μg/10 μl). Reversal of ACPA (30 μg)-mediated antinociceptive effect was attempted by intrawound AM251 (100 μg), a CB1r antagonist. Antinociception was also evaluated after contralateral administration of ACPA (30 μg). Primary afferent nociceptive input to the spinal cord was investigated by c-Fos expression after ACPA treatment (100 μg). Results: ACPA, but not lignocaine, inhibited guarding behaviour, which was locally mediated. Conversely, lignocaine, but not ACPA, inhibited thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. ACPA-mediated inhibitory effect was reversible and dose dependent. It was associated with a decreased c-Fos expression. Locomotor activity was unaffected following ACPA (100 μg) treatment. Interpretation & conclusions: Lignocaine attenuated evoked pain behaviour whereas ACPA decreased guarding score. This difference was likely due to blockade of sodium ion channels and the activation of peripheral CB1r, respectively. Central side effects were absent after ACPA treatment. Further studies need to be done to assess the effect of ACPA treatment in clinical conditions.
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Knowledge, attitude & practice on human papillomavirus vaccination: A cross-sectional study among healthcare providers p. 741
P Cheena Chawla, Anil Chawla, Seema Chaudhary
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1106_14  PMID:28361828
Background & objectives: Cervical cancer is a major health problem and a leading cause of death among women in India. Of all the associated risk factors, high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections being the principal aetiologic agent, two HPV vaccines are in use for the control of cervical cancer. The present study was undertaken to explore the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) on HPV vaccination among the healthcare providers in India. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 590 healthcare professionals from 232 hospitals and 80 PHCs of nine districts of Delhi-NCR (National Capital Region). A total of 590 (526 female, 64 male) healthcare providers were surveyed. Results: Only 47 per cent of respondents recommended young women to get vaccinated against HPV. Majority of respondents (81%) were found to be aware about the existence of vaccines for cervical cancer prevention. District-wise, highest (88.3%) awareness about the existence of vaccines against HPV was reported from Gautam Budh Nagar and lowest (64%) in Faridabad. Although 86 per cent of gynaecologists were aware about the names of HPV vaccines available in the market, only 27 per cent of paramedical staff had this knowledge. There was a significant difference between the respondents from government and private sectors regarding their awareness about HPV vaccines. Lack of awareness about the principal cause, risk factors and symptoms for cervical cancer and HPV vaccination was significantly (P< 0.05) reported in the respondents from paramedical staff category. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings reinforce continued medical education of healthcare providers, particularly those from the government sector on HPV vaccination for cervical cancer prevention. Public education is also pertinent for a successful HPV vaccination programme in the country.
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Genetic characterization of human herpesvirus type 1: Full-length genome sequence of strain obtained from an encephalitis case from India p. 750
Vijay P Bondre, Vasudha Sankararaman, Vijaysinh Andhare, Manisha Tupekar, Gajanan N Sapkal
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_747_14  PMID:28361829
Background & objectives: Human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is the most common cause of sporadic encephalitis in humans that contributes to >10 per cent of the encephalitis cases occurring worldwide. Availability of limited full genome sequences from a small number of isolates resulted in poor understanding of host and viral factors responsible for variable clinical outcome. In this study genetic relationship, extent and source of recombination using full-length genome sequence derived from a newly isolated HSV-1 isolate was studied in comparison with those sampled from patients with varied clinical outcome. Methods: Full genome sequence of HSV-1 isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of a patient with acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) by inoculation in baby hamster kidney-21 (BHK-21) cells was determined using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. Phylogenetic analysis of the newly generated sequence in comparison with 33 additional full-length genomes defined genetic relationship with worldwide distributed strains. The bootscan and similarity plot analysis defined recombination crossovers and similarities between newly isolated Indian HSV-1 with six Asian and a total of 34 worldwide isolated strains. Results: Mapping of 376,332 reads amplified from HSV-1 DNA by NGS generated full-length genome of 151,024 bp from newly isolated Indian HSV-1. Phylogenetic analysis classified worldwide distributed strains into three major evolutionary lineages correlating to their geographic distribution. Lineage 1 containing strains were isolated from America and Europe; lineage 2 contained all the strains from Asian countries along with the North American KOS and RE strains whereas the South African isolates were distributed into two groups under lineage 3. Recombination analysis confirmed events of recombination in Indian HSV-1 genome resulting from mixing of different strains evolved in Asian countries. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the full-length genome sequence generated from an Indian HSV-1 isolate shared close genetic relationship with the American KOS and Chinese CR38 strains which belonged to the Asian genetic lineage. Recombination analysis of Indian isolate demonstrated multiple recombination crossover points throughout the genome. This full-length genome sequence amplified from the Indian isolate would be helpful to study HSV evolution, genetic basis of differential pathogenesis, host-virus interactions and viral factors contributing towards differential clinical outcome in human infections.
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Synergism in dual functionality of cryptdin-2 in conjunction with antibiotics against Salmonella p. 761
Aman Preet Singh, Vijay Prabha, Praveen Rishi
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_850_14  PMID:28361830
Background & objectives: The emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella over the last two decades poses a major health risk. In this context, antimicrobial peptides have found a strategic place in the therapeutic armamentarium. Previously, we found that cryptdin-2 has the potential to augment the activity of conventional second- and third-generation anti-Salmonella antibiotics as evident by in vitro assays. In continuation to this, the present study was designed to evaluate the in vivo synergistic effects, if any, of cryptdin-2 in combination with ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone against murine salmonellosis. Methods: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies along with in vivo synergistic studies were performed using cryptdin- 2 and antibiotic combinations. In addition, peroxidative liver damage, levels of nitric oxide (NO) and antioxidant enzymes along with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were also measured. Results: The SEM results revealed marked changes on the outer membrane of the bacterial cells treated with various combinations. Both the tested combinations demonstrated synergistic in vivo potency against S. Typhimurium as evident by reduction in the number of Salmonellae in the liver, spleen and intestine. Analysis of peroxidative liver damage, levels of NO and antioxidant enzymes along with TNF-α and nuclear factor-kappa B levels revealed that the tested combinations restored their levels to near normal. The most potent combination was found to be that of cryptdin-2 and ciprofloxacin in terms of direct killing and immunomodulatory potential. Interpretation & conclusions: These findings suggest that cryptdin-2 may act in conjunction with conventional antibiotics indicating the possibility of developing these combinations as additional therapeutic agents to combat Salmonella infections.
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Evolving management of insulinoma: Experience at a tertiary care centre p. 771
Viveka P Jyotsna, Sujoy Pal, D Kandasamy, S Gamanagatti, PK Garg, N Raizada, Peush Sahni, CS Bal, N Tandon, AC Ammini
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1477_14  PMID:28361831
Background & objectives: Since our previous study in 2006, several new modalities for localization of cause of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemia such as multiphasic computed tomography (CT), multiphasic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), intraoperative ultrasound, and intra-arterial calcium infusion with arterial stimulation venous sampling (ASVS) have become available. Therefore, to evaluate the relative usefulness of various imaging modalities to guide future management in terms of diagnosis and patient care, we analyzed presentation and management of patients of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemia. Methods: In this retrospective study, medical records of patients admitted with endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemia were retrieved. Data pertaining to clinical features, diagnosis, imaging, surgery and patient outcome were extracted. The localization of insulinoma by preoperative imaging techniques was compared with the findings at surgery to assess the accuracy of localization. Results: Fasting hypoglycaemia was present in all, and post-prandial hypoglycaemia (plasma glucose ≤50 mg/dl within four hours of meal) in 25.8 per cent. Mean duration of symptoms before reaching a diagnosis of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycaemia was 3.9 years. Mean duration of provocative fast was 21.8 h (range 6-48 h). Among the currently used imaging modalities, the sensitivity of localizing tumour was 79.3 per cent for multiphasic CT, 85 per cent for multiphasic MRI and 95 per cent for EUS. EUS detected tumour missed by both CT and MRI. All, except one of the operated patients, were cured by surgery. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results suggest that patients with insulinoma have a varied presentation. Multiphasic contrast-enhanced MRI/CT scan, EUS and ASVS may be complimentary in pre-operative localization.
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Pramil Tiwari, Rajiv Ahlawat, Gaurav Gupta
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1720_15  PMID:28361832
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DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1035_15  PMID:28361833
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Amitabh Singh, Rachna Seth
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_677_15  PMID:28361834
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Venkatraman Indiran
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1016_15  PMID:28361835
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DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.203466  
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Atlas of fiberoptic bronchoscopy p. 787
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DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.203467  
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