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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
May 2019
Volume 149 | Issue 5
Page Nos. 567-688

Online since Monday, August 12, 2019

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EDITORIAL  

World Hypertension Day: Contemporary issues faced in India p. 567
Arun Pulikkottil Jose, Dorairaj Prabhakaran
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_549_19  PMID:31417023
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COMMENTARY Top

Subcutaneous adipose tissue & visceral adipose tissue p. 571
Balraj Mittal
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1910_18  PMID:31417024
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WHITE PAPER Top

White Paper on Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Highly accessed article p. 574
Indian Council of Medical Research
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_957_19  PMID:31169129
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PERSPECTIVE Top

Need for alternatives to animals in experimentation: An Indian perspective Highly accessed article p. 584
Soumya Swaminathan, Vijay Kumar, Rajni Kaul
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2047_17  PMID:31417025
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Jagdish Chandra Bose & plant neurobiology p. 593
Prakash Narain Tandon
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_392_19  PMID:31417026
When Jagdish Chandra Bose, a renowned physicist, devoted himself entirely to research in the field of plant physiology post his superannuation at Presidency University, Kolkata, India (earlier known as Presidency College, Calcutta), it came as a surprise to many. The research on plant nervous system by JC Bose during this period was pioneering in nature, being recognized by recent plant biologists globally as the first in the field. His findings were so revolutionary at the time of their proclamation that these aroused disbelief and contradiction. Surprisingly, not many at that time took up such investigations and once accepted with reluctance, there was practically very little activity in the field for the next several decades. More than a hundred years later, recent advances in molecular biology, genomics, ecology and neurophysiology have led to renewed interest resulting in a flurry of activity, confirming most of Bose's observations. The present review describes this pioneering scientist's work and his immense contribution in the emergence of the discipline now designated as ‘Plant Neurobiology’.
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Paediatric chronic myeloid leukaemia: Is it really a different disease? p. 600
Deepam Pushpam, Sameer Bakhshi
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_331_19  PMID:31417027
Paediatric chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) has biological and clinical differences from adult CML. Management of paediatric CML presents unique challenges in growing children, and there are no specific guidelines for paediatric CML. This review focusses on the clinical characteristics, diagnostic issues and management of paediatric CML. Major studies that provide the basis of managing paediatric CML are summerized here. Studies conducted on adult CML patients were used to guide the management of places where studies were lacking in paediatric CML. Recently, dasatinib and nilotinib have been approved for treatment of paediatric CML, and their role has been discussed in the current management perspective. Allogeneic transplant, fertility and vaccination in paediatric CML, have also been discussed.
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‘Obesageing’: Linking obesity & ageing p. 610
Shampa Ghosh, Jitendra Kumar Sinha, Manchala Raghunath
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_2120_18  PMID:31417028
Obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable mortalities in many parts of the globe. The rise in geriatric population due to better treatment opportunities has also emerged as a major public health challenge. Both of these health challenges have impacted developed as well as developing countries. Obesity is attributed as a powerful risk factor of a variety of health problems such as cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dementia, neuropsychiatric diseases and many more. On the other hand, ageing is a natural process involving a gradual decline in physiological functions and is associated with similar co-morbidities as obesity. This review discusses about the commonalities (termed as ‘Obesageing') between the pathological phenomenon of obesity and normal physiological process of ageing. A unique rodent model of obesageing has been developed (WNIN/Ob) that has characteristics of morbid obesity as well as premature ageing. Such a novel animal model would facilitate the understanding of the complex interplay of different mechanisms that are common to obesity and ageing and help to devise strategies in future to tackle the growing burden of obesity and ageing.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Different gene expression profiles in subcutaneous & visceral adipose tissues from Mexican patients with obesity p. 616
María D Ronquillo, Alla Mellnyk, Noemí Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Emmanuel Martínez, David A Comoto, Liliana Carmona-Aparicio, Norma E Herrera, Eleazar Lara, Armando Pereyra, Esaú Floriano-Sánchez
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1165_17  PMID:31417029
Background & objectives: Obesity is a health problem that requires substantial efforts to understand the physiopathology of its various types and to determine therapeutic strategies for its treatment. The objective of this study was to characterize differences in the global gene expression profiles of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) between control patients (normal weight) and patients with obesity (IMC≥30) using microarrays. Methods: Employing RNA isolated from SAT and VAT samples obtained from eight control and eight class I, II and III patients with obesity, the gene expression profiles were compared between SAT and VAT using microarrays and the findings were validated via real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: A total of 327 and 488 genes were found to be differentially expressed in SAT and VAT, respectively (P≤0.05). Upregulation of PPAP2C, CYP4A11 and CYP17A1 genes was seen in the VAT of obese individuals. Interpretation & conclusions: SAT and VAT exhibited significant differences in terms of the expression of specific genes. These genes might be related to obesity. These findings may be used to improve the clinical diagnosis of obesity and could be a tool leading to the proposal of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity.
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Apoptosis gene reprograming of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells induced by radioiodine-131 (131I) irradiation p. 627
Jian-Fang Li, Liang-Jun Xie, Lu-Ping Qin, Yi-Fei Liu, Ting-Jie Zhang, Yong Huang, Mu-Hua Cheng
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1455_17  PMID:31417030
Background & objectives: The nature of adaptable change of B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) and/or Bcl2-associated X protein (BAX) gene expression in the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) irradiated by radioiodine in thyroid diseases therapy is not fully understood. In this study, the alternation of apoptotic gene expression was evaluated while the PBMCs collected from healthy volunteers were irradiated by the radioiodine-131 (131I). Methods: Fasting blood samples were obtained from healthy volunteers. PBMCs from group 0 to 6 were incubated and exposed to different doses of 131I in cell suspension for 6, 12, 24 and 48 h. The apoptosis rates and expression of BCL-2 and BAX genes of PBMCs were examined. Results: The apoptosis rate in the human PBMCs was gradually enhanced after six hour irradiation. The values of BCL-2 and BAX gene expression in groups 1-6 were higher than in group 0 within 6 h of irradiation, and then, these were decreased gradually from 6 to 12 h. BCL-2 gene expression increased in groups 1-3 after 12 h irradiation, but there was no difference in groups 4-6. The ratio of BCL-2/BAX gene expression among groups 4-6 gradually decreased during the period from 6 to 12 h, and it was significantly lower than in the group 0 at 12, 24 and 48 h. Interpretation & conclusions: The expression of BCL-2 and BAX genes was initially upregulated following irradiation. Later, the balance of BCL-2/BAX genes expression was adjusted, and then, PBMCs underwent apoptosis at higher doses of radiation.
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Initial trends of individual donation nucleic acid testing in voluntary & replacement donors from a tertiary care centre in north India p. 633
Rekha Hans, Neelam Marwaha, Suresh Sharma, Suchet Sachdev, Ratti Ram Sharma
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_822_17  PMID:31417031
Background & objectives: Individual donation nucleic acid testing (ID-NAT) is considered as sensitive technology to assess blood safety from viral transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) in blood donors. The present study was aimed to analyze the results of ID-NAT for three years (2013-2015) with special reference to different types of donors and their age ranges in a tertiary care centre in north India. Methods: The results of ID-NAT for three years were retrospectively analyzed at our centre. A total of 168,433 donations were tested with ID-NAT, of which 10,467 were tested with Procleix® Ultrio® reagents and 157,966 were tested with Procleix®UltrioPlus® reagents, and the results were compared with those of serology to calculate the NAT yield in voluntary, replacement, first-time and repeat donors. Results: A combined NAT yield was observed as one in 1031 out of 167,069 seronegative donations with HBV yield as one in 1465, HCV yield as one in 3885 and HIV-1 as one in 167,069. Yield for co-infection (HCV and HBV) was one in 41,767. A high NAT yield was observed in replacement donors (1 in 498) as compared to voluntary donors (1 in 1320). Interpretation & conclusions: Addition of NAT to serology improved the blood safety in our centre interdicting possibility of 150 TTIs annually. It has also reemphasized the safety of voluntary over replacement donors. The results also highlight the need of proper counselling, notification and referral guidelines of NAT yield donors in our country and other countries which lack them.
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Effect of cell density on formation of three-dimensional cartilaginous constructs using fibrin & human osteoarthritic chondrocytes p. 641
BS Shamsul, Shiplu Roy Chowdhury, MY Hamdan, B. H. I. Ruszymah
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_45_17  PMID:31417032
Background & objectives: Seeding density is one of the major parameters affecting the quality of tissue-engineered cartilage. The objective of this study was to evaluate different seeding densities of osteoarthritis chondrocytes (OACs) to obtain the highest quality cartilage. Methods: The OACs were expanded from passage 0 (P0) to P3, and cells in each passage were analyzed for gross morphology, growth rate, RNA expression and immunochemistry (IHC). The harvested OACs were assigned into two groups: low (1×10[7] cells/ml) and high (3×10[7] cells/ml) cell density. Three-dimensional (3D) constructs for each group were created using polymerised fibrin and cultured for 7, 14 and 21 days in vitro using chondrocyte growth medium. OAC constructs were analyzed with gross assessments and microscopic evaluation using standard histology, IHC and immunofluorescence staining, in addition to gene expression and biochemical analyses to evaluate tissue development. Results: Constructs with a high seeding density of 3×10[7] cells/ml were associated with better quality cartilage-like tissue than those seeded with 1×10[7] cells/ml based on overall tissue formation, cell association and extracellular matrix distribution. The chondrogenic properties of the constructs were further confirmed by the expression of genes encoding aggrecan core protein and collagen type II. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results confirmed that cell density was a significant factor affecting cell behaviour and aggregate production, and this was important for establishing good quality cartilage.
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Similar regeneration of articular cartilage defects with autologous & allogenic chondrocytes in a rabbit model p. 650
P R.J.V.C. Boopalan, Viju Daniel Varghese, Solomon Sathishkumar, Sabareeswaran Arumugam, Vijayaraghavan Amarnath
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1233_17  PMID:31417033
Background & objectives: Articular cartilage defects in the knee have a very poor capacity for repair due to avascularity. Autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) is an established treatment for articular cartilage defects. Animal studies have shown promising results with allogenic chondrocyte transplantation since articular cartilage is non-immunogenic. In addition to being economical, allogenic transplantation has less morbidity compared to ACT. This study was undertaken to compare ACT with allogenic chondrocyte transplantation in the treatment of experimentally created articular cartilage defects in rabbit knee joints. Methods: Cartilage was harvested from the left knee joints of six New Zealand white rabbits (R1-R6). The harvested chondrocytes were cultured to confluence and transplanted onto a 3.5 mm chondral defect in the right knees of 12 rabbits [autologous in 6 rabbits (R1-R6) and allogenic in 6 rabbits (R7-R12)]. After 12 wk, the rabbits were euthanized and histological evaluation of the right knee joints were done with hematoxylin and eosin and safranin O staining. Quality of the repair tissue was assessed by the modified Wakitani histological grading scale. Results: Both autologous and allogenic chondrocyte transplantation resulted in the regeneration of hyaline/mixed hyaline cartilage. The total histological scores between the two groups showed no significant difference. Interpretation & conclusions: Allogenic chondrocyte transplantation seems to be as effective as ACT in cartilage regeneration, with the added advantages of increased cell availability and reduced morbidity of a single surgery.
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Cloning, expression & evaluation of potential immunogenic recombinant capsid premembrane protein of West Nile virus p. 656
Jyoti S Kumar, Sivakumar Rathinam, Divanyshi Karothia, Manmohan Parida
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_305_17  PMID:31417034
Background & objectives: West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that has emerged globally as a significant cause of viral encephalitis. The early confirmatory diagnosis of WNV infections is important for timely clinical management and in areas where multiple flaviviruses are endemic. Diagnosis of WNV infection is primarily based on serodiagnosis, followed by virus isolation and identification. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a highly sensitive and specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) ELISA using the recombinant CprM protein (rWNV-CprM) for rapid, early and accurate diagnosis of WNV. Methods: The gene coding for the CprM protein of WNV was cloned and expressed in pET 28a vector followed by purification. An indirect IgM microplate ELISA using purified rWNV-CprM protein was optimized having no cross-reactivity with healthy human serum and serum samples obtained from patients with dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses infection. Results: The comparative evaluation of this rWNV-CprM protein-specific IgM ELISA with plaque reduction neutralization test using 105 blood samples collected from patients suspected to have acute WNV infection revealed 98 per cent concordance with sensitivity and specificity of 100 and 97 per cent, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: The recombinant CprM protein-based WNV-specific ELISA reported in this study may be useful for rapid screening of large numbers of blood samples in endemic areas during outbreaks.
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Distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis omp A genotypes in patients attending a sexually transmitted disease outpatient clinic in New Delhi, India p. 662
Jyoti Rawre, Benu Dhawan, Neena Khanna, Vishnubhatla Sreenivas, Shobha Broor, Rama Chaudhry
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1171_17  PMID:31417035
Background & objectives: Limited data are available on the typing of Chlamydia trachomatis in India. Serovars D to K of C. trachomatis are chiefly responsible for urogenital infections. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the distribution of C. trachomatis serovars in patients with urogenital infections and to characterize omp A gene of the detected C. trachomatis isolates by sequence analysis. Presence of other co-infections was also evaluated. Methods: Endocervical swabs were collected from 324 women and urethral swabs/urine were collected from 193 men attending the sexually transmitted diseases outpatient clinic. The samples were screened for C. trachomatis by cryptic plasmid PCR and omp A gene PCR. Genotyping was performed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing of the omp A gene. Samples were screened for genital mycoplasmas, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Results: C. trachomatis was found in 15.0 per cent men and 10.8 per cent women. Serovar D was the most prevalent followed by serovars E, F, I and G. Twenty two C. trachomatis isolates were selected for omp A gene sequencing. No mixed infection was found. Variability in omp A sequences was seen in 31.8 per cent cases. Both PCR-RFLP and omp A gene sequencing showed concordant results. The presence of Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis was observed in 18.7 and 9.5 per cent patients, respectively. Co-infection of C. trachomatis was significantly associated with Ureaplasma urealyticum and HIV. Interpretation & conclusions: The high occurence of C. trachomatis infections warrants its screening in addition to other sexually transmitted infections namely U. urealyticum and HIV. Genotyping of the omp A gene may provide additional information for vaccine development.
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A novel ready-to-use dry-reagent polymerase chain reaction for detection of Escherichia coli & Shigella species p. 671
Mukti Nath Mishra, Raghavendra D Kulkarni, Jeevanandam Mohanraj, S Durairaju Nisshanthini, GS Ajantha, Arun Chandrasekhar, Prachee Kenge, Shama Bhat
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1394_17  PMID:31417036
Background & objectives: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has wide acceptance for rapid identification of pathogens and also for diagnosis of infectious conditions. However, because of economic and expertise constraints, a majority of small or peripheral laboratories do not use PCR. The objective of the present study was to develop a dry-reagent PCR assay as an alternative to conventional PCR to assess its applicability in routine laboratory practice using malB gene for identification of Escherichia coli as a model. Methods: A total of 184 isolates were selected for the study comprising clinical isolates of E. coli and non-E. coli including Shigella sp. and a few other control strains. The DNA was isolated from all the isolates. The isolated DNA as well as the overnight grown bacterial cultures were subjected to both conventional wet PCR and dry-reagent PCR. Results: The genomic DNA isolated from E. coli showed amplification of malB gene in both conventional wet and dry-reagent PCR and the band was observed at 491 bp. In dry-reagent PCR, the overnight grown E. coli cells also showed positive result. The non-E. coli strains other than Shigella sp. showed negative in both conventional wet and dry-reagent PCR. Shigella sp. showed positive in both conventional wet and dry-reagent PCR. Interpretation & conclusions: Considering the elimination of genomic DNA isolation step, and similar results with the conventional wet PCR, dry-reagent PCR may be a good alternative for the conventional wet PCR.
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CORRESPONDENCE Top

Absence of Nipah virus antibodies in pigs in Mizoram State, North East India p. 677
Devendra Mourya, Pragya Yadav, Manoranjan Rout, Brahmdev Pattnaik, Anita Shete, Deepak Patil
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1086_18  PMID:31417037
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CLINICAL IMAGES Top

Multiple papillomas in oral cavity of a six year old child p. 680
Jayachandran Sadaksharam, Bhaumik Joshi
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_528_18  PMID:31417038
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Multiple periarticular nodules diagnosed as gout on fine-needle aspiration cytology p. 682
Anjali Goyal, Vani Patel
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1505_17  PMID:31417039
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BOOK REVIEWS Top

Lower urinary tract symptoms and benign prostatic hyperplasia: From research to bedside p. 684
Apul Goel
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_323_19  PMID:31417040
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Hemophilia and von Willebrand disease: Factor VIII and von Willebrand factor p. 685
Prashant Sharma
DOI:10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_502_19  PMID:31417041
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NOTICE OF RETRACTION Top

Retraction: Evaluation of various culture techniques for identification of hookworm species from stool samples of children p. 687

DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.264275  PMID:31417042
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ERRATUM Top

Erratum: Emerging/re-emerging viral diseases & new viruses on the Indian horizon p. 688

DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.264276  PMID:31417043
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