Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research Indan Journal of Medical Research
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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 151  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 571-577

Proactive preparedness for Cat Que virus: An Orthobunyavirus existing in India

1 Maximum Containment Laboratory, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2 ICMR-National Institute of Virology, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr Devendra T Mourya
ICMR-National Institute of Virology, 20-A, Dr. Ambedkar Road, Post Box No.11, Pune 411 001, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1195_18

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Background & objectives: The presence of Cat Que virus (CQV) in Culex mosquitoes and pigs has been reported in China and Vietnam. Due to the spread of similar species of the Culex mosquitoes in India, there is a need to understand the replication kinetics of this virus in mosquito models. As a part of preparedness and to identify the presence of this CQV in humans and swine, this study was carried out to develop diagnostic tests. Methods: Serological and molecular diagnostic assays were developed for testing the mosquito population, human and swine serum samples. In this line, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L), glycoprotein (M) and nucleocapsid (S) genes-based reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays were developed for CQV. Real-time RT-PCR was used for screening of retrospectively collected human serum samples (n=1020) with acute febrile illness during 2014-2017. Simultaneously, an in-house anti-CQV swine and human IgG ELISAs were also developed to detect anti-CQV IgG antibody. Human serum samples (n=883) with post-onset of disease (POD) >4 days and swine serum samples (n=459) were tested for the presence of anti-CQV IgG antibodies. CQV NIV 612,045 isolate was used for susceptibility and replication kinetics experiment using three different species of mosquitoes to understand its behaviour in Indian mosquitoes. Results: All human serum samples (n=1020) screened for the presence of CQV using real-time RT-PCR were found to be negative. Anti-CQV IgG antibody positivity was recorded in two of 883 human serum samples tested. Virus susceptibility experiments indicated that three species of mosquito, namely Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus supported multiplication of CQV by intrathoracic as well as artificial membrane/oral feeding routes. Interpretation & conclusions: Anti-CQV IgG antibody positivity in human serum samples tested and the replication capability of CQV in mosquitoes indicated a possible disease causing potential of CQV in Indian scenario. Screening of more human and swine serum samples using these assays is required as a proactive measure for understanding the prevalence of this neglected tropical virus.

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